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Secretary, The Society of Medical History, Chicago; 

Attending Ophthalmologist, Michael Reese 

Hospital, Chicago 



Fielding H. Garrison, M.D., and Edward C. Streeter, M.D. 



Copyright igso By 
The University of Chicago 

All Rights Reserved 

Published November igzo 

Composed and Printed By 

The University of Chicagro Press 

Chiciifo. Illinois. U.S.A. 

(Facsimile of original title-p>age) 







































The purpose of this book is a presentation of the history and the 
bibliography of representations of human anatomy by graphic means. 
Due consideration has been given both to anatomic illustration and to 
representations belonging to the graphic or plastic arts. For a satis- 
factory attainment of his purpose, the author will first present a brief 
historical introduction (pp. 22 to 41), which will be followed by explana- 
tory sections (pp. 42 to 357), in order to avoid crowding the introduction 
with confusing details. 

The historic character of the work necessarily set a certain time-limit 
to both lines of consideration, to the scientific as well as to the artistic. 

The earUer period of anatomic illustrations ends with Soemmerring 
and Mascagni. With increasing needs, a new era sets in, differing from 
the preceding one in its conception of the graphic arts and in the use of 
new tools and means of reproduction. The development of histologic 
and microscopic anatomy, the employment of lithography, steel en- 
graving, the daguerreotype, the modern woodcut, and other graphic 
means, all brought about manifold changes in the methods of anatomic 
representation. This epoch has no place within the domain of historic 
research, but has to do rather with a critical appreciation of the literary 
demands and resources of the present time and of modern science. For 
this reason the treatment of the subject concludes with the two anato- 
mists above mentioned, adding only the two most important collective 
works of a later time, those of Loder and Caldani, which were neces- 
sarily characteristic of the former period, since they presented only 
material belonging to it. 

As regards illustration for the needs of the graphic and plastic arts, 
that is, in behalf of artistic anatomy, some of their different historic 
epochs occur earlier and are duly pointed out. At the time of the above- 
mentioned conclusion of an epoch in scientific anatomy there is no 
noticeable falling off in illustrations in aid of artistic anatomy. It 
became necessary, therefore, to enumerate all anatomic illustrations for 
the use of artists up to the present time, which has been done. Besides 
this limitation of the periods of time within which this work was to be 
confined, a careful selection of appropriate material was no less necessary. 

To fulfil the conditions of a true survey, the historic introduction 
itself must needs be confined to the principal points and to matters of 


historic importance. But even in the explanatory sections a selection 
of material was necessary. The two lines of consideration, that of scien- 
tific anatomy on the one hand and artistic anatomy on the other, have 
rendered these selections, no less than the time-limits, different. 

In selecting anatomical works particular attention has been paid 
to the lasting influence and the historic significance of individual 
works. An attempt has been made, however, to present the output of 
the fifteenth century and of the period up to and including Vesalius in 
its entirety, and to furnish an almost equally complete presentation for 
the rest of the sixteenth century. During the second half of the six- 
teenth century, and even more so during the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, a greater restriction in choice became necessary. The greater 
importance of a work and its completeness as regards the representation 
of all parts of the human body became the determining factors in selecting 
the material. For this reason, those anatomists, who merely furnished 
monographs on single organs or random observations, have but rarely 
been mentioned. For the same reason, all illustrations pertaining to 
zootomy and to surgical and pathologic anatomy have been excluded 
or have been treated only incidentally. The chief purpose of the indi- 
vidual sections is to give a clear and vivid idea of the historic introduc- 
tion and to follow it conscientiously. 

In selecting works on artistic anatomy, we have adhered to the decision 
that mere sketchbooks, even though containing some anatomy, and works 
dealing with the proportions of the human body, without going into 
the anatomic side of the subject, were to be excluded. As might be 
concluded from the preceding paragraph, no consideration has been 
given to representations dealing not with the human body, but with 
the animal and other subjects. Of anatomic works, which are really 
proper to our subject, no selection as to value and importance has been 
made, because the number of books on artistic anatomy and of writings 
dealing with it is far smaller than that of works on scientific anatomy. 
Thus it has been attempted to give a comglste list of all works on artistic 
anatomy from earliest times up to the present. Since such a task has 
never before been accomplished in any completeness, it may prove a 
welcome gift to many a reader. 

Only with such restrictions could the chief purpose of the book be 
accomplished and a true picture of the course of development of ana- 
tomic representation be rendered. After allowing for individual tastes 
and after due deliberation, the reader will readily understand how, owing 
to such principles of selection, many an anatomic work has been men- 


tioned which may be regarded as less important by many readers, or 
how, on the other hand, many a work has been passed over which may 
seem to some readers of greater importance than some of the included 
material. We must bear in mind that this book is not intended to 
contain a history of anatomy, nor a history of anatomists, nor even a 
history of anatomic discoveries. It is merely a history of anatomic 
illustration, following the two lines previously indicated, i.e., that of 
scientific anatomy and that of artistic anatomy. 

In regard to the different sections, however, they are mainly 
biographic-literary notes on different anatomists or artists, with the 
exception of a few chapters of a collective nature. In each section it 
has been attempted to present, over and above the characteristics of the 
individual and his achievements, all the historic, literary, and biographic 
facts as correctly as possible, and with all the details necessary for such 
research work. For in all researches of a historic-literary or a historic- 
artistic nature, mere copying of facts or a superficial treatment are not 
only absolutely useless but actually harmful, since they tend to increase 
errors and confusion even to the point of blotting out all historic truth. 
Researches of this kind, in order to possess any value at all, must be 
exhaustive as far as means and individual abilities permit, or must at 
least be carried to a point where a successor more able and more resource- 
ful can find a secure basis for a new start. Nobody will, therefore, 
object to the bibliographic exactness which, along with the historical, 
has everywhere been attempted. Bibliographic exactness is the only 
thing which can make later investigations possible and render credible 
beyond peradventure the documents upon which the literature and the 
history of the fine arts are based. Aside from this a title correct as to 
bibliography takes up no more space than one treated more superficially. 
Moreover, the desire to possess some of the literary productions dealt 
with in this book, or to build up collections along one line or the other, 
is aroused more frequently than with other old books. Directions 
which purpose to familiarize the buyer or the collector with the most 
excellent productions, and which put everyone in a position to protect 
himself from deceptions and to acquire something of lasting value, at 
a moderate cost, and suitable for his purpose should, therefore, be 
welcome. But there is certainly very little good information to be 
found in general works on the literature and history of fine arts as 
regards the subjects treated in this book, because these subjects are 
quite out of the range of the average litterateur and art connoisseur. 
In anatomic and medical works just as little is usually given, since 


the historic-literary and -artistic points of view are quite as foreign to 
their readers. 

For this exactness and reliability, and in order to make possible at 
any later time the resumption of these researches, I thought it also 
necessary to mark with an asterisk (*) everything which I myself have 
examined. As one will notice, not a little of the material is thus marked. 
Indeed, only the wealth of material at my disposal could determine me 
to undertake a work which, however imperfect otherwise, is sure to 
remain a contribution pleasing and useful to the litterateur and the lover 
of the fine arts, on account of its authentic citations and the new material 

Dresden, through its public and private collections, offers to the 
observing visitor many things which he cannot see elsewhere, and much 
which cannot be seen there will be found in Leipzig, situated near by, with 
its wealth of literary activities and its treasures, particularly remarkable 
along the line of my researches. 

In the well-equipped Royal Public Library in Dresden, the Royal 
Public Cabinet of Etchings, and His Majesty the King's very rich 
private collection of woodcuts, copper engravings, and hand drawings, I 
was not only able to view the rarest prints and works, but, thanks to 
the greatly appreciated generosity of their officials, I was also given the 
most unrestricted access to the entire collection. I express my especial 
thanks to Director Frenzel for his ready assistance during my examina- 
tion of the two last-named collections. Director Frenzel not only per- 
sonally conducted me through these collections, but repeatedly helped 
me with the expert advice of a connoisseur in art. 

The Library of the Medico-Chirurgical Academy, with the administra- 
tion and enlargement of which I am officially intrusted, laid upon me the 
duty not only of augmenting it equally in all its branches, but above all 
of administering it in the spirit of those who had collected it and had so 
far maintained and increased it. My endeavor, therefore, was, besides 
keeping up the modern literary collections, to fill in the gaps existing 
in the collection of the older books through purchases of missing works. 
These acquisitions served to maintain the collection for practical pur- 
poses, and tended to provide a sound basis for historic researches at 
some later time, a consideration which had never been lost sight of by 
the preceding administration. This attitude recognized also the main 
principle of every library administration, viz., not to crowd these col- 
lections with transient literature, but rather to enrich them with works 
of lasting value. The department of anatomic representations had been 


particularly well administered by the founder of this library, the Court 
Physician, Karl Philipp Gessner (deceased 1780), and by my immediate 
predecessor, Director Burkhard Wilhelm Seiler (deceased 1843), who was 
a professor of anatomy. Through auctions and similar opportunities, 
therefore, it was not difficult to attain a certain degree of completeness 
in this department of the library and to reach a standard which will 
doubtless always be a welcome inducement to further historic research 

I could also avail myself most unrestrictedly of that department of 
the Leipzig University or Pauliner Library to which Professor Johann 
Karl Gehler (deceased 18 13) had bequeathed most of his medical works, 
a department which was in charge of the late Professor Gustav Kunze, 
and was, of course, in every way accommodating to science. This 
admirable man, whom sudden death took from his work and his 
friends on the thirtieth day of April of this year, showed an especially 
active interest, a kind and helpful devotion to his former colleague and 
friend by aiding him with information and advice, and by furnishing him 
with all the material which the department of earlier medicine contained. 

I, myself, had come into the possession of a small collection of old 
medical works and prints, thanks to a personal interest and to previous 
historic studies. When the plan for this book had ripened, I added, even 
though in a limited way, to this collection such material as I could not 
borrow anywhere. In addition, I was now able to take up again and 
utilize a number of preliminary historic studies which I had carried on at 
a more favorable time. 

WTiile thus able to work out a great many things, using my own judg- 
ment and such resources as I have enumerated, I still found myself in 
need of expert advice to properly select from this wealth of material. I 
was well able to pass judgment on the subjects represented, but could 
not presume to judge these representations equally well as to their artistic 
merits, since the studies of works of the graphic and plastic arts, which 
I had made from merely aesthetic motives, were not by any means 
adequate for the needs of the occasion. I did not hesitate to obtain in- 
formation and instruction from artists well versed in the subject and 
from experienced amateurs. I am especially grateful to my publisher, 
Mr. Rudolph Weigel, whose expert advice and ready assistance in pro- 
curing for me rare and important works, and whose splendid issue of 
my book furthered my undertaking in a way that was only possible 
through his rare insight into the history of the graphic arts and to his 
well-established and extensive trade in works of art, to which he was 


personally devoted. He himself had come to love my enterprise and 
was interested in it in a most unselfish way. 

The publisher, furthermore, provided many of the different chapters 
with illustrations which will doubtless be appreciated as valuable supple- 
ments. Their purpose is to present, more vividly than could words, the 
characteristics of certain anatomists and entire epochs. Although a 
reduction from the original size was necessary in most cases, it has 
nevertheless been attempted to reproduce them as faithfully as possible 
as to subject and style. Most of these illustrations were taken from rare 
and almost inaccessible prints, and will certainly help to give an indis- 
putable value to this book. In these illustrations, moreover, the two 
lines of consideration (scientific and artistic anatomy) have been fol- 
lowed. One will readily excuse the fact that the latter has been given 
the preference, if he considers that the book is primarily devoted to the 
graphic arts. The reader will undoubtedly also approve of the few 
vignettes which, although they may have nothing to do with anatomy, 
are certainly not foreign to the historic-artistic character of the book. 

There still remains the pleasant duty of expressing my thanks to the 
well-known typographer for the tasteful and careful way in which he 
carried out his difficult task, and for the readiness with which he met 
my wishes and my desire for accuracy, especially considering the diffi- 
culties which the distance of the printing plant imposed. 

I also acknowledge my thanks to the artists whose beautiful repro- 
ductions of the illustrations used in this book aided essentially in fur- 
thering my plans. They are the wood engravers, I. G. Flegel, E. 
Kretschmar, and H. Krüger, of Leipzig, H. Biirkner and F. Reusche, of 
Dresden, C. Zimmermann, of Munich, the painter, F. Frenzel, and the 
chromolithographer and (book) printer, Theodor Meinhold, of Dresden. 

May this book, which has served me as a recreation and refreshment 
in the midst of quite heterogeneous and often pressing official duties, 
appeal also to others as a welcome contribution to the history of anatomy 
and the graphic and plastic arts. May it likewise give to the study of 
anatomic representation, now on the way to a higher perfection, such 
enlightenment as every science or art may expect from a retrospective 
view of its earliest periods, which is certain to be found if honestly sought. 

L. Choulant 

September 15, 185 1 


The History and Bibliography of Anatomic Illustration in Its Rela- 
tion to Anatomic Science and the Graphic Arts, which is here offered to 
students of medical history and bibliography, is a translation of Ludwig 
Choulant's Geschichte und Bibliographie der anatomischen Abbildung 
nach ihrer Beziehung auf anatomische Wissenschaft und bildende Kunst, 
published at Leipzig in 1852, which has deservedly attained an authori- 
tative place in medical Uterature. The book has been out of print for 
many years, and due to the increasing interest in the subject this trans- 
lation with additions was undertaken. 

The justification for the book's existence must, however, be looked for, 
not in the Preface, but in the book itself. Since Choulant published his 
original work, vast stores of new knowledge have become available. 
The works of writers such as Johann Hermann Baas, Julius Pagel, 
Max Neuburger, Robert von Töply, Eugen Holländer, Karl Sudhoff, 
Fielding H, Garrison, Charles Singer, Ernest Wickersheimer, Fritz 
Weindler, Sir William Osler, Sir Clifford Allbutt, and many more, 
which throw light directly or incidentally on the history of medicine 
and anatomic illustration, have, for the most part, appeared since then. 

While all have contributed something to the subject, no one since 
Choulant has written more effectively upon anatomic illustration 
than Professor Karl Sudhoff, of the Institut für Geschichte der Medizin, 
at Leipzig. It was hoped that he would contribute the section on 
medieval anatomic MS illustrations, but on account of the war, this was 
found to be impossible. The section nevertheless has been based on his 
highly original researches which have been published at various times in 
the Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin and in the Studien zur Geschichte 
der Medizin. For this valuable information and the illustrations, the 
translator desires to express his deep obUgations and grateful acknowl- 
edgments to Professor Sudhoff. 

The original text has been supplemented and corrected by the notes 
of Choulant in the Archiv für die zeichnenden Künste, Leipzig, 1857, 
which were no doubt intended to have been used by him for a second 
edition. The whole of the translation has therefore been carefully 
revised and, in many cases, rewritten or rearranged. The additions 
inserted by the translator are generally distinguished as notes at the 


foot of the pages. It is hoped that these additions may serve to increase 
the usefulness of the book and every endeavor has been made to bring 
the subject up to date. In the absence of an opportunity to verify the 
titles of the works quoted by Choulant, the Index-Catalogue of the Library 
of the Surgeon General's Office, United States Army, was consulted. 
Where minor errors in transcription were discovered, such discrepancies 
were corrected. 

The translations of the various Latin, Spanish, and Italian passages, . 
it is hoped, will aid in the reading of the text. 

A word regarding the illustrations may not be out of place here. 
When the original work was published the modern processes of repro- 
duction were not yet invented, and the illustrations were cut on wood 
(Author's Preface, p. xiv). In spite of this, the method preserves 
with far greater faithfulness the spirit and effect of the original plates 
than a direct photograph. A photographic copy from an original print 
suffers from mutilation by library stamps and writing, by discoloration of 
the paper, by foxing and frequent handUng and by folding. To at- 
tain a more perfect plate than could be obtained directly from the old 
editions, photo-engravings were made directly from the facsimiles in 
Choulant, with but few exceptions. Some new illustrations have been 
inserted, but as a whole they represent those in the original work. 

A biography and portrait of Choulant, with comments on a selected 
list of his writings, have been added, and lastly a copious index has been 
supplied, which it is hoped will make the work still further useful as a 
book of reference. The material for the biography of Choulant has 
been taken largely from the memorial address by F. P. Gleisberg, 
Ludwig Choulant und die Reformbestrebungen in der Medicin im König- 
reich Sachsen, in the Deutsche Klinik, Berlin, 1865, xvii, 365 et seq. 

The translation was done during spare moments and from the com- 
mencement of the work it was felt that help must be sought on special 
points, as the task was one which no man could satisfactorily accompHsh 
from his own resources. Such application was not made in vain. To 
none am I more indebted than to my good friend Dr. Fielding H. Garri- 
son, principal assistant librarian of the Surgeon General's Library, 
Washington, D.C., for his generous assistance, his constant interest in 
the work, for his courteous communication of valuable notes not easily 
accessible, and for his thorough scholarship and ripe judgment to which 
I have deferred in many instances. Especial thanks are also due to 
Mr. and Mrs. Augustus Dillon (Chicago), for their kindness in helping 
to straighten out many difficult situations; to Mr. Felix Neumann, 


bibliographer of the Surgeon General's Library, for untiring considera- 
tion in the communication of his ample stores of knowledge, and of 
books; to Lieutenant Colonel C. C. McCulloch, Jr., Medical Corps, 
United States Army, librarian of the Surgeon General's Library, for his 
generous loan of books; to Dr. C. W. Andrews, librarian of the John 
Crerar Library, Chicago, for similar courtesies extended; and to Dr. 
Louis J. Mitchell (Chicago) and to Walter M. Hill (Chicago) for many 
valuable suggestions. 

In concluding this preface and taking leave of Choulant, the com- 
panion of many pleasant and some laborious hours, it is to be hoped that 
this work may stimulate, so far as its limits extend, an interest in one 
phase of medical history. 

M. F. 

Chicago, 19 17 


In the death of Dr. Mortimer Frank, at Chicago, on April 21, 1919, 
at the early age of forty-four, the cause of medical history in this country 
loses one of its most promising and active adherents. Dr. Frank was 
born in Buffalo, N.Y., on May 26, 1874, and after the usual schooling 
in Chicago, graduated in engineering with the degree of B.S. at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1897). During the next two 
years he was engaged as a civil engineer on the Cleveland, Cincinnati, 
Chicago, and St. Louis Railroad. Subsequently taking up the study 
of medicine, he received his degree from the medical department of the 
University of Illinois in 1901. After taking postgraduate courses in 
Philadelphia and New York, he commenced practice in Chicago, and 
soon became well known as a skilful and sagacious specialist in eye 
diseases and eye surgery. As the local newspapers record, he had the 
enviable record of having never once turned away a patient who was un- 
able to pay for treatment. He was ophthalmologist to the Michael Reese 
and other hospitals, and a member of various local and national medical 
societies. To his subject he contributed a number of good papers, 
notably those on congenital sincipital encephalocele (1903), color per- 
ception in relation to distant signal lights (1904), the eye symptoms in 
myasthenia gravis (1905), rachitic erosions of the teeth in lamellar 
cataract (with I. A. Abt), and the schematic eye (1919). To Dr. 
Casey Wood's System of Ophthalmic Operations (191 1, i, 17-41), he con- 
tributed a valuable illustrated historical article on representative eye 

In 1905, Dr. Frank turned his attention to the history of medicine 
and produced in succession, a series of excellent papers on the charlatan 
oculists, John Taylor (1905) and Sir William Read (1905), the Resur- 
rectionists (1907), Philip Syng Physick (191 1), Caricature in Medicine 
(1912), Medical Instruction in the Seventeenth Century (1915), Taglia- 
cozzi (191 6), the Discovery of the Secretory Glands, read before the 
Medical History Clubs of the Johns Hopkins and Harvard universities 
(1916), and the above-mentioned paper on the Schematic Eye, contrib- 
uted to the Osier Anniversary Volumes (19 19). 

In 1 91 5, he became Secretary of the Chicago Society of Medical 
History, and editor of its Bulletin, which owes much of its improvement 


in format and subject-matter to his enterprise and good judgment. In 
the same year, he published at his own expense an elegant reprint of 
Henry Morley's Anatomy in Long Clothes, for the Vesalian quadri- 
centennial (191 5). Dr. Frank was elected a member of the German 
Medical History Society (Leipzig) in 1916. At the June meeting of 
the American Medical Association in 1918, he gave an exhibit of early 
medical books from his private library, with a printed catalogue raisonne. 
In addition to outdoor sports, fishing, and gardening, his personal 
tastes were in the direction of collecting rare medical books, fine bindings, 
and medical engravings, and from these, he made many generous dona- 
tions to the Surgeon General's Library, which have been acknowledged 
in its Index Catalogue. In the last years of his life, Dr. Frank, through 
his exceptional flair and knowledge, acquired a choice and valuable 
collection of medical rarities, which went, after his death, to the Uni- 
versity of Chicago and the Surgeon General's Library. 

I first met Dr. Frank when he visited Washington in the summer of 
1 91 5, in company with Mr. Hoeber, and was struck at once with his 
refined manner, his clear intelligence, and his easy familiarity with the 
source and reference books of medical history. Some time after, he 
announced his intention of translating Choulant's History and Bibliog- 
raphy of Anatomic Illustration, which he completed in two years' time. 
In this task, he learned to know what hard work means. His perform- 
ance, which included a large amount of original research, is in every way 
creditable. There was a genuine need for such a translation, since the 
original text, one of the classics of medical history, a vade mecum for 
anatomists, artists, and medical librarians, has been long since out of 
print. The publication of this history in 1852 was an affair of the right 
"psychological moment," in the true and false meanings of the term; 
the circumstances- which impelled Choulant to assemble his material, 
to shape it, and to publish it about the middle of his century, were 
equally fortunate. After this time, anatomical illustration by means 
of free-hand drawings was superseded by photography, lithography, 
and other reproductive processes, and was further neglected through 
the growth of histology, morphology, and embryology. Students now 
learn their anatomy by dissecting. Artists, who once, as Streeter has 
shown, outpaced the doctors in the dissection and delineation of anatomi- 
cal structures, now copy directly from the nude body or the photo- 
graph. The merits of Choulant's book, then, are of a unique order. 
It is a key to the comprehension of the older illustrated writings upon 
which the modern science of anatomy is based. The prosy, sesquipe- 


dalian, sometimes obscure sentences of the original, have been vivified 
and clarified in Frank's translation, by bisection, dissection, and 
simplification, without any loss of the original meaning; the text has 
been enlarged by additional chapters, including a clear and exhaustive 
account of Sudhoff's researches on the MS illustrations of the Middle 
Ages; the bibliographies have been extended and improved. When 
Choulant began his studies for this work, he had nothing to go on, 
beyond the scattered original texts, Haller's Bibliotheca Anatomica, 
Hain's list of incunabula, a few art catalogues, and the brief observa- 
tions of William Hunter and Blumenbach on the hand drawings of 
' Leonardo da Vinci. His work is a monument of original research, not 
to be duplicated, a definite source book for the future, as well as for 
the present and the past. Frank's version converts it into a viable 
and readable modern book. 

In person, Dr. Frank was a man of highly attractive and friendly 
character, generous, sportsman-like, of unfailing good nature, and with 
the well-born gentleman's innate delicacy and sure intelHgence, which 
wins esteem by respecting the personal rights and private feelings of 
others. His loss will be keenly felt by all whom he counted as friends. 

F. H. Garrison 


Holler: von Haller (Albrecht): Bibliotheca analomica, Zurich, 1774-77, 4®. 

Moehsen, Bildn: Moehsen (Johann Kari Wilhelm): Verzeichniss einer Sammlung 
von Bildnissen grösstentheils berühmter Aerzte; with vignettes, Berlin, 1771, 4°. 

Moehsen, Medaill. -Samml.: Beschreibung einer Berlinischen Medaillen-Sammlung, 
die vorzüglich aus Gedächtniss-Münzen berühmter Aerzte bestehet, with copper- 
plates, 2 vols., Berlin and Leipzig, 1773, 1781, 4°. The second volume also 
bears the title Geschichte der Wissenschaften in der Mark Brandenburg, besonders 
der Arzneitvissenschaft. 

Blumenbach, Introd.: Blumenbach (Johann Friedrich): Introductio in historiam 
medicinae litter ariam, Göttingen, 1786, 8°. 

Panzer: Panzer (Georg Wolf gang): Annales typographici ab artis inventae origine 
ad annum 1536, post Maittairii, Denisii, aliorumque cur as in ordinem redacti et 
aucti, II vols., Nuremberg, 1793-1803, 4°. 

Hain: Hain (Ludwig): Repertorium bibliographicum, in quo libri omnes ab arte 
typographica inventa usque ad annum MD. typis expressi ordine alphabetico vel 
simpliciter enumerantur vel adcuratius recensentur, 2 vols, in 4, Stuttgart and Tüb- 
ingen, 1826-38, 8°. 

Ebert: Ebert (Friedrich Adolph): Allgemeines bibliographisches Lexikon, 2 vols., 

Leipzig, 182 1, 1830, 4°. 
Weigel: Weigel (Rudolph): Kunstkatalog, I, Parts 1-7, 1834-38; II, Parts 8-14, 

1840-43; III, Parts 15-21, 1844-50; IV, Parts 22-28, 1850-57; V, Parts 29-35, 

1859-66, Leipzig, 8°. 

Cicogn.: Cicognara (Leopoldo): Catalogo ragionato dei libri d'arte e d'antichitä, 
2 vols., Pisa, 1821, 8°. 



Life of Johann Ludwig Choulant i 

Historical Introduction 22 

Anatomic Illustrations of Antiquity and of the Middle Ages ... 42 

Manuscript Anatomic Illustrations of the Pre-Vesalian Period . 49 

A: Drawings Showing Influence of Tradition upon Early Anatomic Illustration 49 
B: The Provengal-Basel Skeleton and Other Graphic Skeletal Representations 

of the Middle Ages 68 

C: Manuscript Diagrams of the Foetus in Utero and Their Origin from Manu- 
scripts by Soranus of Ephesus 73 

D: The Schematic Drawing of the Eye in Its Historic Development (Fifteenth 

and Sixteenth Centuries) 75 

E: Schemata of the Male Viscera in Bloodletting Manikins of the Fifteenth 

Century 80 

F: Schemata of the Female Viscera f« 5f/M about 1400-1 543 83 

Mondino de' Luzzi 88 

Marc' Antonio Della Torre 97 

/ Leonardo da Vinci 99 

Michelangelo Buonarroti 106 

Raffaello Santi 109 

Rosso de' Rossi 113 

Johannes de Ketham 115 

Johannes Peyligk 123 

MAGfTOS Hundt 125 

Margarita Philosophica 126 

Laurentius Phryesen 130 

Jacopo Berengario da Carpi 136 

Albrecht Dürer 143 

Johann Eichmann 148 

Giovanni Battista Canano 150 

Charles Estienne 152 

Fugitive Sheets {Fliegeftde Blätter) with Pre-Vesalian Anatomy . 1 56 

/ Andreas Vesalius 169 

Bartolommeo Eustachi 200 

Juan Valverde di Hamusco 205 

volcher coiter 209 

Jan Wauters van Vieringen 210 




Guido Guidi 211 

Jacques Guillemeau 213 


Felix Plater 216 

Salomon Alberti 217 

Juan de Arphe y Villafane 218 


Andre du Laurens 222 

GiuLio Casserio 223 

Caspar Bauhin 229 

Peter Paul Rubens 230 

Johann Remmelin 232 


Gasparo Aselli 240 

Jacob van der Gracht 242 

Johann Vesling 243 

Johann Georg Wirsung 244 

Thomas Bartholinus 245 

Philipp Verheyen 248 

Ame Bourdon 249 


Bernardino Genga 254 

Carlo Cesio 256 

Crisostomo Martinez 258 

Pierre Landry 260 

William Cheselden 261 

Giovanni Domenico Santorini 262 

Colored Anatomic Copperplates 264 

Jacob Christoph Le Blon 265 

Jan Ladmiral 267 

Jacques Fabian Gautier d'Agoty 270 

Edme Bouchardon ' 275 

Bernhard Siegfried Albinus 276 

Pieter Camper 284 

Albrecht von Haller 289 

John Brisbane 292 

Ercole Lelli 294 

Michel Francois d'Andre Bardon 294 

Lambert Sigisbert Adam 295 

William Hunter 296 



Antonio Scarpa 298 

Samuel Thomas von Soemmerring 301 

Eduard Sandifort 312 


Paolo Mascagni 315 

Johann Martin Fischer 321 

Jean Joseph Sue 324 

Justus Christian von Loder 325 

Leopoldo Marco Antonio Caldani 327 

Turkish Anatomy 330 

Giovanni Battista de Rubeis . . : 331 

Giuseppe del Medico 331 

Jean Galbert Salvage 332 

Giambattista Sabattini 335 

Giuseppe Bossi 337 

Koeck 339 

George Simpson 340 

John Flaxman 341 

Sir Charles Bell 343 

Burkhard Wilhelm Seiler 344 

Pierre Nicolas Gerdy 347 

Eduard Salomon and Carl A. Auuch 347 

Ferdinand Berger 348 

Julien Fau 349 

Works on Artistic Anatomy 351 

A. More General Works 351 

B. Additions on the Proportions of the Human Figure 358 

Appendices 362 

I. Chinese Anatomy. By Ludwig Choulant 362 

II. Sculpture and Painting as Modes of Anatomical Illustration. By 

Fielding H. Garrison and Edward C. Streeter 370 

III. Anatomical Illustration Since the Time of Choulant. By Fielding 

H. Garrison 403 

Illustrated Treatises on General Anatomy 404 

Cross-Section Anatomy (Including Frozen Sections) .... 408 

Artistic Anatomy 410 

History of Anatomical Illustration 412 

Description of Illustrations 413 

Index 425 


Die Geschichte einer Wissenschaft ist der Hort ihrer 
Freiheit; sie duldet ihr keine einseitige Beherrschung. 

"The history of a science is the palladium of its 
freedom; it prevents it from being tyrannized over 
by narrow, bigoted viewpoints." 

{Motto which appeared with lithographed portrait, 
in 1842.) 

In the first half of the nineteenth century, there arose a group of 
medical scholars in France, Germany, Italy, and England, whose achieve- 
ment was equaled only by those of Sprengel, Moehsen, Blumenbach, 
Grüner, and others in the eighteenth century, and has been surpassed 
only by the work of the present Leipzig and Vienna schools. The great 
names of Littre, Daremberg and Chereau, Hecker, Haeser, Wunderlich, 
Hirsch, Marx and Steinschneider, De Renzi and Puccinotti, Adams and 
Greenhill, need no encomium and tell their own story to those who 
follow medical history. 

In this brilliant group, there is assuredly no name deserving of a 
higher place than that of Johann Ludwig Choulant, the historian of 
anatomic illustrations; yet, through some strange caprice of fate, his 
name and fame have been very inadequately commemorated and no 
good biography of him has been written to date, although his services 
to the kingdom of Saxony as a medical reformer and jurisconsult have 
received their due meed of praise. One reason for this is perhaps to be 
sought in the fact that the few medico-historical journals founded in 
Choulant's day were, as usual, short-lived, "Ephemeridae" in the true 
natural-history sense, and none of them covered more than two or three 

Choulant was not only one of the greatest of medical bibliographers 
and historians, but was, like Haeser, Baas, and Sudhoff , an active practi- 
tioner and hygienist, the author of a work on internal medicine (1831), 
which passed through six editions and was translated; an authority on 
anthropology and craniology; and an expert in forensic medicine and 
medical polity, in which fields he rendered many learned and valuable 


A native of Dresden, Saxony, he was born November 12, 1791, son 
of the master cook Choulant, in the service of the prince, later King 
Antony of Saxony. His first instruction was received in the Catholic 
school at Dresden and after finishing there, he went to the so-called 
Catholic Gymnasium connected with it, whose chief aim was to prepare 
its pupils for admission to the Wendish Seminaiy at Prague, where the 
native Catholic priests are trained. Here the first foundations were 
laid for his later brilliant and remarkable philologic faculties. What 
circumstances caused him to drop his classic studies for the time being 
and in 1807 to enter the Royal Pharmacy of Dresden as an apprentice, 
one is unable to learn. 

This temporary interruption of his studies was not without influence 
upon his later practical activities. Choulant would surely not have 
become such a skilful and successful therapeutist as he indeed was, if he 
had not at this early stage familiarized himself so thoroughly with the 
nature and the methods of preparation of medicines and with their most 
practicable combinations. But for the awakening genius of a Choulant, 
pill-mongering was not a satisfying occupation for any length of time. 
Although the involuntary leisure hours during the stay in such a phar- 
macy offered him abundant opportunities to render himself practically 
familiar with the natural sciences, he nevertheless had to regard this 
vocation as missing his proper calling. Every free hour was therefore 
utilized to get out the old classics, and often the slow drug clerk was 
reprimanded because he lingered too long in the cellar of the pharmacy 
memorizing most diligently the verses of Horace and Ovid. We should 
therefore not wonder that Choulant, in 181 1, gave up this depressing 
occupation, in which he had remained four whole years, and entered the 
Medico-Chirurgical Academy at Neustadt (Dresden). 

I Here, under the guidance of Hedenus, Kreysig, and Ohle, he began 
h|s medical career which lasted exactly half a century. In the four 
semesters at this institution, during which he occupied himself most 
diligently with anatomy, he also completed his classical studies and was 
tjius able, in 1813, to matriculate in the medical department of the 
University of Leipzig, where the philosophic genius of Ernst Platner 
exercised an especially significant influence upon his further mental 

He passed his examination on April 12, 181 7, and on March 18, 18 18, 
graduated at Leipzig with a memorable dissertation on ten specimens of 
spinal deformity {Decas pelvium spinarumque deformatarum), to which 
he added another decade {Decas secunda) in 1820. 


Owing to his slight and abnost insignificant appearance, which was 
not very promising for private practice, he decided to try and acquire 
the right to hold academical lectures at the University of Leipzig. His 
petition was rejected with the explanation that the time was still distant 
when Catholic lecturers would be admitted to the thoroughly Protestant 
University of Leipzig. This act of religious intolerance left a profound 
and indelible impression upon Choulant, whose mind had never known 
proselytism, who anxiously avoided touching upon the relations of creed 
to science, and for whose great, tolerant genius all religions had probably 
a philosophic and historic significance. 

In these hours of severe trial, like the dawn of a new era of his life, 
Pierer's summons to Altenburg reached him. Johann Friedrich Pierer, 
in some way, had learned of this growing genius and called upon the 
young scholar to collaborate with him as assistant editor in the publica- 
tion of his Realwörterhuch (1816-29). He responded to this call in 
18 1 7, and, under Pierer's guidance, Choulant, although a young and 
little occupied practitioner, developed an extraordinary hterary activity, 
consisting partly in the production of a number of independent articles 
in the Realwörterhuch and partly in the collaboration (1821-24) on 
the Allgemeine medicinische Annalen des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. 
With all this literary work, he found time for his private practice. His 
activity in Altenburg lasted until 182 1. This period was not without 
deprivations, as appears at least from the fact that Choulant was without 
means. As he expressed himself to several friends and students, he 
knew of nothing sadder and more miserable than a literary activity 
founded on medicine only. But through it all he had made himself 
known as a gifted physician, and he probably owed it primarily to this 
good reputation that, in 182 1, he received an appointment as a physician 
to the Royal Infirmary at Friedrichstadt (Dresden). 

However limited the material at Choulant's disposal, only twelve 
beds, yet it kept him in practical life and prevented him from becoming 
a bookworm. Besides, his position soon furnished him an extensive 
private practice in Dresden. This, although not always profit- 
able, he undertook with rare devotion and unselfishness. During 
this period of his life he became acquainted with his future wife, 
whom he met at the bedside of her invalid father. They were married 
m 1822 and had three children. Soon after, the real field of his activities 
in Dresden disclosed itself, although from an altogether diff^erent aspect. 

Upon returning from his captivity, King Frederick August I of 
Saxony, on the advice of his government, decided upon the rehabilitation 


of the Neustadt Medico-Chirurgical Academy and, in 1816, the 
Academy was opened at Dresden under most favorable auspices, with 
men like Seiler, Kreysig, Ohle, and Ficinus on the faculty. As early as 
1822 we find Choulant at the Academy lecturing on medical practice, 
and, in 1823, he became professor of theoretical medicine and director 
of the clinic. At that time also, he became assistant editor of the Dresden 
Zeitschrift für Natur- und Heilkunde. 

In 1833, he received the position of Medical Assessor on the District 
Board in Dresden, an office which laid the foundation for his remarkable 
achievements in legal medicine. 

Attacks had been made upon the Academy by the faculty of the 
University of Leipzig, charging the lack of classical preparation of 
the students. The public recognition which was paid the pupils of the 
Academy, especially at the different state legislatures, was in open 
contradiction to these charges, frequently emanating from the Leipzig 
faculty. These charges were disproved by Choulant in 1833 ^ ^ memoir 
written for that purpose, viz., Zweite Erörterung der Verhältnisse der 
chirurgisch-medicinischen Academie in Dresden zu dem Medicinalwesen 
des Königreichs Sachsen. This was given a great deal of notice even 
among his opponents. He attempted to invalidate these charges by 
calling attention to the fact that the Academy, although it admitted 
high-school pupils, nevertheless saw to it that its students continued their 
linguistic and mathematical studies all through the course. The con- 
sequence of this had been that the University of Leipzig, as well as the 
other universities, had never refused to admit any aspirant for the degree 
of medicine who had received his training at the Dresden institution. 

In 1836, he became Royal Saxon Councilor {Königlich Sächsischer 
Hof rath), and in 1838 a great distinction was bestowed upon him 
when he accompanied Prince John, later King, on a journey to Italy 
as physician and scientific adviser. In 1856, he had the honor, as 
director, of greeting King John in the Academy. 

In 1843 he succeeded Burkhard Wilhelm Seiler as director of 
the Academy, which gave him full control of the Academic Library. 
Choulant became the second and last director of the Academy, as the 
f>osition was not filled again after his death. 

He gave up his position of Medical Assessor in 1844 for the newly 
created office of Medical Referee to the Ministry of the Interior, and 
became Royal Saxon Privy Medical Councilor (Königl. Sachs. Geh. 
Medicinalrath). In this capacity, as stated, he served the Saxon king- 
dom in the advancement of medical education and as an expert in 


medical jurisprudence. At the same time he continued his bedside teach- 
ing, but gave up his lectures on practice to Hermann Eberhard Richter. 

Choulant's active life during the period of 1816-60, when here- 
tired from the Academy, after thirty-eight years of work, may best be 
summed up by a brief reference to and comment on his more hnportant 
writings published during this epoch. 

One of the characteristics of Choulant was his ambition to impart 
to others all that he had acquired and had recognized as of value to 
science, and to preserve it for posterity. He was possessed with this 
ambition because of his preliminary studies and his enthusiasm for the 
philosophic and aesthetic aspects of science, regardless of its material 
significance to him as a means of gaining a livelihood. 

Through his numerous historical writings, all models of completeness 
and reliability, Choulant contributed in such a measure to the advance 
of the knowledge of medical history that his name will remain forever 
among its highest names. 

. His earlier literary labors consisted mainly in translations from 
English medicine. Thus, in 1816, for his baccalaureate address in 
medicine, he translated John Ford Davis on endocarditis (1808), and 
at the same time William Charles Wells's essay on rheumatic endocarditis 
(181 2), the first essay ever written on this theme. In 181 7 followed 
A. Duncan's observation on phthisis, and in 18 18, a translation of the 
Essay on the Nature of Scrofula by Carmichael, Henning, and Goodlad. 
In 1819 appeared his essay "On Prolixity in Medical Literature" 
{Über die Vielschreiberei in der Medicin). 

In 182 1 he pubhshed jointly with Karl Friedrich Haase and Friedrich 
Ludwig jMeissner, of Leipzig, and Moritz Küstner, of the Breslau School 
of Obstetrics, "Contributions to Obstetrics" {Bereicherungen für die 
Gehurtshülfe) . 

In 1822, he published his medical chronology {Tafeln zur Geschichte 
der Medicin), an excellent tabular arrangement, constituting an easy 
introduction to the study of the history of medicine. It begins with 
the earliest times and concludes with the eighteenth century. The 
work comprises twelve plates, of which the first and last deal with 
the entire field of medicine while the other ten are devoted to separate 
phases of it. Each of these plates is preceded by a general history of 
the special subject it deals with, to which is added an independent fixa- 
tion of the epochs as taken from the particular history of this theme. 
The individual plate represents the history of a subject ethnographically 
and synchronistically, mentioning also the more prominent and influential 


men with the year of their prime or with the date of the first appearance 
of their important work on the topic in question. Each separate plate 
is followed by the history of the literature of the special subject it deals 
with, and at the conclusion of the work is given, more completely and 
more accurately, the general history of the literature of medicine. 

The versa tiUty of Choulant is shown by the fact that in 1823 he 
composed and published .anonymously an opera entitled Libussa, 
Herzogin von Böhmen. 

He translated, in 1823, // medico giovane by Luigi Angeli, of Imola, 
under the title ''The Young Physician at the Bedside" {Der junge Arzt 
am Krankenbette). This was later translated into Dutch by Anthonius 

In 1823, he gives evidence of an extraordinary knowledge of Pompeian 
medicine in a paper De locis Pompejanis ad rem medicam facientibus, 
dealing with the instruments and other medical objects excavated there. 
Besides, he gives a plan of Pompeii based on the excavations at that 
time. This learned discourse was given on December 15, 1823, on 
assuming his professorial chair. 

He edited, in 1824, Ernst Platner's ''Questions in Forensic Medicine" 
{Quaestiones medicinae forensis) , with a life of Platner. 

In 1824, he published his prolegomena to a new edition of Celsus 
(Prodromus novae editionis Auli Cornelii Celsi librorum octo de medicina). 
This edition is probably the most learned and valuable bibliographical 
schema ever prepared of the many editions of this writer. Celsus was 
Choulant's favorite author and was of inestimable benefit to him on 
account of the practical usefulness of his theories. He took pleasure in 
giving to every medical student who left the University one of Celsus' 
sayings. None of the older medical writers was quoted more frequently 
by Choulant than Celsus. In the same year, he also published an essay 
on Asclepiades of Bithynia. 

In 1825, came the first edition of his "Introduction to Prescription 
Writing" {Anleitung zur ärztlichen Receptirkunst) , an invaluable little 
formulary in its day, containing the most approved medical preparations, 
and written in Choulant's clear and comprehensible style, A second 
edition was published in 1834. 

He also published, in 1825, a biography of his former teacher, the 
physicist Wilhelm Gilbert, whose amanuensis Choulant had been for one 
year during his college term. 

In 1826, he edited the three Carmina of Gilles de Corbeil {Aegidius 
Corboliensis) on urine, pulse, and the virtues and praises of compounded 


drugs. The last a series of 4,663 hexameters on 80 drugs, designed as a 
versified paraphrase of the glosses of Matthaeus Platearius on the cele- 
brated formulary {Antidotarium minus) of Nicolaus Salernitanus, who, 
as Wickersheimer has shown, has been often confused (as "Nicolaus 
Praepositus") with the French physician Nicole Prevost. 

In 1828, appeared the first edition of his "Bibliographical Handbook 
of Ancient Medicine" (Handbuch der Bücherkunde für die ältere Medicin), 
A second edition was published in 1842. This Handbuch is a testimony 
to German industry and knowledge of languages. It is the greatest of 
his bibliographical works. The second edition has been for nearly a 
century the medical librarian's vade mecum and is absolutely indis- 
pensable for the study of the Greek, Latin, and Arabic texts of medicine. 
It is only equaled by Hain's Catalogue of Incunabula; indeed it is, in 
effect, a catalogue of all the medical incunabula known to Choulant. 
On account of the extreme scarcity and prohibitive price at the hands of 
antiquarians, an anastatic reproduction was made in 191 1, and this too 
is rapidly becoming introuvable. 

In 1828, Choulant pubHshed a pocket Anthropologie; in 1829, a 
biographical essay on Jenner; and in 1830, he issued his vest-pocket 
edition of Fracastorius' poem on syphilis (1530), a much-prized curio. 
In the same year, he also pubhshed an introduction to Friedrich Holl's 
work on petrefacts, dealing with prehistory of organic terrestrial remains. 
A second edition was published in 1843. 

In 1 83 1, he published his "Modest Wishes for a Future Medical 
Code for the Kingdom of Saxony" (Bescheidene Wünsche für eine künftige 
Medicinalordmmg des Königreichs Sachsens), and edited a three-volume 
edition of Stahl's Theoria medica vera. 

In 1 83 1 to 1833, he edited Stahl's Theorie mehrerer älteren Aerzte, 
and from 1833 to 1835, the autobiography and writings of Benvenuto 
Cellini (Opere di Benvenuto Cellini), which he dedicated to Carl Gustav 

In 1 83 1, was published his textbook on practice (Lehrbuch der speciellen 
Pathologie und Therapie des Menschen). This is the first edition of his 
Lehrbuch of practice, long used as a textbook in many universities. The 
usefulness of the work is evident from the five editions that followed in 
1834, 1838, 1848, 1853, and 1861. The edition of 1838 was the last 
one with which Choulant personally had any connection. Hermann 
Richter published the last three editions, and, in 1853, the work had 
been so altered by Richter as to conform to the latest scientific 


In 1832, he edited the twelfth-century poem De viribus sive de naturis 
herbarum, attributed to Odo of Meudon {Odo Magdunensis), in possession 
of the Royal Public Library at Dresden. It comprises 2,269 hexameters 
on 77 plants, based upon material derived from pseudo-Pliny, Gargilius, 
pseudo-Dioscorides, and Constantinus Africanus, and was itself attrib- 
uted to a pseudo-author, "Macer Floridus," under which name Choulant 
published it. 

In 1833 was published a festal program on the King's Evil which 
the Gesellschaß für Natur- und Heilkunde in Dresden printed in honor 
of the anniversary of its member, the Royal Physician Hedenus. 

In 1834 appeared three anthropological contributions on the natural 
cycles of cultural history, the natural history of man and human 

Choulant compiled and edited, in 1834, a new collection of Royal 
Saxon medical laws from the time of the pest ordinance of 1680. A 
second edition appeared in 1844. 

In 1835 appeared his essay on "Voluntary Motion in Man" (Die 
willkürliche Bewegung des Menschen), and, in 1836, he edited Claude 
Quillet's Callipaedia, on the art of begetting beautiful children. 

In 1836, followed his *' Introduction to Medical Practice" {Anleitung 
zur ärztlichen Praxis), which had been preceded seven years previously 
(1829) by his "Introduction to the Study of Medicine" {Anleitung zu 
dem Studium der Medicin) . In the latter, he had addressed the student, 
while in the former he now appealed to the mature physician. 

In 1838 to 1840, he edited the Historisch-literarisches Jahrbuch für 
die deutsche Medicin, a tiny medico-historical periodical which was 
entirely written by Choulant. This shows his remarkable predilection 
for pocket-size formats. In the same year, he helped Callisen with his 
Medicinisches Schriftsteller-Lexikon . 

In 1840, he published a historical paper on "Animal Magnetism" 
(Royal Touch) {Über den animalischen Magnetismus), and, in 1842, 
the second edition appeared. 

In 1841, he sketched out a law on the practice of animal magnetism, 
at the request of the Ministry of the Interior. The law was passed on 
August 4, 1 84 1. The same year (1841) he published a paper on "The 
Women of Salerno" {Die Weiber von Salerno) in Haeser's Archiv für 
die gesammte Medicin. 

In 1842, his Bibliotheca medico-historica appeared, one of the most 
important of bibliographies and with the Additamenta ad ... . bib- 
liothecam medico-historicam, 8°, Halis, Sax., 1842, of Julius Rosenbaum, 


of great importance to research workers. In Sudhoff's estimation, this 
latter is as weighty and valuable as the Thierf elder Additamenta to 
Haeser's great bibliography of epidemic diseases. 

In 1843 was published his essay on anatomical illustration in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries {Die anatomischen Abbildungen des 
XV und XVI Jahrhunderts). This was written as a memorial address 
for the celebration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Gesellschaß 
für Natur- und Heilkunde at Dresden, founded September 19, 1818. It 
was a forerunner of his great history of ten years later (1852), just as 
his Prodromus on Celsus was a precursor of his Handbuch der Bücherkunde. 

In 1844, the faculties of the Academy and the affiliated School of 
Veterinary Medicine published a memoir of the founder and the first 
director of the Academy, Burkhard Wilhelm Seiler, who had died in 
1843. Choulant was essentially the author of this report, although it 
was supposed to be a joint production of his colleagues. 

In 1844, appeared his treatise on cranioscopy {Vorlesungen über 
Kranioscopie oder Schädellehre) , with a bibliography from the time of Gall. 

In 1845, was published ''The Bath-Guest at Franzensbad" {Der 
Curgast in Franzensbad), which contains instructions on the use of this 
mineral bath and the mode of living required there. In 185 1, a second 
edition appeared. 

In 1846, Choulant published an essay on Albertus Magnus in the 
first year's issue of Henschel's Janus and, in 1847, ^is report on the 
mineral spring Augustusbad. 

In 1847, were also published his expert reports on medical juris- 
prudence which were made in the name of the Medico-Chirurgical 
Academy at the request of the justices of the Court of Appeals. The 
diction as well as the manner of presentation are distinguished by clarity 
and precision and are certainly unexcelled. The choice of the cases is 
most fortunate. They refer to questions of poisoning, doubtful mental 
responsibility, drunkenness, pyromania, as well as to doubtful paternity 
and maternity. 

In 1848, the twenty-fifth jubilee of his professoriate, he published a 
paper on "The Mineral Springs of Wolkenstein" {Die Heilquellen von 
Wolkenstein) . 

In 1850, by order of the Ministry of the Interior, he drew up instruc- 
tions on burial in re premature burial. 

In 1852 appeared his great work, the Geschichte und Bibliographie der 
anatomischen Abbildung nach ihrer Beziehung auf anatomische Wissen- 
schaft und bildende Kunst. In this important work the anatomic 


illustrations of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are again particu- 
larly made the object of discussion. He had treated of them before 
in the memorial treatise of the Gesellschaß für Natur- und Heilkunde 
for the year 1843, This work is certainly only approached by Karl 
Sudhoff's monographs in the later period, and, on its own ground, is 
still unsurpassed. 

In 1855-59, he published in the Archiv für die zeichnenden Künste, 
a series of papers on anatomical and botanical illustration. These 
comprise articles on the manuscripts of Dioscorides with illustrations 
(1855) ; the application of woodcuts to pictorial representation of plants, 
etc. (1855); on the participation of important artists in anatomical 
illustration (1856); on miniatures in a medical manuscript found in 
Dresden (1856) ; on botanical and anatomical illustrations in the Middle 
Ages (1857); also his important additions and corrections to his History 
of Anatomic Illustration (1852); on Apulejus de herharum virtutibus 
(1859) ; and a final article on an anatomical plate by Peter de Wale (1859). 

In 1859, Choulant published his last paper, a report on a case of 
criminal abortion, in Johann Ludwig Casper's "Journal of Forensic 
Medicine" {Vierteljahresschrift für gerichtliche und of entliche Medicin). 

German medicine in the first half of the nineteenth century labored 
under the disadvantage of being spHt into schools. In consequence, the 
best minds of the time strayed into devious bypaths conceiving the 
philosophy of medicine, and such schools as Homeopathy, Hydropathy, 
Animal Magnetism, Phrenology and a host of others sprang up, and of 
their offshoots, the Nature-Philosophy School represented the golden age 
of these systems. Its principal spirit was the naturalist Lorenz Oken, 
of Bohlsbach in the Bavarian Highlands. Clinical medicine was domi- 
nated by Carl Schelling, who became ultimately and exclusively a phi- 
losopher. On the side of actual facts, however, the Nature-Philosophy 
School exercised its greatest service in the physiological teachings of 
Johannes Müller. 

Many important men of science belonged to its fold, and the first 
to break away from its foolish doctrines was Johann Lucas Schönlein, 
the founder of modern cHnical teaching in Germany, introducing examina- 
tions of blood and urine, chemical analysis, auscultation, percussion, and 
microscopical examinations. From this school sprung also Heinrich 
Haeser, the famous medical historian, particularly eminent for the 
history of epidemic diseases. The downfall of the school was brought 
about by that change in the intellectual bent in the time, which was 
completed by the Revolution of 1848. 


It was the doctrines of the new Vienna School that gave positive 
medicine its principal center in Germany. Its chief luminaries were 
Karl Rokitansky and his colleague Josef Skoda, both Bohemians. 
Rokitansky was a purely pathological anatomist, while Skoda's scientific 
merit is based upon his interpretation and conception of physico- 
diagnostic phenomena by adapting them to physical laws, the law of 
sound. The honor, however, of being one of the first to introduce the 
Viennese innovations in Germany belongs to Johannes von Oppolzer, 
who after a residence of seven years in Prague, received a call to 
Leipzig. He popularized physical and anatomical diagnosis and steered 
clear of all haphazard theorizing. 

The February revolutionary movement of 1848 in Paris spread 
with rapidity across the Rhine and led to immediate events in Vienna 
and Berlin. The young students were tremendously affected by these 
upheavals, which changed the old habits of thought and shook society 
to its foundations. As everybody shouted for improvements, timely 
reforms, justification of the great period in which they lived, abolish- 
ment of red tape and privileges, it was very natural that the intelligent 
young student body should join in this chorus with all its might. 
While the great mass of German students threw themselves into the arm 
of practical politics, lending word and deed to the political movement, 
many others demanded, no less aggressively, reforms of all kinds in the 
university life, e.g., abolishment of compulsory studies and compulsory 
attendance at lectures, elimination of university courses, etc. It was 
to be expected that medicine, despite the reluctance toward innovation, 
should participate in the transformations. In Berlin, the student body 
harried Johannes Müller, at that time president of the University, in such 
a way that his friends felt anxious for his mental well-being. Leipzig, 
too, was astir. The clinical students, at last tired of Clarus' hypoth- 
eses and yearning for practical knowledge, agreed to make the most 
urgent representation to the senate of the University, regarding the 
impossibility of acquiring any competent knowledge through his teach- 
ings. They demanded the honorable discharge of Clarus, then professor 
of clinical medicine, and the appointment of Hermann Eberhard Richter 
to the medical faculty. The deputation sent to the faculty with these 
demands was not particularly well received by the senior of the faculty, 
Ernst Heinrich Weber, and, in addition to other advice, the answer 
was given that those students who especially desired to hear Richter had 
only to depart for Dresden. Another deputation was sent to the 
Minister of Education, but also returned without any success. This 


rebuff was necessarily bound to increase the excitement. The students 
now gave their word of honor not to enter the cHnic again until a new 
clinical instructor had been elected. There was nothing left for the Senate 
to do but to intrust Karl Ernst Bock, decidedly the most popular man on 
the faculty, with the clinical chair, or allow the course to be abolished. 

While all these events were developing and happening, the old 
school and its representatives were violently attacked. The great 
excitement animating all minds at that time led, quite naturally, to a 
singular irritability in regard to all of these controversies, which was 
greatly increased by the fact that both sides believed themselves abso- 
lutely right. If the combatant in these polemics had not departed from 
objective grounds, surely no such unfortunate extravagances as occurred 
would have been possible. The controversies very soon degenerated 
into personalities which were not, as one might expect, committed in 
medical journals, but were pubhshed in the daily press and in pamphlets. 
Thus the public was called upon to be the judge, and one cannot deny 
that the instances laid before them were generally so striking and so 
convincing that very soon this new doctrine had gained many friends 
and admirers among the laity. 

In the beginning of 1848, Choulant attained the zenith of his fame. 
Up to this time no one had opposed his increasing reputation, for the 
previously mentioned attacks were made not against him, but against 
the institution with which he was connected. Nobody had as yet dared 
to attack seriously or to question his authority. But as he refused to 
adjust himself to the more and more victorious scientific advances, he 
was, from now on, the target of many animosities. The personal attacks 
that were now made upon Choulant were sometimes very severe and 
not infrequently absolutely unjust. Some were even so inconsiderate 
as to advise him either to give up his position or to take up his studies 
anew in Prague or Vienna. 

During all this time, the student body of the University of Leipzig 
had not remained inactive. It had at last compelled the Minister 
of Education to summon Johannes von Oppolzer, whose stay in Prague 
had become unbearable owing to the activities of the Bohemians, as a 
clinical instructor to the University of Leipzig. No more fortunate 
selection could have been made, and the University now possessed a man 
who was fully equipped with all that was needed to win and fire 
the youthful student for the new theories. 

It was, first of all, Oppolzer's human attitude, his almost comrade- 
like intercourse with the students, that won him and assured him the 


afifection of his pupils. Choulant, on the other hand, held his students 
in anxiety and terror to obtain their admiration and respect, but by 
doing so did not win their affection. The fact that Oppolzer, Rokitansky, 
Reinhard, Jaksch, and Richter did not antagonize the intelligent part 
of the growing generation, helped in no small degree to make them 
famous. They understood how to win and hold permanently the affec- 
tion of the young student through a human devotion to them that 
was devoid of any semblance of artificiaHty. The intelligent youths, in 
due gratitude, carried their fame into all parts of the world, and it is 
certain that, had any one of them been made the subject of such attacks 
as were made upon Choulant, they would have risen and stood up for 
him. But not one voice was raised among Choulant's former pupils 
at the time of the attacks made upon him. 

Choulant, one would think, was now doubly obliged to declare him- 
self in favor of the new doctrines, as they had proved universally efficient, 
and as the government, through the appointment of Oppolzer, had 
positively declared itself for them. On the contrary, he now became an 
outspoken opponent, where before he had merely shown indifference, 
and he combated them with all the means at his disposal, with a sarcastic 
criticism that only too frequently degenerated into bitter scorn. He 
could not rid himself of the notion that modern medicine was nothing 
but a one-sided treatment of the matter, devoid of any inner justification 
owing to this one-sidedness, and therefore bound, sooner or later, to 
disappear again from the great arena. He refused to perceive that the 
question was not merely the introduction of novelties but a formal 
modification of medical science, putting at last the facts themselves in 
place of ideal theories, empty phrases, and abstractions that had no cor- 
responding realities. He could not conceive that the method employed 
up to now at the bedside and in scientific pathology, was fundamentally 
wrong, and that these reform movements meant nothing less than the 
final introduction of true inductive principles in medicine. Perhaps 
in accordance with his own words, "The history of a science is the pal- 
ladium of its freedom; it prevents it from being t^Tannized over by 
narrow, bigoted viewpoints," Choulant appeared to join the rather large 
number of older physicians who knew nothing of modern medicine but 
the stethoscope and pleximeter. 

In the light of the history of medicine and the successive changes of 
systems in the course of centuries, he thought that the time was not far 
distant when these much-hated tools of fashion, "trombone and anvil," 
as he called them, would disappear again from practice and be handed 


over to the history of the science. He therefore preferred to question 
the patient, whom he examined for hours, rather than to find out for 
himself, by means of simple manipulations, the physical condition of 
important viscera. He scouted the idea of making an anatomic diagnosis 
at the bedside. Common phrases of Choulant were, ''Do not talk of 
things that you cannot see," or, "You are speaking of pathologic changes 
which we are able to find postmortem, but to this the patient does not 
care to be brought." He persisted in the old style of summarily com- 
piling the symptoms by questioning and by means of an examination 
of the patient, and then comparing them with the picture of the disease, 
the species morbi, by way of a conclusion. In doing so this great genius 
had lost sight of the fact that to adjust the insufficiently conceived 
concrete, willy-nilly, to an abstract ideal, really meant a salto mortale. 
He had not taken into account that these sorts of conclusions were mere 
analogies — and how deceiving they are, especially at the bedside ! How 
utterly different are the conditions of internal disease, based on an almost 
complete identity of external symptoms ! In these facts lay the weakness 
of the Symptomatologie school to which Choulant clung until his death, 
and which he defended with all the powers of his genius, because he had 
once been devoted to it with so much success. 

The dominant influence of pathologico-anatomical methods up)on 
clinical medicine was growing daily, but these he looked upon askance. 
Choulant familiarized himself with the new doctrines only because 
of his duty as a clinical teacher. From this, however, he did not 
anticipate any enlightenment for the science of medicine. This line 
of research was, to him, still too much hampered by mechanical 
principles. Pathologic-anatomic examinations, as contrasted with the 
minuteness of life's processes, seemed to him by far too cruel. Choulant's 
favorite remark was, "To explain life's processes we are hardly able to 
do, for these processes will remain forever obscure with respect to their 
causes, in spite of all the advances of the natural sciences." This entire 
attitude of his was probably founded on the philosophic error of main- 
taining that man does not conceive nature, and that life in its changes 
will always have something that must remain obscure to the inves- 

What may have been the causes of Choulant's great errors ? Per- 
haps, due to his great adoration of the antique, or confused by his adora- 
tion of pre-Christian wisdom, he did not see the great things that were 
brought forth under his eyes. But since all book learning breeds pride 
and overestimation, while the study of nature leads to modesty, we are 


inclined to pardon his temerity of opposing singly almost the entire 
scientific world. 

Perhaps his errors were rooted in the prejudice that it was beneath 
the dignity of a human genius to occupy itself with any experiments and 
with the particular, concrete things contained in matter, and especially 
to endeavor in this way to fathom the processes of life, as he was at no 
time a friend of minute objective investigation. 

When his assistant showed him under the microscope a cast, a pus 
cell, a cylindioid, etc., he looked at the specimen, but with a smile that 
said, ''You are seeking the solution of the matter where there is nothing 
to find." It may be that Choulant's errors were also due to his dis- 
couragement and the despair at the possibility of overcoming the many 
great difficulties encountered in the investigation of nature, a despair 
which seized the most serious and most cautious men, and which possessed 
Choulant all the more because, as a thorough student of history, he must 
have been familiar with all the many wrong paths which medicine 
and the natural sciences had taken from the time of the school of the 
Asclepiads until his day. 

The many mistakes that were committed under Choulant's eyes 
in the somewhat hasty establishment of the new science were only too 
obvious to his keen philosophic mind, and were bound to strengthen him 
considerably in his view that his opposition was perfectly justified. 

As happens so often in everyday life, the unskilled advocates of the 
new doctrine did it far more harm than its public opponents. The 
physicians who committed these errors should not be blamed too harshly, 
because they had to go through entirely new experiences, and the maxim 
that holds true for all times was as true then as now, that there is only 
one road to truth and that through failure and error. 

The earnest representative of modem medicine at the Academy 
during the period of the reform movements was Hermann Eberhard 
Richter. With the vivacity of his character and Choulant's rigid 
resistance, serious disputes were unavoidable. Shortly before the out- 
break of the uprising in Dresden in May, 1849, Richter proposed in a 
session of the university senate, in the presence of Choulant, that "the 
senate should suggest to the Royal Ministry of the Interior that the 
present director of the Academy, Ludwig Choulant, be reUeved of his 
ofiice on account of his utter inability to fill the position." 

Choulant later used all his influence to effect Richter's acquittal, 
and shortly after, Richter was imprisoned for twenty years for his 
part in the uprising. Richter's imprisonment was a hard blow to the 


Academy, while the intellectual youth looked upon him with affectionate 
reverence, as upon a martyr of a just cause. 

His place was given to Paul Mahrbach, who, during Richter's 
imprisonment and trial, held the vacant chair temporarily and after 
Richter's dismissal, was permanently appointed. He was a man of 
wide knowledge, with a thorough cHnical training, which he had obtained 
at Prague, Vienna, and Paris. As time went on, Choulant grew more and 
more tolerant toward the practice of the new method. During the years 
1852-53, and also later, he had the results of physical examination 
regularly reported to him and even demanded them if they had been 
omitted. But he never became a warm friend of the new school. He 
was tolerant only under the stress of circumstances, and he let no 
opportunity pass to expose its faults, or to accuse it of any inconsistency. 
From the day when Choulant tacitly admitted his defeat, he lost all 
the mental elasticity and decision of character which had distinguished 
him before. He became yielding, mellow, sometimes vacillating. He 
actually seemed to have lost his true love for the profession and was 
always morose and sullen. This depressed mood seemed to be the 
predecessor of his hard sufferings later. 

In 1852, Ficinus was retired. The chair of chemistry and physics 
that became vacant at the Academy was not filled again. The pupils 
were referred to the School of Technology for the study of these subjects. 
This was the first serious step taken by the government which endangered 
the independence of the Academy in a high degree, and it left no doubt 
that the royal government had the definite intention of dissolving the 
Academy. The protests registered against this by the professors of the 
Academy were shelved. In the same year, Choulant was compelled to 
acquiesce in the appointment of Friedrich Albert Zenker, Now pathologi- 
cal anatomy had at last an independent representation at the Academy, 
for up to then it had been Mahrbach's duty to compensate this want. 

In an inaugural address lasting an hour and a half, Zenker spoke on 
the significance of pathological anatomy for diagnosis and on the method 
of a successful treatment. The address was almost overburdened with 
striking examples, and the trembling, obviously not unembarrassed, 
orator seemed hardly to have the slightest idea that almost every one 
of the many well-thought-out examples was necessarily a death blow 
to the system of the last great physician of the old school who was among 
his audience. Zenker concluded with these words, ''I shall do every- 
thing in my power in order to succeed in awakening in you, my future 
pupils, a sense for pathological anatomy." 


Choulant could not conceive of the representation of pathological 
anatomy at the Academy as an acquisition in any way beneficial to the 
institution, but rather as a usurpation of an antagonistic party. 

Choulant was not without great significance as a physician and 
clinical instructor. The schedule in his clinic was so arranged that first 
he had a ward walk, he himself examining the patients, continuing his 
observations, and giving orders. In the classroom began the actual 
instruction. This arrangement was at once revoked when Mahrbach 
took over the clinic. 

All that could be gotten out of symptomatology he positively ex- 
tracted from it. He understood how to present pictures of disease 
in so fresh and vi\'id a manner, and to inculcate them upon the student's 
mind so lastingly, that he excelled in this respect perhaps all of his earlier 
contemporaries. For nothing was more hateful to him than untimely 
theorizing. "Emphasize that which is practically useful," he remarked 
to the student who was about to fabricate a hypothesis; for he abso- 
lutely rejected hypotheses at the bedside. At the same time, he was an 
extremely fine observer as regards the facial expression, the color and 
temperature of the skin, the heartbeat, the manner of breathing, etc., 
and, having a very fine sense of touch, he very successfully practiced 
palpation. He was also an excellent judge of the results obtained. 
Taking everything into consideration, one is amazed at the fact that 
this practical genius would have nothing to do with a procedure the ad- 
vantage of which is so obvious, viz., the physical examination of patients. 

At student examinations he always emphasized the essentials. A 
student who could think, without becoming confused, and had a some- 
what thorough knowledge of the subject and a certain amount of bold- 
ness, did not find it hard to pass an examination under Choulant. His 
whole effort was bent upon producing thinking, independent physicians. 
He was fond of quick and sure answers, but seriously rejected references 
to literature and authorities, exclaiming "Spare me your book-wisdom 
and your authority worship." 

Choulant's work as a forensic expert belongs to the most excellent 
achievements of his life. Here he availed himself of his "iron" logic, 
his great critical ability, and particularly his encyclopedic knowledge. 
Often he let loose the reins of a passionate character and made the court 
or district physician in question feel his mental superiority, frequently 
becoming personally offensive. In this way he made numerous enemies, 
which he could very well have avoided by a more moderate treatment of 
matters in hand. 


Certain it is that he was passionate, even ill-tempered, bearing 
grudges, rarely friendly, domineering, not free from the sullen earnest- 
ness and the embittered mood of many scholars. He was, therefore, 
more dreaded than loved, and yet he was generous, sympathetic, kind, 
charitable, and even magnanimous and anxiously interested in the wel- 
fare of his students. He was never tender, at least not toward young 
people, but he was not wanting in affection for them. One would not 
be uncharitable in saying that the later career of Choulant might almost 
bear out the bitter modern proverb that "the old are natural enemies of 
the young." He was as immoderate in his love as in his hatred and 
therefore very partial, always suspicious, and inclined to listen to reproof 
rather than praise. He was also very firm and clung obstinately to 
standards which had once been recognized as true. He was the foe of 
progress, the "misoneist" and friend of things as they were, the laudator 
temporis acti, though for all that a man of formidable character. 

Like all great men, Choulant was not free from idiosyncrasies and 
peculiarities. He was a fanatic indulger in Sunday rest, and woe to the 
candidate who had planned to visit him on that day. He would not 
tolerate anyone looking at the clock in his presence. He could become 
very much irritated when an out-of-town physician came to pay his 
clinic only one visit. "How long do you want to stay ? " was the stand- 
ing question. If the answer was, "'Till tomorrow," the physician in 
question was, as a rule, refused permission to visit the clinic. He was 
of opinion that one visit could never suflSce to form a correct judgment 
of his person and his institution, and for the satisfaction of curiosity 
neither his institution nor his person were on exhibition. He was possessed 
by an almost morbid suspicion that every stranger physician was an 
opponent of his, who had only come to have an opportunity to say evil 
things of him. In this respect he used no discrimination, and when a 
famous professor of a neighboring university visited his clinic he was 
treated no better than anyone else. He lived in actual fear of the 
disrespectful books that might be written about him and his 

Choulant could be quite jolly when among his friends and did not 
disdain the joys of a dinner, but he was never immoderate. He was then 
very talkative and had a knack at entertaining most cleverly. He 
exercised an actually magic influence upon those who came in touch 
with him. One had to exchange only a few words with him to know 
what a great man one confronted. All who knew him more intimately 
were attracted to this spirited, genial scholar, and were broad-minded 


enough to welcome the great advantage of his company in exchange for 
his uncouth character. In justice to truth, it should be remarked that 
these external characteristics, too, became more and more bearable the 
longer one was associated with Choulant. Once he had poured out the 
full measure of his disfavor upon anyone, he could meet him the very 
next day most cordially with everything forgiven and forgotten. Very 
often the thought that he might have gone too far tormented him. 
Choulant, more than anybody else, found himself dependent upon an 
original quality of his soul, and it seems certain that the occurrences 
which prepared his severe mental disease were not without causal influ- 
ence upon his violent character. He was of small stature and had a 
moderate scoliosis. His feet and hands were unusually small and deli- 
cate, his forehead moderately high, but the skull beautifully curved 
about the parietal region. 

Choulant's illness was quite unexpected. In February, 1858, it 
was reported that Choulant had had apoplexy, resulting in aphasia and 
in a partial facial paralysis. This, however, cleared up, and shortly 
afterward he was again active. But very soon he had another stroke, 
and this time his tongue, that tongue which had cost many a poor surgeon 
bitter tears, was permanently paralyzed. That sumrrier he went to 
visit a friend and student in the country, but after several weeks' stay 
he returned not very much improved. Often he broke out into bitter 
tears when he tried to speak and his tongue failed him. He felt deeply 
the hopelessness of his position, for sometimes he fell into utter despair, 
and only the kind words of his daughter could appease him. 

Relief arrived even before his death. With progressive paralysis, 
his mental functions decreased proportionately. He became more and 
more inactive, more and more inert, and when, on July 18, 1861, exactly 
one and a half years after the first stroke, his family, who thought he 
was sleeping, came to his bedside in great apprehension, they found 
him dead. 

An autopsy was made by Zenker and showed cerebral edema, atrophy 
of the brain, especially the cortex, moderate hydrocephalus of the lateral 
ventricles, and foci of softening in the pons, in the cerebellum, and in the 
medulla oblongata. 

On the morning of Sunday, July 21, the body was buried in the 
Catholic cemetery of Dresden. The remains were followed by a large 
number of friends, colleagues, pupils, and admirers of the deceased. A 
warm July day favored the interment services. Arrived at the sanctuary, 
and after finishing the rites of the church, the ofl&ciating priest began to 


portray in truly touching words the achievements of the deceased, his 
significance to the world, and especially his severe suffering, in a style 
which, free from any dogma, made a profound pathetic impression upon 
the bystanders, in spite of its simple form. He particularly emphasized 
that, however hard the suffering had been as far as the deceased was 
concerned, God should be praised for having shrouded Choulant's mind 
before his work, to which he had devoted all his life, collapsed. After 
Privy Medical Councilor linger had given an account of Choulant's life, 
Ludwig Reichenbach, his most intimate friend, spoke similarly in 
affecting words. He mentioned how, in leisure hours especially, they 
had often complained to one another of their grief and of their fear that 
the Academy would at last fall a victim to the attacks continually made 
upon it. Both had hoped that, perhaps through medical reforms, some- 
thing would be done to save it, but herein they were also disappointed, 
and for that reason he, too, could only think it a blessing that Choulant 
was mentally dead when the closing of the Academy was definitely 
decided upon. 

In conclusion, let us go back to the time of the Academy, when on 
September 24, 1856, this institution celebrated the fiftieth anniversary 
of Ernst August Pech's activity as a physician. From all parts of the 
country his former pupils had come to pay homage to this venerable 
man. The meeting took place in a hall of the city council and was 
opened by Choulant with a most spirited address. He considered him- 
self unfit to portray satisfactorily the achievements of Pech, to celebrate 
his jubilee, and offered instead a festal discourse on the fate of the School 
of Salerno, well worthy of the occasion. Choulant was also the author 
of the memorial address published by the faculty of the Academy on 
the beginnings of scientific natural history and its graphic illustration 
in the Christian Occident. After a thorough discussion, showing a 
profound study of the sources in question as to whether the school was 
of secular or ecclesiastic origin, he arrived at the conclusion that it was 
probably of ecclesiastic origin and was founded about iock) a.d. by the 
Benedictines of Monte Cassino. He also determined, in an equally 
thorough manner, the probable date of the "Regimen Sanitatis Salernita- 
num," described its great significance for ancient medicine, and discussed 
the activities of the school as well as the fate of its probable founder, the 
abbot of Monte Cassino. He mentioned the unusual privileges granted 
to this school by emperor and empire, and tacitly drew, well understood 
by the initiated, a parallel between the fate of this school and his 
Academy by mentioning the establishment and the growth of the 


proud University of Naples which, very gradually, deprived the school 
at Salerno of all its privileges, particularly the right of promotion, and 
was thus the cause of its gradual decay. What was then said of the 
School of Salerno at the conclusion of his address may be said here of him 
as a fitting close to this sketch, "Like everything human so he, too, had 
his beginning, his growth, his time of bloom, and his retrogression and 


The figuration of the anatomic form of man by the graphic arts aims 
either to make the teaching of human anatomy more plastic for the 
anatomist and physiologist, engraving it on the memory, or to give the 
plastic artist a clear, scientific basis for his studies of the human figure. 
Generally speaking, it is therefore partly a feature of the applied science 
of human structure, partly a phase of the graphic arts. 

The illustrations employed for the study of anatomy are of three 
kinds. One is merely schematic; another represents with exactness a 
particular subject; while the third shows an ideal human figure con- 
structed from the constant mean proportion of several types. 

The merely schematic drawing attempts only to present in outline 
the main characteristics of one or more parts. It either disregards an 
exact knowledge of the form or assumes possession of such knowledge 
by the observer. Schematic drawings, therefore, were employed, not 
only at a time when precise knowledge of individual organs was lacking, 
but also in more scientific periods, in which the main purpose was to 
elucidate certain physiologic principles by the general form and location 
of the organs, an adequate knowledge of which must be presupposed 
either for the purpose, or in aid of an ideal, a general scheme for zoötomic 
and postmortem comparisons. 

The drawing which is individually true to nature aims at picturing a 
part in all its details, just as it is found in the individual. This mode of 
illustration occurs particularly in pathologic anatomy, where the un- 
known forms of certain organs have to be shown in the individual for 
the purpose of further investigations, as is often the case in the study of 
human embryology and comparative anatomy. This method of repre- 
sentation disregards the fact that each internal organ, like the counte- 
nance or other externalities, is based upon a common ideal type which 
conditions its form; on the other hand, in each individual this type 
presents peculiar deviations from the normal which do not accord with 
the generic form but serve to make it individually distinctive, and which 
must therefore be disregarded when the true type is sought. 

Attempts at individually correct presentations first appeared, there- 
fore, in that period of anatomic study in which students were dissatisfied 
with schematic drawing, but at the same time were still unfamiliar with 


all the various structures of the human body, and in aid of further 
progress had to rely upon the proportions of the ideal figure. The 
failure of that effort is manifested partly in careless and incorrect repro- 
duction of forms, and partly in arbitrary deviations from the correct 
type, due either to the unconscious influence of preconceived ideas or 
to ignorance of the significance of the figure in detail. Wherever the 
artist alone, without the guidance and instruction of the anatomist, 
undertakes the drawing, a purely individual and partly arbitrary repre- 
sentation will be the result, even in advanced periods of anatomy. 
Where, however, this individual drawing is executed carefully and under 
the supervision of an expert anatomist, it becomes effective through its 
individual truth, its harmony with nature, not only for purposes of 
instruction, but also for the development of anatomic science; since this 
norm (Mittelform) , which is no longer individual but has become ideal, 
can only be attained through an exact knowledge of the countless 
peculiarities of which it is the summation. 

The figuration of the ideal and invariable norm is the only one 
suitable for teaching purposes, and the development of this representa- 
tion corresponds with the growth of the science of anatomy in all its 
periods. This kind of illustration presupposes a vast amount of previous 
labor and cannot result from a primitive knowledge of the human figure, 
nor come out of a period in which the science of anatomy is neglected. 
Yet it must not be forgotten that the normal representation of the 
various structures of the human body, as being that which is conditioned 
by the beauty of the human figure, may either be vaguely sensed, like 
this very beauty itself, or may be partly grounded in science. This 
vague feeling for beauty was possible even in an early period, when 
conditions were especially favorable to an artistic point of view, as was 
particularly the case in the first half of the sixteenth century. The 
scientific foundation requires exact and extensive dissection and was 
employed whenever time and place were more favorable to cold scientific 
research than to ardent artistic vision, as happened plainly during the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Only the combination of these 
two tendencies can satisfactorily serve advanced anatomic science, 
affording a secure basis and bringing it to perfection through conscientious 
exactness in details and ceaseless observation and comprehension of 
beauty in the whole figure. 

Artistic anatomy, that is, the knowledge of the human body as 
apphed to the plastic and graphic arts, has no use for the mere schematic 
representation, since a knowledge of the anatomic form of the parts 


cannot be presupposed, but must be taught. Nor will an exact individual 
representation serve, because the creations of the artist must rise above 
individual conditions. For artistic anatomy, then, nothing else is of 
value but the idealized drawing of anatomic structures. Such anatomic 
instruction will be all the more valuable to the artist the more completely 
and intuitively it selects for him, and the more lucidly it presents to him, 
what he needs, and the more carefully it eliminates what is of no value; 
for the unnecessary is harmful. The professional anatomist often pre- 
sents too much of artistic anatomy in textbooks, and quite as often 
lacks insight into the true needs of the artist; consequently he often 
leaves the artist helpless in the most urgent emergencies, in spite of the 
exhaustive character of his anatomic teaching. The plastic artist him- 
self, when he undertakes such instruction for his confreres, is usually 
neither sure nor exact in his anatomy, and usually gives too little. 
Worthy productions of this kind must therefore be based upon artistic 
insight and anatomic knowledge alike, and must be conceived by the 
anatomist under the guidance of artists, or vice versa. Of immediate 
necessity is the study of the antique as that representation of the nude 
which visualizes the actual healthy form in all its fulness of life and fire 
of movement, and thus adds an element which can never be supplied 
by purely anatomic delineation. 

The history of anatomic drawings can be developed only by attention 
to these variances, and to the equal progress of both tendencies, the 
scientific and the artistic. We shall have to consider anatomic illus- 
tration from two viewpoints: 

1. The aid rendered to anatomic science by the graphic arts; 

2. The aid rendered to the graphic arts by anatomic science. 

In its aims the first, or scientific anatomy, may be considered as: 
(a) schematic illustration and aids to memory; (b) individual repre- 
sentation of one individual; (c) idealized reproduction of the anatomic 
norm from a number of individuals, partly more artistic, partly more 
scientific in conception; while the latter, or artistic anatomy will be 
studied in its tendency to follow the best examples offered by scientific 
anatomy, comparing these with the best examples of existing works of 
art, and showing how it approaches more and more closely the true 
needs of the artist, and eliminates more and more all that does not 
answer these needs or violates them. . 

Such a historic discussion, if exhaustive, would have to be very 
extensive, and only a short outline will be attempted. For reasons given 
on page 42, a historic appreciation of anatomic illustrations of the 


classic period will have to be left out of consideration. Our discussion, 
therefore, can begin only with the period of the revival of anatomic 
science in the fourteenth century, and for reasons stated in the Preface, 
we can pursue this subject-matter up to the present time for artistic 
anatomy only, not for scientific anatomy. Within the time-limits thus 
indicated, however, anatomic illustration has a history, and it can 
surely not be uninstructive to follow this through the course of time 
with unprejudiced and watchful eyes. We can readily distinguish the 
following six periods: 


The earliest attempts at anatomic representation by schematic 
drawings in aid of medical and anthropologic studies. Artistic anatomy 
as a private study of prominent artists for their own purposes, in con- 
sultation with anatomists, yet without any intention to teach others. 


Attempts at individually correct anatomic illustrations, which 
gradually free themselves of schematic and arbitrary features. Instruc- 
tion for scientific purposes, also popular anatomic illustrations. 

Artistic anatomy for the instruction of others, as undertaken by 
anatomists and artists. 


Artistic conception of the anatomic norm ; a great many discoveries 
and corrections of details; thus in two ways furthering anatomic sci- 
ence. Italian School of Anatomy; highest development of the anatomic 

Artistic anatomy is content with the ideal representation of anatomic 
parts as conveyed in artistic manner by anatomists, and adopts the 
doctrine of the proportions of the human body. School of Carracci; 
efiforts of the artists to gain firm ground in matters of anatomy so 
necessary to them, through practical dissection under the guidance of 


The effort toward perfect training in details and toward artistically 
perfect reproduction through the medium of engraving; woodcutting is 
neglected; colored copperplates are at times attempted. 

Artistic anatomy gains its first independent publications; it clings 
to Vesalian patterns, along with a comparative study of the antique. 



Scientific conception of the anatomic norm; greatest exactness in 
all details; the Leyden School of Anatomy; copperplates alone 

Artistic anatomy vacillates between Vesalian and Albinian patterns; 
more independent attempts are less successful. 


(Beginning with 1778) 

Combination of utmost anatomic truth with artistically beautiful 
reproductions; adoption of lithography, the steel engraving, and of the 
daguerreotype among the newer reproductive means; revival of the 
woodcut in an improved form. Two large collections of existing 
anatomic illustrations conclude the century. Histologic and micro- 
scopic anatomy. 

Artistic anatomy adopts the Albinian patterns exclusively and 
gradually rises to greater independence. It is employed by both 
artists and anatomists. 

After these explanations we shall now follow the history of pictorial 
anatomic representation in such a fashion as to give the clearest possible 
view of its development. While the sections on pages 42-361 are 
intended for elucidation and for biographic as well as bibliographic 
details, this historical review will include events and achievements which, 
through their nature, have no place among those comments, and yet 
are essential to a complete presentation of the subject. This historical 
introduction, therefore, together with the sections given in the text, 
constitutes a complete whole as to form and contents. 


With the revival of the sciences during the earlier Middle Ages 
physicians hardly felt the need for anatomic reproductions from nature; 
but even if there had been such a need, it could not have been satis- 
factorily met, since human bodies could not be dissected. Moreover, it 
must be recognized that all medical science had come to us from the 
hands of the Arabs, to whom dissection, and even pictorial representation 
of the human figure, was prohibited according to the laws of Islam. 
Thus no anatomy existed in the medical schools except that which was 
found in writings regarding the site and relations of the parts, as taught 
in the Galenic-Arabist canon. 


Even in the fourteenth century, when dissection of human bodies 
became possible, the need for anatomic pictures was so slight that 
Mundinus (13 16) published his famous and much-used manual of human 
anatomy without illustrations, and without ever even referring to any. 
If there had been a demand for them, even by instructors or students, 
surely the artists who decorated the manuscripts with miniatures of 
very unequal value would have been quite ready to include such 
illustrations, even the merely schematic. Yet we do not know of any 
anatomic designs from manuscripts of that period, and have not been 
able to find any reference made to such in the writings of physicians of 
that time.* 

After the invention of book printing in the second half of the fifteenth 
century, when the reproduction of books was zealously practiced, and 
when the woodcut, at the same time, made the increased multiplication 
of pictures possible, still no other demand than that for schematic- 
anatomic representation was expressed by physicians. It was desired 
to represent pictorially and put before the student what, up to that time, 
had been preserved only through words and memory. For this reason 
the illustrations in Ketham (beginning with 1491), though intended for 
physicians, are nothing else than schematic representations. Peyligk's 
(1499) and Hundt's (1501) illustrations, intended for philosophical 
instruction, are of exactly the same kind. 

The needs of the graphic or plastic artist were entirely different. 
When art had freed itself from conventional forms and reapproached 
nature, the artist found himself in need of actual knowledge of the 
anatomy of the human body, in order to lay a firm foundation for the 
study of the nude and the reproduction of the human figure. For 
that purpose, artists probably consulted quite frequently with physicians, 
and practiced in secret, not only on the human cadaver, but also by 
means of more or less hasty sketches, either for their own general informa- 
tion or as preparatory studies for projected works of art, e^., da Vinci, 
Buonarroti, Raphael, and others.^ But there was no intention of 

' The subject of MS illustrations of anatomy has been exhaustively treated by Professor 
Karl Sudhoff in his elaborate monographs Tradition und Naturbeobachtung in den Illustra- 
tionen medizinischer Handschriften und Frühdrucke, vornehmlich des ij. Jahrhunderts 
(Leipzig, 1907), and Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter, speziell der 
anatomischen Graphik, nach Handschriften des g. bis 15. Jahrhunderts (Leipzig, 1908), also 
in his special studies of the manuscript sources of Ketham, the schematic eye, and the 
" Fünf bilderserie " {Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin, passim). See pp. 48-87. 

' For a highly original account of the advances made in this direction by the artists 
who preceded Leonardo's teacher, V^errocchio, see the paper of Dr. Edward C. Streeter on 
"The R61e of Certain Florentines in the History of Anatomy, Artistic and Practical," in 
Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, 1916, XXVII, 1 13-18. 


teaching others. This relation and communication between anatomists 
and artists of the first class seems, at least in Italy, to have been not 
without favorable influence upon the former, and may have originated 
the notion that, even for medico-scientific anatomy, equally good work 
might be done and better things accomplished than had hitherto been 
the case. 

The physician Marc' Antonio della Torre must have been led to 
see the necessity for anatomic studies from nature through his excellent 
medical training and his endeavor to substitute something better and 
more natural than Mundinus' Compendium. What he accomplished is 
lost and remains completely unknown. 

Leonardo da Vinci's enormously versatile mind, his unceasing 
endeavor to be simultaneously active in several subjects quite foreign 
to his art, carried him farther than any other artist of his time into the 
knowledge of the anatomy of the human figure, although here he always 
kept in view the purposes of the graphic and plastic arts, which required 
only the knowledge of bones and muscles. It is only in his figuration of 
sexual intercourse that he transgresses the domain of his art and touches 
upon physiology. This picture, however, shows a schematic treatment 
taken from books and not from nature, while his representations of 
the bones and the muscles are actually drawn from nature.^ The collab- 
oration of these men has benefited only the graphic and plastic arts, 
and not anatomic science. For this della Torre's premature death (i 5 1 2) 
and da Vinci's removal to France (15 15) are responsible. 

SECOND PERIOD (1521-1543) 

Within the range of anatomic science, reproductions from individual 
observations in nature had so far been out of question, and only schematic 
representations of what had then been accepted and handed down as 
true had been made. But with increasing facilities for scientific dis- 
sections at the universities and medical colleges, toward the end of the 
fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth centuries, a great many 
discoveries regarding single parts of the human body had been brought 
to light, which led to the correction of hitherto accepted beliefs. The 
remarkable perfection of the art of wood engraving also proved highly 
useful for anatomic representations from nature, just as it had formerly 
served in the production of schematic representations of anatomy. 

' It is now clear, through the newer reproductions not known to Choulant, particularly 
through the researches of HoU and of Sudhoff, that Leonardo went far beyond the Venus 
obversa in his studies in physiologic anatomy. 


The man who, at this time, had made the most independent anatomic 
investigations with a scientific understanding, and who had made most 
of the anatomic discoveries, was Berengario da Carpi (1521), from whom 
also originated the most comprehensive attempt of his time at anatomic 
illustrations from nature. He appears to have maintained an artistic 
point of view in all his works, emphasizing preferably the bones and 
muscles, and rarely reproducing the viscera. He was himself artistically 
gifted and maintained relations with artists and friends of art. But the 
stimulus which he gave through his own illustrations alone sufficed, 
thanks to the accumulating mass of material, to do away with servile 
delineation from descriptive matter, and to bring about the sketching 
of anatomic drawings from nature. In this way, Eichmann, as early as 
1537 to 1 54 1, became prominent through a much larger number of 
illustrations, and, before 1543, an attempt at Hfelike delineation of 
muscles, with an exactitude hitherto unknown, was made by Canano, 
but not carried to completion. 

Thus even in the first four decades of the sixteenth century much 
interest in anatomy was apparent, partly indeed in the correction of 
existing material and the discovery of new material by means of 
individual dissection, partly in drawing from nature, a method which 
was now never again to be abandoned. 

Along with this even a third tendency becomes noticeable, due 
chiefly to the participation of better artists, namely, the feeling for 
formal beauty and artistically appealing illustrations in anatomic works 
of a scientific order. This aim becomes especially apparent in the work 
of Charles Estienne (1539-45), not, however, without encroaching upon 
anatomic clearness, giving preference to the nude over the dissected 
body, and showing a distracting predilection for poses and accessories, 
quite in the taste of the school of Fontainebleau artists. 

Even earlier than this there had been a tendency toward representa- 
tion of the whole body instead of single parts, namely by Berengario. 
Later, broadsheets were published, showing an oftentimes obsolete and 
inadequate anatomy of the whole body as then known. These sheets 
can be designated as fugitive sheets {fliegende Blätter) with pre-Vesalian 
features. They seem to have served partly for popular instruction, 
partly to refresh the memory of bath-keepers and barbers. No less 
a personage than Vesalius himself, in 1538, published just such loose 
prints, his first six plates (see pages 169 and 171) being sheets of this kind, 
although not intended for popular instruction but rather in aid of strict 
anatomic science. Even the influence of these plates was very remarkable 


and widespread, though the true and abiding influence of Vesalius 
is first felt in the following period. 

As regards actual artistic anatomy, there becomes apparent, aside 
from the ambition of individual artists to gather information for their 
own technical achievements in human anatomy, a first attempt at 
furnishing instructive material for their fellows in art. Rosso de' Rossi's 
drawing (p. no) is not, as the works of artists mentioned before him, 
a sketch for his own use or an anatomic study for a prospective work 
of art, but evidently a drawing carefully prepared for the instruction of 
other artists, to which he would probably have added many others, if his 
death had not interfered. (He committed suicide on account of unfor- 
tunate circumstances, 1541.) 

THIRD PERIOD (1543-1627) 

The attempt at correction of errors and the discoveries in anatomy, 
in conjunction with the custom of drawing, not schematically, but from 
nature, led to the elimination of traditional mistakes, to the increase of 
anatomic knowledge, and to the improvement of anatomic illustration. 
On the other hand, the fact that the artists employed by anatomists as 
illustrators aimed to strive for beauty, as well as for accuracy and truth 
in their anatomic drawings, led to the development of a true anatomic 
norm, mainly noticeable in the skeleton and the muscles. That there 
was an anatomic norm and that it must be beautiful was rather artis- 
tically sensed than scientifically recognized. The artist had arrived 
at this conviction because the beautiful character of the nude, dependent 
upon bony and muscular structure, necessarily presupposes a beautiful 
form for these structures also. The anatomist shared this feeling, 
because the anatomic norm, as the expression of nature's highest 
endeavor, must needs express the ideal purpose which appeals to us as 
beauty in all the works of nature. 

Vesalius, in his principal work, published in 1543, attained all three 
ends at once and in most striking manner. He eliminated anatomic 
prejudices through scholarly criticisms; he brought the new data with 
which anatomy was enriched into a consistent whole; and he raised 
the anatomic norm to an artistically beautiful mode of representation. 
He thus became the founder of that epoch, which has been called the 
Italian School of Anatomy, in which the mere scholiasts who defended 
Galenic authority fought the actually dissecting anatomists until, after 
many struggles, the latter won an uncontested victory. 

The influence of the graphic and plastic arts was essentially effective 
during this time. For, while Eustachius and Fallopius busied them- 


selves with dissections, the correction of errors, and new discoveries, 
and had undoubtedly observed a great many details more correctly 
than Vesalius, the beautiful character of the latter's illustrations (which 
the two former neglected in their own) appealed overwhelmingly and 
convincingly to most anatomists. Contributory to this end, indeed, 
werQ the systematic arrangement and completeness of Vesalius' principal 
work, as Eustachius and Fallopius published only collections of rather 
scattered observations. Furthermore, Vesalius recognized the necessity 
of supplementing his great and comprehensive masterpiece by an 
abstract in the form of a homogeneous array of specimen pages, the 
Epitome of 1543, which was naturally bound to gain a wider circulation 
than the abstruse and expensive Fabrica, published in the same year. 
Realdus Columbus (1494-1559), another anatomist to be counted 
among the leaders of the Italian School, did not publish any illustrations 
in his anatomic work, and its appearance belongs to a later date. 
Estienne, already mentioned, who in one work linked himself with both 
pre-Vesalian and post-Vesalian periods, drifted from the crude and stiff 
figures of an earlier epoch to the livelier representations of a newer 
tendency, without, however, avoiding, as Vesalius did, exaggerations, 
superfluities, and unnatural features. Yet it will always remain difficult 
to pass just judgment upon his merits, as opposed to the merits of the 
Italian School, on account of the length of time which elapsed before 
his work was published (completed 1539; printed 1545). 

Undoubtedly the reformation of anatomy had been started by 
Vesalius' industry, learning, and artistic sense, and all authority contra- 
dictory to nature had been destroyed forever. At the same time 
anatomic illustration had reached its climax, that is, the highest perfec- 
tion possible at the time. The anatomic woodcut had also reached its 
height, but from then on, for reasons apparent from the general history 
of the graphic arts, had to give way to copperplate engraving. One 
particular cause might indeed have been the increasing accuracy of 
detailed anatomic researches, for which the woodcut, as it was then 
developed, seemed inadequate. While Vesalius' artistic sense furthered 
the extension of anatomic science to a high degree, the artistic merits of 
his pictures also became a stimulus for the graphic arts. From these 
illustrations independent artistic anatomy, the special anatomy of artists, 
originated. This development, however, belongs to a later period. 

After significant and successful efforts at reform, a period of relaxa- 
tion and of slackened activity generally follows, in which further reform 
movements cannot be attempted, on account of the victory already 


achieved, or, if undertaken, cannot be repeated with the same success, 
owing to the excellence of the reforms attained. Imitation and the com- 
pletion of details are thus the only results brought forth, and it is then 
praiseworthy if the former does not become blind servility, and if the 
latter is carried forward in the spirit of the great precursors. Such a period 
followed the reformatory endeavors and achievements of the Italian 
School of Anatomy, and particularly the overtowering labors of Vesalius. 

The dissemination and imitation of Vesalian illustrations was extra- 
ordinarily widespread. They were most exhaustively plagiarized in the 
often reprinted and revised work of the Spaniard Valverde de Hamusco 
(1556). But we find their influence again and again in the anatomical 
compendiums of the period, e.g., in the second half of the sixteenth 
century, in the plates of Jacques Guillemeau (15 71), of Felix Plater, of 
Salomon Alberti (both of 1583), of Andre du Laurens (1598), and others, 
until finally Caspar Bauhin, at the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
published the most complete collection of anatomic illustrations, on a 
new plan, but of only mediocre artistic worth. 

In the extension of anatomic science, in the increase and correction 
of anatomic facts. Guido Guidi (1569), Volcher Goiter, one of the earliest 
zoötomists (1573), Costanzo Varoli (1573), and many others were par- 
ticularly active. But these are less notable for changes in graphic 
modes of representation than for anatomic discoveries of historic import. 
They belong, with those mentioned above, in the second half of the 
sixteenth and even to part of the following century. 

We have already remarked how the graphic and plastic artists 
obtained their necessary instruction from the perfectly beautiful pres- 
entations of bones and muscles which Vesalius had given. The ten- 
dency, however, to select these pictures for the particular uses of the 
artist and to collect them in so far as they were of service to him in 
separate works, becomes prominent simultaneously with a movement 
which then greatly interested the art world, but which is rather foreign 
to our subject, viz., the founding of the doctrine of the proportions of 
the human body. In the work on proportions by the Spaniard Juan de 
Arphe (1585) the anatomy of the bones and muscles is also treated, 
which was not the case in the similar German work of Albrecht Dürer 
(1528). The former should therefore be considered the earliest of the 
numerous works which dealt with anatomy for graphic and plastic 
artists as their particular subject. Here, too, Vesalian influences are 
obvious, although the author remained more independent in this regard 
than most of the others. 


To this period belongs the eclectic art school of the Carracci, of 
Bologna, whose founders and leaders, Ludovico Carracci (b, Bologna 
1555, d. Bologna 1619), Annibale Carracci (b, Bologna 1560, d. Rome 
1609), and Agostino Carracci (b. Bologna 1557, d. Parma 1602 or 1605), 
should be mentioned. In addition to other theoretical studies of use 
to the artist, the study of human anatomy was followed. Instruction 
in the subject had been undertaken by Agostino, assisted by the 
anatomist Fantoni, who should not be mistaken for the Turin anatomist 
Fantoni (d. 1758). In this school, still flourishing at a much later time, 
the physician Giuseppe Lanzoni (b. Ferrara 1663, d. Ferrara 1730) was 
also active in anatomical instruction. 

In Rome the painter Luigi Cardi (b. Empoli 1556, d. Rome 1613), 
usually known as CigoH or Civoli, occupied himself very earnestly with 
anatomic studies for the sake of his art, and his anatomic statuette was 
favorably regarded for a long time in the studios of artists, 

FOURTH PERIOD (1627-1737) 

At the beginning of the seventeenth century, Caspar Bauhin's 
compendium, a useful work covering all human anatomy and provided 
with numerous illustrations, had appeared. Although highly appre- 
ciated by physicians and students of scientific anatomy on account of 
its completeness, this book was nowise a successful effort as to artistic 
execution. With the VesaHan achievements in mind, the demand 
naturally arose for a pictorial anatomy in copperplate engraving (which 
now prevailed over the woodcut), similar to that which the woodcut had 
made possible in Vesalius' works, and also to create, with the means 
which the art of copper engraving made possible at the time, something 
equal to what the Brussels anatomist had achieved with such eminent 

To this demand, Giulio Casserio responded with copperplates (1627), 
comprising the whole of human anatomy, and which, first in part 
pubHshed after his death, never attained the large circulation and 
influence of the Vesalian plates. There now arose a divergence from 
scientific accuracy and a tendency toward affectation, such as Rem- 
melin's pictures (16 19), which were superposed on each other and could 
be turned like the pages of a book according to the sequence of parts. 
These pictures had, it is true, found their precedents among Vesalius' 
six plates and, repeatedly, among fugitive prints {fliegende Blätter), also 
in other works of the sixteenth century, but could not be of any value 
for thorough anatomic study, nor for artbtically beautiful representation. 


At the same time appeared the insipid, inconvenient, and inexact plates 
of Bourdon (1678), which could not but lead farther away from truth to 
nature and artistic beauty in anatomic illustration, had they gained any 
appreciable influence through a wider circulation. 

In contrast with these utterly inartistic tendencies Bidloo's plates 
(1685) seem like a return to something better, and would have repre- 
sented the very best of this period had the anatomist been just as 
conscientious as the artist, and had the latter himself recognized more 
fully and valued more highly the true beauty of nature. 

As regards artistic and scientific values, the plates of Santorini (1724) 
and Cheselden (1733) are to be rated much higher. Of the former only 
the smallest part were published during this period (1724). Of the 
latter we refer chiefly to plates on osteology, since what he gave along 
other lines of anatomy is hardly mentionable in comparison with the 
work of Casserio and Bidloo. 

For the usual needs of anatomic compends, smaller and much inferior 
illustrations of no artistic value were made. Among a great many 
others, we have chosen for a separate section (p. 243), Johann Vesling's 
plates, which were the best circulated since 1641, and have added 
the very rare plate by his assistant Wirsung. In 165 1, Vesling's plates 
were followed by the extensively circulated compend of the scholarly 
Dane Thomas Bartholinus (1616-80). This work contained numerous 
copperplates, partly after Vesalian patterns, but after 1691 it was grad- 
ually displaced by the briefer compendium of the Dutch Philipp Ver- 
heyen (1648-17 10), which also contained new, but very poor, anatomic 
plates. These were followed in 1722 by imitations of Verheyen's plates 
by the Danzig physician Johann Adam Kulmus, which ran through many 
editions and were in part revised and provided with new engravings. 
They attained a wide circulation. Many other anatomic textbooks of 
this period had no pictures at all or, at least, no complete series, since 
the aim was to produce books as cheaply as possible for the use of the 

Coloring of anatomic figures was early attempted. We know of 
pictures by Ketham (p. 115) colored by patrons, and of some fugitive 
prints (p. 156) which were colored. Vesalius undertook to have his 
works colored, or at least the part which is now at Louvain^ (p. 183). 
Later parti-colored anatomic pictures may also be seen. This early 
tendency to color anatomic drawings grew out of the habit of seeing 

' This beautiful copy was lost in the burning of the library of the University of Louvain 
during the invasion of Belgium by the Germans in 1914. 


many-colored illustrations, even in manuscripts of scientific character 
(p. 45), and had no scientific or artistic value. The professional anat- 
omist is rarely in need of discriminating through colors in his pictures, 
for color is ever apparent to him in his study of the cadaver. He needs 
color only in very complicated representations, for distinguishing 
arteries, veins, lymphatics, and nerves, and for these parts, red, blue, 
yellow, and white have been established as conventional colors. The 
layman wants to see those parts completely illuminated ; the artist does 
not need any coloring at all, since he is concerned only with the coloring 
of the external parts of the body, which he cannot learn from the 
anatomist, but for which he depends on other studies. 

Upon the discovery of the chyliferous vessels by Aselli (1622), it 
occurred to the latter to make them stand out clearly from the blood 
vessels and surrounding viscera. For this purpose he chose the colored 
or polychrome woodcut-print {chiaroscuro) as best suited for the purpose. 
This type of print, however, was not used in copies of the Asellian 
figures, nor in any other anatomic illustrations before or after Aselli. 

Thus we find the polychrome print in wood engraving as a new means 
of representation of anatomic pictures, arising from the actual need of 
expressing more vividly what had been discovered. 

Conditions were different as regards the colored copperplate of 
anatomic pictures which was introduced almost a hundred years later. 
This innovation did not grow out of an actual anatomic need, and did 
not at all originate with the anatomist, but was forced upon him by 
artists who were then undertaking to reproduce oil paintings by means 
of the colored copperprint. The only anatomic work of this kind by the 
inventor Le Blon, which is mentioned (17 21), is of doubtful value. The 
larger and more numerous works of Gautier d'Agoty (beginning with 
1745) have hardly any anatomic value; first, because crayon and 
mezzotint are not exact enough; and secondly, because Gautier himself 
was not careful with his illustrations, which were meant to be showy so 
as to attract buyers; nor could Gautier, as a layman, have been any more 
particular in matters of anatomic science. The colored copperplates 
by Jan Ladmiral (1736) have indeed had a great and lasting value for 
anatomy, but the difficulty of printing always tends to make impossible 
the treatment of anatomic subjects with the necessary freedom, variety, 
and accuracy; or at least to delay this attainment and consequently to 
raise its price in such wise as to prevent the colored copperprint from 
taking the place of coloring with the brush. Anatomists, therefore, gave 
up colored printing from woodcuts or copper engravings altogether, and 


even Albinus, for whom Ladmiral had been producing his pictures, did 
not again employ this means, although he was very zealous to perfect 
the methods of pictorial anatomic representation. 

During the first half of the eighteenth century two series of older 
anatomic copperplates of value were discovered; in 17 14 those of 
Bartholomeo Eustachius, which had been engraved in 1552; in 1741, 
copperplates by Pietro Berrettini da Cortona, which were probably 
engraved in 1618. While the former bear the name of one of the most 
prominent anatomists of the sixteenth century, it seems impossible to 
discover the name of the anatomist for whom the latter series was made, 
while the engraver's name, although famous, is of doubtful authenticity. 
Eustachius' plates had remained hidden one hundred and sixty-two 
years, Berrettini's plates one hundred and twenty-three years, before 
their publication. The former possessed considerable anatomic value, 
the latter much higher artistic value, but both had been intended to 
serve an anatomic viewpoint which had long since become obsolete at 
the time of their appearance. Yet the publication of the former series 
led to many changes in the history of anatomic discovery by helping to 
trace many discoveries back to their real authors. The latter series 
gave to the anatomy of the nerves an artistic manner of representation 
which was later elaborated and perfected. Both series stood out 
noticeably among the anatomic representations of that time and were 
stimulating in many ways, but in accordance with their intention were 
not applied to the artist's use. 

We have already pointed out how that part of anatomy which 
serves to instruct the plastic and graphic artists was developed inde- 
pendently, partly through the aesthetic beauty of the Vesalian figures, 
especially as regards bones and muscles, and also through the effort to 
determine the dimensions and proportions of the human figure. 

The well-known anatomic drawing-book for artists, edited jointly 
by Rogers de Piles and Francois Tortebat (1668), which contains only 
Vesalian figures, is indeed the earliest artistic anatomy, if we leave out 
of consideration a similar work by Jacob van der Gracht, which obtained 
only a very small circulation, not comparable with that of Tortebat's 
book, and whose tendency, contents, and even time of publication have 
remained rather obscure. The artistic anatomy of Jacopo Moro (1679) 
was also fashioned upon Vesalian patterns. The school of Tiziano 
Vecelli, thanks to the then current opinion that the latter master was the 
creator of the Vesalian plate, hastened also to edit, under the title of 
Notomia de Tiziano, a selection of such Vesalian plates as were thought 


suitable for artists, and to bestow upon this painter, who did not design 
the plates, the fame to which his pupil and even more the industrious 
and ingenious anatomist were entitled. The artistic anatomy of Carlo 
Cesio (p. 252) is also based on Vesalian drawings, and, as late as 1706, 
the Augsburg bookseller Maschenbaur published the original Vesalian 

On the other hand, we again find the theory of human proportions 
combined with artistic anatomy by a Spaniard, Crisostomo Martinez 
(about 1680), of whose work, however, we have seen too little to judge 
its value. Here, the mathematical side of the doctrine of proportions 
seems to have been predominant. 

jMore independent, treated with a true artistic appreciation, adhering 

to the findings of advanced scientific anatomy and, above all, closely 

following the antique, came the work of Bernardino Genga (1691), which 

stands out as the very best anatomy of the time for artists, a work of 

lasting value, equaled only by a few later productions of Hke character, 

hardly surpassed by any, and even today, of unique yalue to creative 


FIFTH PERIOD (1737-1778) 

But all these acquisitions of the past, some of them new creations, 
were soon surpassed by the endeavors of the Leyden anatomist Bern- 
hard Siegfried Albinus (1737), in whose work a scholarly treatment of 
anatomy as a critique of earlier achievements, the most careful investi- 
gation of details in nature, and an artistic sense for anatomic conception 
and illustration, were combined in apt fruition. He established a new 
method, as had Vesalius before him. But times had changed. Science, 
rather than art, was the word of the hour, and the scenes of activity 
of the two anatomists were entirely different. Vesalius, laboring in 
Italy, and in keeping with the spirit of his time, had discovered, with 
sure tact and an eye artistically trained, the true anatomic norm, 
especially for the skeleton and the muscles. This same norm was now 
sought by scientific methods, the undisputed principle having been 
established that what had been discovered in a single cadaver was not 
to be represented, but that the true norm was to be developed from the 
mass of observed facts. An untiring persistence was employed in 
determining this definite norm and the great artist Jan Wandelaer gave 
perfection to its pictorial representation. From now on only the utmost 
anatomic exactness based on rule and compass, only the highest possible 
truth in representation, only the true norm attained scientifically through 
the investigation of numerous subjects and controlling all that is peculiar 


to the individual, could hope to be taken into consideration by science. 
This defines the Albinian period of anatomic representation, which is 
the feature of the Leyden school. 

For artistic anatomy Albinus' anatomic skeletons and muscle figures 
now ranked with, and later actually superseded, the Vesalian plates 
which, heretofore, had alone been of value, especially since Albinus' 
anatomic researches comprised, not indeed exclusively, but in the main, 
the study of the bones and the muscles. These anatomic representations, 
designed for artists and executed with greater fidelity to nature, in 
conjunction with a more thorough study of the human form by careful 
measurements and a thorough anatomic observation of the antique by 
the artists themselves, led to a higher development of artistic anatomy 
during this period. 

The Dutchman Peter Camper, himself famous as a graphic artist, a 
contemporary and admirer, though as regards methods of anatomic 
drawing, an opponent of Albinus, lectured on artistic anatomy and gave 
essential information to the artists through his treatises on the structure 
of the face and on the facial expression of passions. At the same time 
his endeavors to lay down a method for anatomic representation, in 
connection with Albinus' attempts along the same lines, were not without 
valuable influence on the scientific representation of anatomy. Camper 
has thus become of great importance in the history of anatomy and 
particularly in the history of anatomic illustration, although he never 
completed a book of any size in this field. 

Wholly devoted to scientific anatomy are the works of Albert von 
Haller, who may be considered the foremost pupil of the Leyden School. 
He too was particularly eager to turn out precise reproductions of the 
anatomic norm. The arteries of the body and several of the viscera 
were reproduced especially well in pictures which, at that time, were 
the only good illustrations and, in part, are even now the best available. 
Haller paid less attention to beauty of presentation. In this respect 
the splendid works of William Hunter on the pregnant uterus and of the 
previously mentioned Cheselden on bones rank by far higher, since the 
foremost artists of England were employed in their execution. 


In the finer anatomy of the brain, the organs of sense, and the 
nerves, two almost contemporaneous anatomists were especially active, 
the Italian Antonio Scarpa and the German Samuel Thomas von 
Soemm erring, who in respect to more exact representation, artistically 


conceived, introduced a new epoch. Both were themselves draughtsmen; 
the former, to a high degree of excellence, since he drew all his important 
plates himself; the latter at least trained his own artists, and supervised 
them most carefully. 

The distribution of the nerves in the body, and especially in the 
viscera, Scarpa raised to a hitherto unknown level of precise and artistic 
delineation. He was admirably assisted by Anderloni's masterful burin. 
All later representations of nerve distribution follow these unsurpassed 
patterns, more or less. 

The anatomy of the brain and of the organs of sense remained 
Soemmerring's chief task throughout his entire life, in so far as his 
endeavors in the field of pictorial representations are concerned. During 
the best period of his activity his engraver was Köck, whom he himself 
had prepared for the work. Soemmerring followed in the steps of 
Albinus, whom he highly esteemed. His greatest ambition was to 
represent, in a manner scientifically exact and artistically beautiful, the 
anatomic norm as it must be imagined in the human body. Albinus 
was his model, just as his representation of the female skeleton was meant 
to be a counterpart to Albinus' illustration of the male skeleton 
(pp. 282, 305) . This representation was of value also to artistic anatomy, 
which, however, is true too of several other of his plates on the organs 
of sense, as, for instance, the plates on the aesthetic ideal of the external 
eye and ear. 

Although in view of their very similar aspirations, Scarpa did not 
accompHsh anything for artistic anatomy, Soemmerring, at least in 
several of his illustrations, did much for it. Most of his works, how- 
ever, concern themselves, as do all of Scarpa's plates, with the internal 
organs and, therefore, do not meet the needs of the creative artist. 

Thus the epoch of anatomic representation begun by Albinus had 
reached, through the efforts of these two anatomists, the highest point 
of scientific development, and artistic anatomy had thereby become 
better adapted for the needs of art. Although Brisbane (1769) had 
already pointed out the excellence of the Albinian figures for purposes 
of graphic art, this tendency of artistic anatomy seems to have originated 
with the Dutchman CorneHs Ploos van Amstel, whose beautiful drawings, 
like the Fischer statuettes (circa 1784), so well known in German 
artistic circles, were wholly Albinian. Later on, attempts were made at 
independence, even from these models. 

Next to the founders of this epoch of scientific anatomy should be 
mentioned the Leyden anatomist Eduard Sandifort, although his works 


dealt chiefly with pathologic anatomy. His valuable engravings of the 
duodenum, however, and the reproductions of skulls contained in his 
description of the Leyden Museum, should not be passed over. In the 
same class with the latter are the reproductions of skulls by his son 
Gerard Sandifort (1838) and Blumenbach's reproductions of seventy- 
five life-sized skulls {Collectio craniorum diversarum gentium illustrata. 
Göttingae, 1 790-1828, 4°).'' 

There remained only the anatomy of the lymphatics, which, though 
it had been repeatedly dealt with since Aselli, had never been extensively 
treated, and which was in need of an exclusive and thoroughgoing 
monograph to equal the great works on blood vessels and nerves. 
Anatomic science was given such a monograph by the Italian Paolo 
Mascagni (1787), who was also the author of the attempt to reproduce 
in life-size figures the entire anatomy of man in all its details, which first 
became known long after his death. This attempt is admired rather for 
its audacity of conception and for the endurance required for the ne- 
cessary efforts and labor than for any essential progress it introduced 
in the study of anatomy, or for any permanent influence wrought upon 
anatomic representations. 

The needs of the student were hard to meet during this period, since 
copperplate engraving, now the only customary means of reproduction, 
made books expensive, and since, in relation to the high level attained 
by anatomic science, a meager selection of small drawings no longer 
sufficed for a thorough training. For this reason most of the best 
textbooks of the time contain no illustrations. In Germany the two 
following collections were preferably used by students : 

The Leipzig professor Karl Gottlob Kühn, though himself not a 
professional anatomist, revised an edition of the already-mentioned 
antiquated tables of Kulmus with entirely new copper engravings: 
Johann Adam Kulmus: Anatomische Tabellen, revised by K. G. Kühn, 
with 27 new copperplates, Leipzig, 1789, 8°; New edition: Leipzig, 
1814, 8°. 

The BerKn professor Johann Christoph Andreas Maier published a 
textbook of anatomy with copperplates, which treats of the various 
principles of this science in separate books (1777). The copperplates 
belonging to these books were published together as an anatomic atlas 
under the separate title : Johann Christoph Andreas Maier: Anatomische 
Kupjertafeln nebst dazu gehöriger Erklärung, Berlin, 1783-94, large 4°. 

' Six complete decades and half of the seventh of Blumenbach's Collectio craniorum were 
published under the title: Nova pentas collectionis craniorum, Göttingae, 1828,4°; repre- 
senting altogether only sixty-five skuUs. 


Much more important and extensive, and also more expensive, are 
the two large collective works by Loder (1794), and by the two Caldani 
(1801), which give in good reproductions a useful selection of the very 
best engravings that had been published up to that date (pp. 325, 327 ff.). 

With these two works, which repeated the best that had been 
offered up to this time, in as far as it was still of use and had not yet 
been replaced by something better, this period of scientific anatomy ends, 
giving place to a new epoch in which the means of reproduction are 
multiplied by the introduction of lithography, steel engraving, the 
daguerreotype, the perfected woodcut, and others, and in which the 
needs of anatomic representation are enlarged through histologic and 
microscopic anatomy. It is an epoch which is not yet ripe for a historical 
presentation and one which, moreover, is not yet concluded. 


Hardly any anatomic illustrations have come to us from ancient times, 
although some such may have existed. Aristotle in his history of the 
animal world, and also in other places, expressly refers to them, as irapa- 
SeiyßaTa, ö-xi7Mara, 5Laypa(f>r] (de general, animal, i. 7; histor. animal, ed. 
Schneider i. 14, alias 17 et 24, ii. 13, al. iii. i). It may be, however, that 
those Paradigmata represented parts of animal bodies only, for Aristotle 
could hardly have dissected human bodies, since he confesses himself that 
the internal parts of the human body were unknown to him, and that he 
was compelled to utilize animals whose structure was similar to that 
of the human body (histor. animal., ed. Schneider, i. 13, alias 16, 17). 
Only in the Alexandrian school, and then only in the beginning under 
Herophilus and Erasistratus, did they dissect human bodies. Galen, 
also, had no occasion to do any dissecting and refers, for the study of 
osteology, to Alexandria, where they perhaps still had at least one 
skeleton. Nor did Roman physicians dissect any human bodies either. 

The vignette in Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's Geschichte und Be- 
schreibung der Knochen des menschlichen Körpers, Göttingen, 1786, 12°, 
represents a bearded old man, clothed and seated, holding an upright 
skeleton before him by its left hand. On the right side of the skeleton 
we see a flying genius with a torch; behind the old man stands a clothed 
female figure. This picture, an alleged copy of an old cornalian (see 
Lippert: Daktyliothek , Supplement, Part 11, no. 150, page 131), permits 
in the first place the suggestion of anatomic instruction, although it may 
also be interpreted to represent the formation of man by Prometheus 
(Olfers, page 40). 

Again, during the better periods of ancient art, and up to the time of 
its decline, we find figurations of skeletons and shriveled bodies covered 
with skin (lemures) in bas-reliefs, as well as on cameos and in bronze. 
These representations, however, never served the purpose of anatomic 
instruction, but are rather of an emblematic nature, i.e., they are some- 
times symbols of death, or figurative incitements to enjoy life considering 

' This section is supplemented by additions and also by the succeeding chapter which has 
been inserted and which contains a paraphrase of the highly original MS investigations on the 
sources of early anatomic illustrations by Professor Karl Sudhofi. Bracketed portions of the 
text are by the translator. 



its mortality; sometimes they refer to the fable of Prometheus, and 
sometimes they are magic amulets. They have, therefore, just as little 
to do with our discussion as the ancient works of art representing the 
fable of Marsyas which, some thought, were intended as myologic models 
for artists. In saying this, we do not mean to deny the fact that they 
may oftentimes have been used by physicians and artists as means of 

[For the representation of the skeleton on antique sculptures compare 
Lessing's Wie die Alten den Tod gebildet, in Lachmann's edition of his 
works, VIII, figure 210, and Göschen's edition, V, figure 272. An index 
to representations of such sculpture may be found in : Ignaz Franz Maria 
von Olfers' book : Ueber ein Grab bei Kumä mid die in demselben enthaltenen 
merkwürdigen Bildwerke, mit Rücksicht auf das Vorkommen von Skeleten 
unter den Antiken. With 5 lithographic plates, Berlin, 183 1, 4°, pages 
29-45. ("On a grave near Cumae and remarkable sculpture found in 
it, with a consideration of the occurrence of skeletons in antique art.")] 

In the editions of Moschion: De mulierum passionibus we find, in 
chapter vi, a reproduction from the manuscripts of the uterus with the 
ovaries, which are indicated by letters in the text. This illustration has 
been incorporated with the editions and translations of Moschion into the 
Gynaecia and other later works, and can also be found on the last plate 
of Vesalius' Epitome, figure 6. In Dowez's edition of Moschion (Vienna, 
1893, 8"), we find it on pages 4 and 115. See also Peter Lambeck: 
Commentaria de augustissima bibliotheca Caesarea Vindob. Vind., 1674, 
foL, p. 134. 

In Johann Stephan Bernard's edition of the Introductio anatomica, 
Gr. et Lat., by an unnamed author of the fourth or fifth century (Lugd. 
Bat., 1744, 8°) we find, following page 158, two reproductions of a naked 
body seen from the front and back, and of a human head; everything 
being marked with letters for purposes of explanation. The explana- 
tions are given in Greek on the opposite pages. The reproductions are 
taken from a Leyden MS of indefinite date, and are otherwise mere linear 
drawings of the external parts, in not very beautiful proportions. Other 
editions of the Introductio anatomica do not contain these figures. 

All these drawings probably belong to the Middle Ages, and there 
may yet be other manuscripts containing anatomic illustrations.' Henri 
de Mondeville (Hermondavilla) , a physician of the fourteenth century 
[according to a report originating with Guy de Chauliac] taught human 

' For the highly important investigations on medieval anatomic MS illustrations by Karl 
Sudhoff, see p. 49. 


anatomy with the aid of thirteen illustrations/ (See Haller, I, 145.) 
[The passage making this statement is in the older edition of Guy de 
Chauliac's Chirurgia (in the Collectio chirurgia Veneta: Venetiis, expensis 
Octaviani Scoti, arte Boneti Locatelli, 1498, XI. calend. Decembr. foL), 
tractat. I. de anatomia, doctr. i. cap. i, and reads as follows: 

Experimur etiam in corporibus desiccatis ad solem aut consumptis in terram : aut 
eliquatis in aqua currente: aut bulliente anatomiam saltern ossium, cartilaginum 
iuncturarum neruorum grossorum, thenantum et colligationum. Et per is tos modos 
in corporibus hominum asinorum et p>orcorum atque aliorum multorum animalium 
ad noticiam pervenitur anatomic: et per alias picturas, sicut fecit Henricus prae- 
dictus qui cum 13 picturis visus est anatomiam demonstrare. 

"We learn also in the case of bodies which have been dried up in the sun, rotted 
in the earth, or macerated in running or boiling water, the anatomy at least of the 
bones, the cartilages, the joints, the large nerves, the tendons, and the ligaments of 
these. And by such methods, in the bodies of men, asses, pigs, and many other 
animals, we arrive at a knowledge of anatomy. Then too there is the use of pictures, 
as was the method of the aforesaid Henricus, who professed to demonstrate the science 
of anatomy with thirteen illustrations." 

In a revision of Chauliac's text undertaken by Laurent Joubert 
(Lugd. 1585, 4° in offic. Tinghi Florentini) to improve its latinity, but 
abounding in arbitrary changes, the last lines of this passage read: 

Et per istos modos in corporibus hominum, simiarum, at porcorum, atque aliorum 
multorum animalium, ad notitiam peruenitur anatomiae: et non per picturas, sicut 
fecit Henricus praedictus, qui cum tredecim picturis visus est anatomiam demon- 
strare (page 21), 

"And by such methods on the bodies of men, apes, pigs, and many other animals, 
we arrive at a knowledge of anatomy, not through the use of pictures, the method 
of the aforesaid Henricus, who professed to demonstrate anatomy with thirteen 

completely changing the meaning, but reiterating the fact that de 
Mondeville taught anatomy by means of pictures. This he must have 
done toward the end of the thirteenth, or during the first half of the four- 
teenth century, that is to say, with the aid of sketches which, however, 
had not as yet been unearthed.^ Laurent Joubert, as well as Chauliac 
himself, was an instructor at Montpellier (b. 1529, d. 1582) and might 
have followed old manuscripts and traditions in making these changes. 
Henri de Mondeville, Henricus de Hermondavilla, also mentioned 
under the names of Henricus de Mondavilla, H. a. Mondavilla (and not 
to be confused with Sir John Mandeville, the famous traveler of the 

' All these have been worked out by Sudhoff, especially de Mondeville, see p. 49 e/ seq. 

^ These were later found by Sudhoff in a MS in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris 
and in another MS in the Royal Library at Berlin. See p. 49 et seq. 


fourteenth century), was a physician and chief surgeon at the court of 
King Philip the Fair of France (reigned from 1285-13 14), and later 
lived as a physician in Paris. He is mentioned as a pupil of Jean Pitard 
and the teacher of Guy de Chauliac and is frequently quoted in the latter's 
Chirurgia. It is often said that he was an instructor at Montpellier, 
but this is hardly so since neither in Jean Astruc's Memoires pour servir 
ä Vhistoire de lafacuUe de medecine de Montpellier, Paris, 1767, 4°, nor in 
the writings on this school by Ranchin and Pellissier, appended to 
Astruc's work, is there any mention made of him. On the other hand 
Gabriel Naude: De antiqiiitate et dignitate scholae medicae Parisiensis 
panegyris, Lutet. Paris. 1628, 12°, speaks of him (on pages 41 and 76) 
as an ornament to the faculty in Paris and referring to him under the 
name of Henricus de Hermondauilla or Hermundauilla, calls him body 
physician to the king. There is nothing of his work in print, but several 
of his manuscripts are said to be in existence.^ His theories were those 
of Guilelmus de Saliceto, and he endeavored to combine with them the 
theories of Theodoric of Cervia and Lanfranc. Haller: Bibl. anat. I, 
145; Chirurg. I, 152, 154; Med. pract. I, 438. Haeser: Geschichte der 
Medicin, edition 2, pp. 338, 346.] 

A beautiful old parchment MS codex of the Dresden Royal Library 
(Galeni opera varia latine, interprete Nicolao de Regio, D, 92, 93, fol. maj., 
617 pages in two volumes) written in Belgium, probably in Brussels, at 
the beginning of the fifteenth century, contains initials with very neatly 
executed miniatures in gold and opaque colors.^ These miniatures repre- 
sent features of medical teaching and practice, and refer to the accom- 
panying text. They are very illuminative for the costumes and customs 
of the times. Generally they show a teacher sitting or standing, with 

' These have since been edited and printed from the several manuscripts by Nicaise and 

Pagel (Julius Leopold): Die Anatomic des Heinrich von Mandcvillc. Nach einer Hand- 
schrift der königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin vom Jahre 1304, zum ersten Male herausgegeben, Berlin, 
1889, 8°. 

: Die Chirurgie des Heinrich von Mondeville {Hermondaville) nach dem Berliner und 

drei Pariser Codices zum ersten Male herausgegeben, Archiv für klin. Chir., Berlin, XI (1890), 

: Leben, Lehre und Leistungen des Heinrich von Mondeville {Hermondaville) . Ein 

Beitrag zur Geschichte der Anatomie und Chirurgie, Part I, Berlii;, 1892, 8°. 

Nicaise (ßdouard) : Chirurgie de MaUre Henri de Mondevillc, Chirurgien de Philippe le Bei, 
roi de France, composee de 1306 ä 1320. Traduction franqaise, avec des notes, une introduction 
et une biographic, publiie sous les auspices du Ministere de l'instructian publique par E. Xicaise 
avec la collaboration du Dr. Saint-Larger el de F. Chavanncs, Paris, 1893, roy. 8°. 

* These miniatures are reproduced by E. C. van Leersum and VV^ Martin in Miniature der 
lateinischen Galenos-Handschrift (etc.) fol., Leyden, 19 10. 



covered head, and two or three students, always uncovered, to whom the 
matters shown are demonstrated. To the anatomic and physiologic 
parts of the book belong, among others, the following illustrations: 
page 19b, a naked man with his cardiac cavity laid open, showing the red 
heart lying exactly in the median line of the body; below this, a sugges- 
tion of the liver and the stomach. A similar representation can be seen 
on page 96b; here, however, the opening cut into the body is smaller. 
On page 26b, are Aristotle and Galen, the latter holding in his left hand a 
heart shaped like the heart in a pack of playing cards; page 34b, an 
instructor, seated, feels with the thumb of his left hand, the right pulse of 
a naked man standing in front of him ; page 50, a naked woman ; page 59, 

a naked man and several animals. Page 75b, a man standing on a 
cushion, the upper part of his body dressed, his lower extremities bare. 
Page 83b, a naked man, pointing to the approximate position of the larynx 
with his left hand. Page 109, a naked man whose chest, from the neck 
down, has been cut open in such a manner as to show the trachea and the 
red heart in the cardiac region, shaped like the heart in cards. Page 151, 
a naked man seen from the back. Page 158, a naked pregnant woman 
with long golden hair reaching down below the upper part of the thighs. 
A similar representation is found on page 295b. Page 164b, a clothed 
man with his genitals exposed and erected. Page 304, a man holding 
with his left hand the right hand of a woman standing beside him, both 
naked, the man's skin being darker. The second volume contains illus- 
trations which are concerned almost entirely with diseases and medicines. 

■P|2gf||BS^^i^H>>^ilCi)KVH ^cr rf^iaH^Tt eft 


Among them we find, curiously enough, pictures of a bathing scene, a 
garden of medicinal herbs, a display of herbs, a pharmacy, a lecture, the 
beadle with his staff, various sick people in and out of bed, a snake- 
charmer, and many more scenes. The opening of a dead body is not 
found anywhere in the manuscript, but as this particular scene fre- 
quently occurs on the title-pages of books of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, it seems probable that it was also brought out in earher 
manuscripts. Our public inquiry on this fact has thus far remained 
unanswered. Likewise there is no skeleton in this manuscript nor 
any anatomic representation of other internal parts than those mentioned. 
On account of their purely emblematic nature, we had to leave out of 
our discussion the dances of death (Danses macdhres), symbols of Death's 
power over human ambitions and relations, although in these illustra- 
tions, skeletons appear in a great variety of movements, with their bones 
still connected by ligaments, often even with the skin 
and internal organs still visible. We, nevertheless, 
hasten to admit that these -representations give proof, 
on the one hand, of the anatomic knowledge of the 
artists of those days, though, on the other hand, they 
might have served the artists as anatomic studies. 
Their period of sway most likely began in the fifteenth 
century, but did not reach their climax until the time of Hans Holbein 
the Younger, who died in London in 1554. They remained in fashion all 
through the sixteenth century. 

Von Olfers, Ignatz Franz Maria: Über ein Grab bei Kumä und die in demselben 
enthaltenen merkwürdigen Bildwerke, mit Rücksicht auf das Vorkommen von Skeleten 
unter den Antiken, with 5 lithographs; Berlin, 183 1, 4°. (On p. 30 et seq. is found an 
enumeration of pictures, skeletons, etc., among the ancients.) 

Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich: De veterum artificum anatomicae peritiae laude 
limitanda, celebranda vero eorum in charactere gentilitio experimendo accuratione, 
Göttingen, 1828, 4°, with illustrations. (Also in Comm. soc. Götting.; A reply to 
Hirt on the representation of the nude among the ancients in the manuscripts of 
the Berlin Academy.) 

Welcker, Friedrich Gottlieb : Zu den Alterthümern der Heilkunde bei den Griechen 
(extracted from his Kleine Schriften, III), Bonn, 1850, 8°, with i illustration. 

Schulze, Johann Heinrich: Historiae anatomicae sperim. IL Altdorf, 1723, 4° 
{in Kurella fasciculus dissertationum ad historiam medicam special im anatomes spec- 
tantium, Berlin, 1745, 8°, p. 450) — Ejusd. historia medicinae. Leipzig, 1728, 4° 

Ebert, Friederich Adolf: Geschichte und Beschreibung der Königl. ößentl. Biblio- 
thek zu Dresden, Leipzig, 1822, 8° (p. 261). 


Falkenstein, Karl: Beschreibung d. K. öffentlichen Bibliothek zu Dresden; Dresden, 
1839, 8° (p. 243). 

Peignot, Gabriel: Recher ches historiques et litter air es sur les danses des morts et sur 
Vorigine des cartes äjouer, Dijon, 1826, 8°, with illustrations. 

Douce, Francis: The Dance of Death, London, 1833, 8°, with illustrations. 

Massmann, Hans Ferdinand: Litter atur derTodtentänze, Leipzig, 1840. 



Mortimer Frank, M.D. 

The pursuit of medicine from the historical standpoint and its recog- 
nition as a worthy field of research has resulted in the foundation of the 
Institut für Geschichte der Medizin at Leipzig, under the direction of 
Professor Karl Sudhoff , and the estabHshment of a special chair on the 
subject at the University of Leipzig in the same year (1905). The 
Institute and its publications, the Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin and 
the Studien für Geschichte der Medizin are supported by a special endow- 
ment, and with ample financial resources at his command. Professor 
Sudhoff travels extensively in search of rare and important medical MSS 
stored in the European Hbraries, monasteries, castles, and in other public 
and private collections. 

A rich series of these MSS has been resurrected by him, and by 
photographing and collating them he has brought out many new facts 
which have thrown a flood of light on the sources of early anatomic 
illustrations. In this manner a genetic connection has been established 
between some of them and the earliest printed anatomical figures. He 
has been followed in this work by Charles Singer, of Oxford, England. 
In his study of printed pictorial representations of anatomy before 
Vesalius, Sudhoff has shown that none of these crude sketches were 
based upon actual dissections or original observations, but upon earlier 
traditional diagrams. In this section, revised by himself (1920), his 
findings have been closely followed, as being perhaps the best way to 
emphasize the importance of his work.' 

The medieval illustrators made a series of five schematic pictures 
{Fünfbilderserie), invariably in a squatting posture, representing the 
osseous, nervous, muscular, venous, and arterial systems, to which was 

' See Sudhofif : Tradition und Naturbeobachtung in den Illustrationen medizinischer 
Handschriften und Frühdrucke vornehmlich des 15. Jahrhunderts, Leipzig, 1907, and Ein 
Beitrag zur Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter, Leipzig, 1908; also Sudhofif's Archiv, 
Leipzig, 1907-16, I-IX, passim. Professor Sudhoff had originally proposed to write this 
section for the translator, but this was unfortunately prevented by the war. 



sometimes added a sixth, the*pregnant woman, or a view of either the 
male or female generative organs. This group of five schematic anatomic 
drawings was first studied by Sudhoff in two Bavarian MSS with Latin 
texts, one drawn in the year 1158, in the cloister of Priifening near 
Ratisbon, and the other drawn about the year 1250 in the cloister of 
Scheyern. The two series showed such evident conformity that one 
is compelled to assume a very close relationship between them. That 
the Latin codex of Priifening (Munich, 13002) served as a model for the 
Scheyern monk Konrad in the execution of his anatomic drawings 
(Munich, 17403), Sudhoff did not doubt at the time, and this assump- 
tion has been proved by his later investigations of other medieval 
anatomic MSS in Germany, in the Bodleian and Ashmolean libraries 
at Oxford, in the British Museum at London, in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale at Paris, in a Persian MS in the India Office, London, in 
a parchment MS at Stockholm (Royal Library), and in many others. 
He is convinced that these drawings and texts, and those investigated 
later, descended from antiquity directly or indirectly from a common 

Examination of a Provencal MS of the thirteenth century (about 
1250) in the Basel University Library (D. II. 11) with five anatomic 
pictures has led Sudhoff to believe that the Provencal text was a combina- 
tion of two distinct compilations of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, 
both deriving from the antique. He is of opinion that it was translated 
from the Latin and that there may still be a French version in existence 
by comparison with a similar text in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris. 

While the external execution of the anatomic figures is different from 
those of the Priifening-Scheyern series, the position of all the Basel 
pictures agrees with them, with the exception of that of the female 
genitals. Presumably from the modest need of a certain sense of 
propriety the legs of the nude woman are hardly spread apart and the 
external genitals are left undrawn. The representation of the genera- 
tive organs of both sexes is newly introduced here, but the muscle and 
nerve illustrations are missing. Only the skeleton picture contains an 
explanatory text but does not agree with the Priifening-Scheyern skeleton 

The spleen is shown in the protracted shoe-sole shape as seen in the 
descriptive paintings and illustrations of the Middle Ages, and found 
later, in 1499, in the work of Johannes Peyligk. 

Of great interest is the picture of the uterus on the female anatomic 
plate. For the first time in a MS drawing it is shown with six chambers 


or cells and a suggestion of a seventh; i.e., the prototype of the seven 
cells of Magnus Hundt's Figura matricis which for a long time per- 
plexed all historians of anatomy. The majority of medieval gyne- 
cological writers following Soranus, or rather his Latin interpreter 
Moschion, described the uterus as having seven cells or chambers. 
Mundinus has been given the credit as the source from which Hundt 
got his information, but Sudhoff does not believe that it was original 
with Mundinus but that he followed his great predecessors, especially 
Galen, to whom may be traced this drawing of the uterus. The text of 
the Provencal Anothomya conforms entirely to this picture. 

Although the connection is not very close, Sudhoff does not doubt 
that there exists a connection between the Priifening-Scheyern and the 
Provencal series in Basel. Springing perhaps from the same root, they 
followed separate developments at an early stage which led to manifold 
differentiation. The pictures from the Priifening-Scheyern and the 
Oxford series are closely related; they descended from antiquity and 
were transmitted via Byzantium. The Provengal-Basel series likewise 
descended from antiquity but they probably passed through an entirely 
different line of transmission. That the two illustrated anatomic 
treatises from the upper valley of the Danube did not stand absolutely 
alone was again established in the Oxford Ashmolean MS 339, of the 
year 1292. Using the parallel texts and examining them thoroughly, 
Sudhoff believes them to be free from Arabic or Arabist influences. 

In the Dresden Codex C. 310 (1323 A.D.), the five anatomic pictures 
are missing but the text corresponds almost in its entirety, except for 
that of the muscles, with the two Bavarian cloister MSS which the monks 
of the Danube Valley copied almost two hundred years before. This MS, 
however, contains a drawing of a skeleton which will be discussed later. 

In a fourteenth-century MS (VI, Fc, 29), in the library of Prince 
von Lobkowitz (Raudnitz, Bohemia), the traditional development of 
the five-picture series was still further investigated and also an attempt 
made at the reconstruction of the Latin text. Comparison was made 
with the text and drawings of the cloisters of Priifening and Scheyem, 
and the Oxford MS (399) of the Ashmolean Library. The execution 
is later than those just quoted but the text came from good sources as 
well as the illustrations which, in some respects, excel all the others as 
regards the coloring of the organs. The colors likewise recur in the 
Persian pictures. The position of all the figures is the same bent-knee, 
squatting posture as on all the other known series. That a predecessor 
of the arterial picture once showed the kidneys, seems to be proved by 


two peculiar club-shaped coils, in the right left hypogastrium which 
the illustrator mistook for coils of blood vessels. The Prüfening and 
Scheyem drawing is entirely without the kidneys. This picture of the 
Raudnitz series unwittingly preserved a detail that two hundred and 
fifty years before had entirely disappeared in another good line of tradi- 
tion. Noteworthy in this study are the feather-like figurations at the 
ends of the vessels of the artery picture, which so far have only been 
found on the Persian series. The same feather-like detail on the nerves 
of the lower extremities in the Priifening-Scheyern pictures and also 
on the Oxford artery and vein drawings are undoubtedly old artistic 
property designed to suggest the minute branchings of blood vessels. 

Another noteworthy line of tradition is shown on the Raudnitz vein 
drawing. This consists of a venous network, of the arachnoidea, on the 
crown of the head of the Raudnitz picture and described in the MS text. 
In the Priifening-Scheyern series this is suggested and also in two 
Oxford pictures (the Ashmolean 399 and Codex e Musea 19). The 
skeleton drawing of the Raudnitz MS agrees in nearly all details with 
those in the MSS mentioned in the foregoing sentence. The Raudnitz 
skeleton drawing has added, however, the separate representation of 
the teeth. The triangular figure on the forehead occurs likewise on the 
Prüfening, Scheyern, and Oxford (Ashmolean) series. With the excep- 
tion of the drawing of the spinal nerves the rest of the Raudnitz nerve 
picture agrees with that of the other MS series. The Raudnitz drawing 
shows distinctly the arrangement of the two nerve roots standing out 
to the right and left between the vertebrae, which is not shown in the 
other nerve series. The Raudnitz drawing has obviously preserved in this 
respect an old detail that had long disappeared from all the other pictures. 

Considerable uniformity exists among all four myologic pictures. 
In describing the Raudnitz MS, with its noteworthy legends, Sudhoff 
concludes with an attempt at a reconstruction of a text and legends 
from all the MSS he has thus far investigated. 

In the Ashmolean Codex (399) of the Bodleian Library, which Sudhoff 
used in connection with the reconstruction of the text, the posture of all 
the figures in the drawings is almost the same as in the Raudnitz, except 
that these Oxford figures are a little less bent in the knees, i.e., the 
squatting position has disappeared somewhat. The legends are entirely 
missing. The five-lobed liver and sole-shaped spleen show nothing 
peculiar, except perhaps the centrally located elliptical gall bladder. 
Viewed as a whole, this series offers nothing new, but its value lies in a 
renewed authentication of the total material of the five-picture series 


with all its peculiarities, and in the new confirmation coming from another 
sphere of civilization. The pictures, Sudhoff says, were drawn in Eng- 
land and the text copied there toward the end of the thirteenth century. 
This MS contains other anatomic material of extreme rarity and value 
which, up to the time of Sudhoff's studies, was wholly unknown and 
whose tradition is extremely limited. None are provided with legends. 
As chance would have it, a single loose sheet with anatomic outline 
sketches fell into Sudhoff's hands in Pisa. This agrees completely with 
the pictures of the organs shown in the Ashmolean codex (399), and 
all are provided with elaborate explanatory inscriptions. Judging from 
the handwriting, the date of the plate can be placed within the first half 
of the thirteenth century. The drawings on the Pisa sheet consist of 
the stomach, with the oesophagus and intestines, next the gall bladder, 
and below it the shoe-sole spleen; then follow two sketches of the 
heart, a five-lobed liver of Galenic origin, while below these a larger 
drawing of the liver is shown, with six lobes, and at the top the gall 
bladder. The remaining pictures represent a diagram of the eye, nose, 
and brain, and below the reproductive organs. 

The drawings of the Ashmolean MS are nearly identical with those 
just described, but more finished and on a large scale. The exceptions 
are, only one sketch of the heart; the diagram of the nose, throat, and 
brain has changed into a full-paged illustration; the Pisa diagram of the 
intestines is replaced by a drawing of a bundle of gut and a picture of 
two kidneys, which has no corresponding sketch on the Pisa plate. 
Although the pictures are coarsely and crudely drawn, nevertheless, they 
show the anatomic conceptions of the early Middle Ages, which probably 
descended graphically from antiquity through Alexandrian times. 
Especially interesting are the drawings of the liver and the pear-shaped 
gall bladder, as well as the spleen of both anatomic plates, which are 
identical with the five-lobed liver and shoe-sole-shaped spleen drawings 
of the twelfth-century Priifening-Scheyern MSS of the five-picture 
series. Another point of resemblance between the five-picture series 
and the sketches of the viscera is the drawing of the heart with the lungs 
as a hazelnut-shaped cover. Nor can the close connection between the 
drawing of the situation of the intestines of the Pisa sheet and the 
Prüfening-Scheyern series be denied. Sudhoff is inclined to attach a 
high traditional value to the Pisa plate in its relation to the early five- 
picture series. He believes that crude sketches of this Pisa plate clung 
most faithfully to the then oldest form of tradition and give the Priifening- 
Scheyern pictures a new, firm support. This whole series of pictures 


of the organs is an independent mass of traditional material and did 
not come about by selective copying process from the five-series pictures, 
for it possesses too many individual features. But the fact that all the 
five-series pictures agree with the corresponding series of organs proves 
a traditional relationship between the two, and each may have been 
produced in their time near the mouth of the Nile. 

As part of the anatomical tradition of the Far East, Sudhoff has 
studied four MSS of a Persian series,* with the five schematic pictures, 
which in a systematic manner represent the bones, nerves, muscles, 
veins, and arteries of the human body. 

Three of these Persian picture series are provided with the same 
Latin text which Sudhoff once before had independently established 
on only the skeleton picture (Dresden Codex 310, 1323 A.D.). On the 
other hand, the entire drawing of this Dresden skeleton shows that the 
more original forms had been adhered to and that this picture, even at 
an early date, had deviated from the traditional line. The traditions 
which have been preserved in the Prüf ening picture cycle (Munich Codex, 
Latin, 13002, 1158A.D.), in the Scheyern cycle (Munich Codex, Latin 
17403, about 1250 A.D.), in the older Oxford cycle (Ashmolean Codex, 
399, about 1292 A.D.), which was drawn in England and which therefore 
presupposes an older illustrated text brought into England from Italy 
or southern France, and finally in the later Oxford cycle (Codex 19, 
Bodleian, about 1340 A.D.), which represents only the beginning of a 
copy of this picture cycle, will, Sudhoff believes, probably find their 
supplements in Italian libraries. 

It may be asserted with almost historic perspicuity, that these pictures 
with their text must have been based on a short illustrated Alexandrian 
textbook of anatomy, which was written in Greek and provided with 
schematic drawings done probably after representations then extant. 
The Latin text is entirely free from Arabic influences and therefore comes 
directly by occidental tradition from antiquity. This text, with its 
illustrations, was, of course, known also to the Arabians but as the 
anatomic drawings could not be transmitted for religious reasons, it is 
difficult to find the text ; however, Sudhoff is of the opinion that this will 
yet be accomplished. 

From the Latin text of this anatomic picture series it may be inferred 
that there were originally nine schematic pictures. A thirteenth-century 

'Codex 19 Bodleian Library at Oxford (1400 a.D.), no legends. MS 23556 (Bibl. 
Taylor) British Museum, London (before 1400 a.D.). MS 1555 Bibliotheque Nationale, 
Paris (before 1400 a.D.). India Office, London. 

Venous System, from a Late Thirteenth-Century Provencal MS (D. II. ii.) 
i\ THE Basel University Library 

(From Suclhoff, Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter, Leipzig, igog. Plate II) 


Provencal MS at Basel (D, II, 11, about 1250) presents, simultaneously 
with the Scheyern series, the arterial and venous illustrations ol the 
anatomic series of Alexandria, without text, and two other drawings, one 

Arterial System, from a Late Thirteenth-Century Provencal MS (D. IL 11.) 
IN THE Basel University Library 

(From Sudboff, Geschieht« der Anatomie im Mittelalter, Leipzig, igog, Plate V) 


of the female and the other of the male generative organs, which in this 
manner had never before been met with except in this Basel-Pro vengal 
MS: a nude man with a vascular system for the demonstration of the 

Male Generative System, from a Late Thirteenth- Century Provenqal MS 
(D. II. II.) IN THE Basel University Library 

(From Sudhofif, Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter, Leipzig, 1909, Plate IV) 

synthesis of spermatozoa from all the body humors, and a nude woman 
with the same drawing of the vascular system, but without the blood 
vessels of the forehead, liver, seven-celled uterus, and with thighs 
modestly placed together. 



The Provencal MS of Basel, however, has a fifth drawing that 
does not belong to the Priifening-Scheyern series. This is the Basel 
skeleton which was found almost at the same time in a Munich Codex 

Female Generative System, from a Late Thirteenth-Century Provencal MS 
(D. II. II.) IN the Basel University Library 

(From Sudboff, Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter, Leipzig, 1909, Plate III) 


{Codex monacensis latinus 13042), This representation of the osseous 
system, viewed from the back, belonged definitely to another series 
of which only this one, it now appears, has come down through 
occidental tradition via Provence or Italy while the entire series has 
also come down to us in Persian tradition and, as Sudhofif has proved, 
in a rather large number of MSS. 

The orthodox branch of Islam to which all the Arabic medical authors 
subscribe, that of the Sunnites, made it impossible to preserve the 
Alexandrian anatomic drawings, which these authors also undoubtedly 
knew, and to hand them down to us through copies. With the more 
liberal school of the Persian Shiites, the drawing of a human figure, and 
therefore anatomic drawings, was not altogether impossible. However 
these pictures, for instance, the drawing of the liver, may diflfer from the 
other lines of tradition, they nevertheless point to Alexandria, although 
perhaps to other authors or other periods of Alexandrian medicine. 
As to this, nothing definite can as yet be said. Whether Mansur Bin 
Muhammad Bin Ahman, the author of two of the Persian MSS written 
before 1400 (MS 23556 British Museum, London, and MS 1555 Bib- 
liotheque Nationale, Paris), changed much on the drawings he had before 
him, Sudhoff doubts, but he asks through how many intelligent and more 
unintelligent hands had these drawings passed, after they had been 
designed on papyrus in Alexandria? Sudhoff is of opinion that the 
five-picture series were originally drawn in Alexandria. 

With the beginning of the fourteenth century, the anatomic series 
of entire figures of the post-antique period experienced several trans- 
formations. The first by Henri de Mondeville, who had made entirely 
new full-length anatomic pictures for his lectures in Montpellier. This 
graphic independence of de Mondeville is amazing, however little one 
may value, from a pragmatic point of view, the professional achieve- 
ments in the text of his Anatomy. These small figures, probably drawn 
from de Mondeville's original illustrations for anatomic instruction, are 
contained in a MS (2030) in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris and 
were allowed to pass with little comment up to Sudhoff 's investigations 
of graphic anatomy. Judging from de Mondeville's descriptions of his 
drawings, they offered plenty of detail which the artist was unable to 
represent in the small space that was allowed him. It is unnecessary 
to go into details. Only one figure, the figure of seated Death, shows the 
squatting position with the knees spread apart; all the others are free 
from this constrained posture of centuries and present an easy pose, a 
fact which had been given a start in at least one of the figures of the 

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Anatomical Miniatures, from a French MS of De Mondeville (2030) of the 
Year 1314, in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris 

(From Karl Sudhoff, Ein Beilrag sur Gtsckichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter ["Stud. z. Gesch. <\. Med," 
Heft 4I. Leipzig, 1909, Plate XXIV) 


Provencal codex of Basel. The representations of the skeleton pictures 
follow the medieval drawings of Death for symbolic and emblematic 
purposes, as they were also later used in the Dances of Death, etc. 

TheMondeville pictures of the osseous system show the bodies covered 
with dried up soft parts {lemiires), a condition which is not found in the 
skeleton pictures of the Priifening and Scheyem, the Provengal, the 
Munich, the Oxford, the Raudnitz, and the Persian series. Of all 
the pictures of earlier times, only the skeleton of the Dresden MS, of the 
year 1323, has the real characteristics of the skeleton, but this was 
done a few years later and the drawings made after de Mondeville's 
dissections. In later centuries, this characteristic lemur feature is 
again shown in the skeleton pictures of the fourteenth, fifteenth, and 
beginning of the sixteenth centuries. No remarkable progress in the 
osseous pictures by de Mondeville is therefore noticeable, except in the 
elimination of constraint in posture. 

Entirely free from tradition is his muscle manikin, carrying his 
skin on a stick over his shoulder, which does not show any copyist 
tendencies, but is already fully representative of the type of later artistic 
anatomy; i.e., exposure of the superficial muscles by removal of the skin, 
de Mondeville has priority in this picture, which undoubtedly influenced 
the artist Caspar Becerra in his grotesque picture of the muscle manikin 
for Juan Valverde di Hamusco's Anatomy. 

In the vein manikin, the origin of the blood vessels, the heart, and the 
liver are merely drawn on the body surface, as no opening of the thorax 
or abdomen has been made. This means of illustration was employed 
long after de Mondeville as, for example, in the vein manikin of Leonardo 
da Vinci. 

An entirely original drawing is the body dissected from the back to 
show the viscera from this position. In the composition of the pos- 
tures of his figures, de Mondeville seems not to have been without 
influence on posterity. That the many pictures of dissections, before 
and after de Mondeville, showed the cadaver on its back on a table, 
Sudhoff argues, is proof of the fact that it was not an unconditional 
requirement of the Middle Ages to draw anatomic scenes in a standing 
or squatting position. De Mondeville deliberately had his dissected 
figures drawn in a standing position, and in this respect, precedes all 
others entirely. Sudhoff also assumes that perhaps de Mondeville's 
pictures influenced Vesalius to a large degree. 

De Mondeville's drawing must be regarded as an original accomplish- 
ment and his illustrative achievement as very remarkable. 


A progressive enlargement of the traditional anatomic five-picture 
series is represented by sixteen of the pictures in a MS of Guido Vigevano 
(1345) and published by Ernest Wickersheimer, of Paris. They are three 
or four decades later than those which de Mondeville had drawn for 
purposes of instruction. The Guido drawings surpass de Mondeville's 
in many respects. They show improved technique in dissecting the 
abdomen : the abdominal viscera are still covered by the mesentery and 
afterward entirely free ; thoracic cavity striking as to location and shape 
of heart; the shape of the liver and, on one of the plates representing a 
female cadaver, the seven-celled uterus is shown just as in the Provencal 
drawing of the female anatomy, differing only in its configuration. The 
last six pictures show in a very interesting manner the technique used 
in dissecting the cranial and spinal cavities. As a whole, it may be stated 
that they represent essentially a rather independent demonstration of 
the technique in dissection and of the most general configuration of the 
internal organs. 

Wickersheimer, describes, for the first time, a MS from the library 
at Chantilly (Conde Museum MS 569, 1345 A.D.), containing the treatise 
on anatomy by Guido de Vigevano. In the introduction, Guido 
shows the usefulness of figures for the demonstration of anatomy and 
also the attitude of the church toward dissection of the human body. 
The Papal bull of Boniface VIII (1300), according to Neuburger 
{Geschichte der Medizin, 191 1, II, 432) and to Wickersheimer, was not 
aimed at dissection but tended to prevent the practice of boiling and 
dismembering the bodies of crusaders who had died away from home, to 
facilitate transportation. The text of instructions which the Pope must 
have given the bishop is not known, but Wickersheimer is rather inclined 
to think that by submitting the study of the human body to a special 
class, the church placed under her protection the anatomists, toward whom 
popular sentiment had been hostile so long. Guido devoted himself with 
zeal to the practice of anatomy, either by special dispensation or illegally. 

The eighteen figures, on the whole, are well designed and probably 
of Italian origin. The standing position of the figures is traditional, a 
feature which, according to Sudhoff, should be looked for in antiquity. 
It might be added here that at the time when the technique of drawing 
was rather rudimentary, the artist thought it easier to show the organs 
in a vertical posture of the body than by representing the anatomist 
bent over a horizontal cadaver. 

Several of the pictures show a striking resemblance to those in the 
Provencal MS and to those in the Persian MS of the Bodleian Library. 


In spite of these analogies, and in spite of the important part tradi- 
tion has in these figures, the author proves that he was not merely 
content with reading but also understood how to observe. The proof 
for what he said in his introduction of having dissected human bodies 
is borne out, not so much in the figure of this or that organ, but 
in the manner in which he represents the technique of dissection 
in several of his pictures. In fact, these figures put before us for 
the first time an anatomy in three divisions, the abdomen, the 
thorax, and the head, an anatomy after the method of Mundinus, 
whose contemporary and compatriot Guido was and whose pupil he 
may have been. 

Closer related to the post-antique period of the five-picture series 
than Guido's illustrative portion are five drawings in a fifteenth-century 
MS in the Royal Library at Stockholm. The first three pictures repre- 
sent the osseous, arterial and venous, and nervous systems, while the 
other two represent the thoracic and abdominal viscera, and the contents 
of the skull and face from the front and back in a sagittal section through 
the median line. (Sudhoff's Archiv, 1914-15, VIII, 129-39, pis. 3-4.) 

The position of the arms and legs of four of the pictures diflfers from 
the froglike posture of the late post-Alexandrian series. The arms are 
brought nearer the sides of the trunk and the legs are placed closer 
together. The arms of one of the visceral pictures are bent at the elbow 
in such a way that they seem to hold apart the two split halves of the 
thoracic cavity. This and the visceral figure are entirely original and 
without parallel in medieval anatomic art and, as SudhofI believes, 
are not based on tradition whose power, he says, de Mondeville had 
destroyed. His theory is that the unknown person who inspired the 
artist had actually observed anatomic structures on the cadaver without 
comprehending much of it. 

The picture of the blood vessels has many points in common with 
the Provencal drawing, especially as regards the position of the kidneys, 
while the skeletal figure is quite imperfectly drawn and has nothing in 
common with the Provengal picture. The illustration representing the 
nerves resembles most closely the pen sketches of the Arabic nerve 

Upon investigating two Persian MSS, one in the India Office at 
London (2296, about 1400 A.D.), and the other in the Bodleian Library 
at Oxford (1576), written a few decades later, there is suggested for 
Arabic medicine a traditional line of anatomic drawings from antiquity 
which perhaps spring from the same Alexandrian sources as the 


occidental series just discussed/ How many of these anatomic group 
pictures might have originated from antiquity and were transmitted, 
Sudhoff is not as yet prepared to decide. 

Both these series contain six pictures, viz., the osseous, nervous, 
muscular, venous, arterial, and gravida. The drawings of these two 
London and Oxford Persian series conform most intimately, one with the 
other. The skeleton is shown from the back, the head strongly bent 
backward with the chin occupying the highest point in the figure, estab- 
Hshing a relationship between the Provengal-Basel picture and the 
Munich drawing (13042), while the posture of all the series approaches 
the Priifening-Scheyern series. 

Of greatest interest is the illustration of the nervous system also 
shown from the back, with the head again bent backward. In this 
Persian drawing of the nervous system, we encounter, for the first time, 
another figure of an anatomic picture series, of which we have as yet 
seen only the osseous system of the occidental group. 

Of all the anatomic drawings of the Middle Ages so far studied by 
Sudhoff, the myologic picture has been most superficially treated, and 
in this respect the older drawings of the Priifening-Scheyern system, 
while having no connection, are treated more elaborately. 

The venous pictures of the two MSS differ considerably, but are of 
no consequence here. In the London picture, especial attention was 
drawn by Sudhoff to the shape of the heart, with the auricles and the 
position of the apex pointing slightly to the left. 

The arterial system, representing the distribution of the arteries, 
shows few changes from the venous system. The heart is similar, below 
it lie the stomach, Hver, kidneys, and spleen as small ovals, with hose- 
like loops of intestines tapering at the anus. 

In the last and sixth drawing, that of the pregnant woman, the entire 
visceral representation conforms with that of the venous and arterial 
drawing. The fetus, seen from its right side, is squatting with the knee 
drawn up and the right hand resting on it. The egg-shaped uterus 
envelops it snugly and lies in the middle of the abdomen, with the fundus 
inclined slightly to the left. From the heart a blood vessel goes directly 
to the embryo. The vagina is omitted. 

* Dr. Berthold Laufer, of the Field Museum at Chicago, discovered during his travek 
four Tibetan anatomic plates, which evidently belong together and are still in use by students 
in Tibet today. They recall, in their squatting posture, so many of the details of the Priifen- 
ing and Persian figures that one is forced to believe that the well-known post-Alexandrian 
anatomic figures were brought to India also and that the Indian and Chinese doctrines went 
through a peculiar process of amalgamation whose later results still confront us in the Tibetan 
plates. (For two of these figures, see Sudhoff's Archiv, 1914-15, VIII, 143-45.) 


Skeletal System, from Persian MS, No. 2296, in the India Office, London 

(From SudhofiF, Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter. Leipzig, 190g. Plate X) 

Arterial System of a I'rkg.nanx Woman, from a Persian MS, No. 1576, i\ the 
Bodleian Libraky, Oxford 

(From Sudhoff, Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter, Leipzig, igog, Plate XVIII) 



As stated before, there has been no parallel in the occidental series 
for the drawing of the two Persian venous systems. But as to the type 

Nervous System, from Persian MS, No. 2296, in the 
India Office, London 

(From Sudhoff, Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter, Leipzig, 1909, Plate XI) 

of the gravida picture, the connection between the occidental and the 
two oriental figurations, while showing some similarity, is not at all 



immediate. The squatting position is common to both occidental and 
oriental pictures, but not the position of the hand. The hands in the 

Muscular System, from Persian MS, No. 2296, in the 
India Office, London 

(From SudboS, Geschickte der Anatomie im Mittelaller, Leipzig, 1909, Plate XII) 

occidental series just discussed are raised to the height of the chin, a 
condition which is traditionally observed in the Ketham illustrations 
until 1543. 



Other differences are the omission of the mammae, which are seen 
on all of the occidental pictures. In one very important point there 

Venous System, from Persian MS, No. 2296, in the 
India Office, London 

(From Sudhoff, Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter, Leipzig, igog, Plate XIII) 

occurs, however, a rather striking conformity between these otherwise 
different representations of the gravida, which at the same time connects 



the Persian arterial and venous pictures, with the oriental and occidental 
gravida pictures, viz., the bottle-shaped stomach, on all the illustrations 

Arterial System, from Persian MS, No. 2296, in the 
India Office, London 

(From SudhofF, Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter, Leipzig, iqoq, Plate XIV) 

of the abdominal viscera, is closely united on the right side with the 
liver, like the thick segment of an onion peel. 

Through this shape of the stomach and liver, a close relationship is 
actually established between the representations of the pregnant woman, 



so far studied, in the oriental and occidental MSS and the visceral pic- 
tures of the two Persian MSS. In contrast, the Priifening-Scheyern, 

Arterial System of a Pregnant Woman, from a Persian 
MS, No. 2296, IN the India Office, London 

(From Sudhoff, Geschickte der Anatomie im Mittelalter, Leipzig, 1909, Plate XV) 

Oxford, and Basel drawings faithfully preserve the ancient many-lobed 
liver which was still used by Peyligk and Hundt, Reisch and Phryesen, 
Gersdorf and Reiff, and which even Vesahus, in 1538,- had still retained 


for purposes of instruction on plates 4 and 5 of his Tabulae, before his 
revolutionary reformation. Sudhoff makes the bold assumption that 
this type of lobed-liver may, in its traditional character, be associated 
with the oldest source of anatomic instruction, that of animal dissection, 
i.e., with the study of the sheep livers used for divine purposes in Baby- 
lonia and Etruria. While the drawing of the hver constitutes a sharp 
line between the occidental tradition, transmitted to us without oriental 
influence, and oriental graphic art, the drawing of the remaining organs, 
on the other hand, offers unsurpassable difficulties. 

However great these differences are, yet there is much in the whole 
arrangement of this Persian series that must not be overlooked, viz., 
the froglike position, the employment of entire figures for illustrating 
visceral anatomy, the division and sequence of the drawings, and espe- 
cially the picture of the skeleton. 

Notwithstanding the many legends attaching to the Persian draw- 
ings, further investigation of the question of textual connections is 
needed, Sudhoff believes. When this is accomplished, perhaps the 
question will be answered, where Arabic influence with reference to the 
anatomic picture and text series begins. 

The anatomic drawings in the Priifening-Scheyern MSS and in the 
Ashmolean MS (339) appear to have been transmitted directly from 
antiquity via Byzantium, although there might still be some doubt as 
to the Provengal pictures. 

As for the anatomic drawings in the London and Persian MSS, 
there seems to be a suggestion of a line of tradition from antiquity by 
way of Arabic transmission, which may go back to the very same draw- 
ings from Alexandria, of which we have had examples transmitted from 
the Occident. However, there exists no certainty as to how many of 
these groups originated in antiquity and were then transmitted to the 
Occident and Orient. 


On studying the crudely drawn skeleton of the Munich codex (13042) 
we observe a back view of the body and also of the skull, which appears 
to be bent so far back that the face, eyes, nose, and mouth are visible, 
and that the chin constitutes the highest point. There can be no doubt 
that the Basel picture was planned in the same way. Here the position 
of the legs, though still the original squatting one, is essentially the same 
as in the Priifening-Scheyern and Provencal series. How completely 



Skeleton in Aquatint, from Dresden MS Codex 310 (1323 a.d.) 

(From Sudhoff, Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter, Leip/.itr. looq. Plate VI) 


. 69 


Skixeton, from a Fourteenth-Century Latin Munich MS Codex 
Lat. Monacensis 13042 

(From Sudhoff. Tradition und N aturbeohachtnng ("Stud. z. Gesch. d. Med.," Heft I). Leipzig, igo7, p. 63) 


the two skeleton pictures, the Munich and Basel, agree, is furthermore 
proved by the explanatory inscriptions on each drawing. The number 
of the vertebrae corresponds in both pictures and considerable con- 
formity is shown in the shoulder girdle and ribs. Sudhoff does not doubt 
that the Munich skeletal picture, which antedates the Basel by about 
ICO years, descends in an absolutely direct line, like the Provengal 
explanatory inscriptions, from the Latin model of the Provencal scribe 
of the end of the thirteenth century. The Dresden skeletal picture 
(MS Codex 310, 1323 A.D.) was probably not drawn after the model 
which had served for the Basel or Munich skeletal pictures. The 
differences are too considerable. First of all, the Dresden skeleton is 
a front view. The shoulder girdle is closed and the upper parts of the 
scapulae are visible. The sternum is strikingly broad, and the pelvis, 
drawn as a closed bony ring, cannot be made to harmonize absolutely 
with the Munich-Basel skeletal pictures. A thorough comparison, on 
the other hand, with the Priifening-Scheyern osseous picture compels 
one to suppose that the Dresden skeletal picture is connected with the 
same series. Sudhoff also suggests that the Dresden skeleton is more 
realistic, either as being a more faithful copy of an earlier picture or 
because it was copied from a skeleton actually seen. 

Another skeletal picture found in a MS in the Bibliotheque Mazarin 
(Codex 3599), written at the end of the thirteenth or the beginning of 
the fourteenth century, gives proof that the type of anatomic drawing 
represented by the Priifening-Scheyern pictures and accepted, at the 
present state of traditional knowledge, as the earliest known, about the 
middle of the thirteenth century, was not the only one recognized during 
the Middle Ages. Here we have, on the threshold of the fourteenth 
century, the early type of skeleton w^ith a dark abdominal portion, the 
gaping symphysis, and sutures of the skull. 

The picture of a skeleton from a codex (MS lat. 7138) in the Bib- 
liotheque Nationale at Paris, belonging to the first half of the fifteenth 
century and representing a front view of a skeleton, reminds one of the 
skeletal pictures by R. Helain and Brunschwig-Griininger in the region 
of the pelvis, although the dark abdominal portion of the Helain skeleton 
is absent in this drawing. 

Among the features of the Helain figure (1493), are the dark 
abdominal portion, the expanded pelvis, the divided lower jaw, and 
numerous teeth, the bones of the feet and the "os laude'' of the skull. 
The modified picture by the publisher Griininger for Brunschwig's 
Chirurgie, 1497, still shows the pelvis gaping at the symphysis. 

-3 i?a^ ^ 












w 2 
« 2 

5 M 
























X u 

in as 

a! w 



Skeleton of Richard Helain, Nuremberg, 1493. aHe Original Plate 
Was 53 CM. High 


In a French MS (19994, 1459 A.D.) from the BibHotheque Nationale 
at Paris we find the very model of the Nuremberg skeletal picture of 
1493. Very striking is the conformity of the drawing of the tarsus on 
the right side with the Helain picture, as well as the drawing of the leg, 
the arm, and the forearm. The pelvis and femur have nothing in com- 
mon. The assumption that the artist who drew the Helain and the 
Brunschwig-Griininger skeleton was either given the opportunity to 
see a skeleton or parts of a skeleton, or that Helain or Hieronymus 
Brunschwig themselves caused corrections to be made on the skeletal 
figure after personal examination of a human skeleton, must not be abso- 
lutely rejected. 

However obvious it may seem that the Nuremberg and Strassburg 
skeletons are related to the graphic traditions of medieval origin, there 
can be no doubt that during the last decade of the fifteenth century, 
direct anatomic observations considerably influenced tradition. The 
result has given us the two skeletal pictures which, from a graphic 
viewpoint, represent the best that were pubhshed of this kind before 
Vesalius. Whether the two skeletal pictures represent the direct result 
of observation of nature or whether they were traditional corrections of 
the one made in Paris, Sudhoff has not yet decided. 

Among the woodcuts in the Compost et Kalendrier des bergiers, a 
shepherd's calendar, one widely known and held in high esteem by the 
early printers, we find pictures of the human skeleton. They bear a 
close connection to the Helain skeletal picture, although some parts 
seem to be related to the Brunschwig-Griininger skeleton of 1497. From 
this Sudhoff concludes that Griininger had his drawing done after a 
French model, not as yet found. With this last investigation, the 
history of the skeletal picture for anatomic purposes is brought to the 
year 1500. 

For a discussion of these traditional topics and many other ques- 
tions, a thorough specialization of the subject is needed. Sudhoff tried 
to develop a general viewpoint resulting from an exhaustive study of the 
graphic traditions, and to reveal new guide-lines of existing relations. 
The mass of anatomic material of the Middle Ages is far more extensive 
than at first appeared to Sudhoff, and he believes the whole MS anatomic 
material is in need of an exhaustive and thorough investigation and 
partial re-editing before many details can be decided. 





In this anatomic series there is no connection with an oriental medium. 
The traditional line goes back directly to antiquity without the mediation 
of the Arabs. 

Soranus of Ephesus of the second century A.D. is our leading authority 
on the obstetrics of antiquity. His treatise on midwifery was the 

Foetus in ukro, from Röslin's "Rosegarten," 1529 a.d. (after Weindler) 

original of such famous works as Röslin's Rosegarten (15 13) and the 
plagiarized text of Walter Reiff (1545), and also WiUiam Raynalde's 
Byrthe of Mankynde (London, 1545). The Rosegarten of Eucharius 
Röslin with its quaint cuts was principally a compilation of the MS 
codices of Soranus-Moschion and was still a textbook on obstetrics 
after a lapse of nearly fourteen centuries. 

The title Rosegarten was derived from the fabled "Rose Gardens" 
at Worms and in Switzerland and from Röslin's interpretation of his 
own name as *'rose," rather than Ross, a "horse." 

The earliest occurrence of the uterus and the traditional pictures 
of the foetus in utero are found in a ninth-century Moschion codex 
(3701-3 7 14) in the Royal Library at Brussels. The oldest known 


drawing of the uterus contained in this MS is flask-shaped and has at 
its fundus two ear-shaped processes suggestive of the adnexa. The 
drawings of the positions of the fetus number only twelve, while in the 
later MSS, such as found in Copenhagen, Paris, Dresden, Rome, and 
Munich, they number from fifteen to sixteen positions. 

The Copenhagen codex (1653), dating from the twelfth century, 
contains fifteen pictures, one of which is a twin pregnancy. The fetuses, 
in sprightly positions, are inclosed by the chorion in the flask-shaped 
uterus and the whole surrounded by a double circle representing the 
peritoneum. In the Palatine codex at Rome, about one hundred years 
later, which is closely related to the above, the drawings number sixteen, 
a second twin pregnancy picture having been added. The circles of 
the peritoneum still inclose the whole figure. 

A very different impression, from an artistic point of view, is given 
in the illustrations of the Latin Munich codex (161) written about the 
thirteenth century. The drawings are highly artistic and decorative 
and omit the chorion and peritoneum. 

Older than the Munich MS, but in the same line of tradition, is a 
page from a twelfth-century parchment codex (190) in the Thatt's collec- 
tion at Copenhagen containing fetus drawings. This old page, com- 
pletely isolated from the rest of the MS, is covered on both sides with 
eight drawings of the pregnant flask-shaped uterus. The drawings are 
placed in a decorated frame with arches and pillars richly colored and 
in gold, showing Byzantine influence, and with blank spaces for 

In all probability Röslin got his inspiration for his illustrations of the 
foetus in utero from the Heidelberg codex of the Vatican Library at Rome. 
Martin Flach, Jr., had them cut in wood in Strassburg by the noted 
form-cutter {Formschneider) Erhard Schön in 15 13. The little volume, 
in spite of its present-day absurdities, opened up at that time a new era 
in obstetrics. Later editions, chiefly from the same wood blocks, were 
published by Henricus Gran at Hagenau. The Swiss obstetrician 
Jacob Rueff of Zurich, in 1554, corrected these wildly fantastic pictures 
somewhat in his Trostbiichle, but most of his figures differ but little 
from the traditional Röslin drawings. 

One hundred years later, the Röslin illustrations still haunt the edi- 
tions of Jacques Guillemeau, a noted pupil of Pare, which were revised 
by his son Charles Guillemeau. 

A dozen years before the enterprising Röslin used the drawings from 
the Heidelberg Soranus-Moschion codex, the great universal genius 

a}^fn^.^-'~^M- SEX 

PÄ-. •« 


A'lniiiillr nurnufoj:. p:^V^r^.(^' 



Foiins in utero, from a Twelfth- Century MS Codex No. 1653, i^' 
THE Royal Library, Copenhagen (after Weixdler) 

1/ irn^ 


• •'»1' 

.4 «tlCi»- • 

i: "' 

. , ^ .i^»*!»" 

Foetus in itkro after Leonardo da Vinci, i 510 a.D. 



Leonardo da Vinci illustrated the fetus in its natural position from direct 
personal observation. 

Not until Smellie (1754) and William Hunter (1774) published their 
monumental volumes do we actually find illustrations of the foetus in 
utero which were really observed and faultlessly reproduced from an 
anatomic point of view. 




The difRculty encountered on examining an eye anatomically in 
earlier times probably led every auditor to form his own conception of 
that which was orally presented to him. These concepts must naturally 

Schematic Eye on the Back of One of the Pages of a Fourteenth-Century MS 
IN THE British Museum (Sloane MS 420) 

have been very unequal and thus drawings were made for teaching 
purposes, some of which have been preserved. 

Sudhoff's investigations commence with an anonymous Anatomia 
oculi on the back page of a thirteenth-century MS in the Sloane collec- 
tion of the British Museum (420). The eyeball and its tunics is shown 
to be made up of circles and divided perpendicularly by two straight lines 
into an anterior (left) and a posterior (right) half. Below the figure at the 
left, appears Pars oaili exterior; at the right, pa^s oculi interior. The 
innermost circle, which is not divided, is inscribed humor cristallinus 
and the inscriptions from within outward in the hemispheres surround- 
ing this, are for the anterior half {pars exterior) as follows : tunica aranea, 

'Sudhoff: Tradition und Naturbeobachlung, Leipzig, 1907, pp. 21-26. 



humor albugineus, tunica vuea (uvea), tunica cornea, and tunica con- 
junctiva. The tunica conjunctiva has been drawn like a periscopic lens 
which gradually thins out toward the poles of the eyeball, an idea which 
probably originated from a misunderstood drawing of the cornea. The 
posterior half is inscribed, reading from within outward, as follows: 
humor vitreus, Rethina, Secundina, Tunica sclerotica. From the upper 
and lower folds of the eyeball two straight lines lead to the right {pars 
posterior) and intersect at an acute angle (the limits of the orbit ?) , and 
at their point of intersection is written Hie langet cerebrum; that is, the 
place of entering the brain. From the equator of the posterior half to 
the point of intersection of the two straight lines is the inscription 
Nervus opticus without any linear limitation. 

In another Sloane MS (981) belonging to the second half of the four- 
teenth century, there is a short text with an illustration pertaining to 

cut '^pc/^f J ''*^«P«|Tn«»J^ 

Schematic Eye in a Fourteenth- Century MS in the British Museum 
(Sloane MS No. 981) 

ophthalmic anatomy. The figure represents a cross-section of the entire 
head in the center of which is an eye surrounded by circles and semi- 
circles like the coats of an onion. Here, as in the diagram above, the 



circles are divided by a perpendicular line into an anterior and posterior 
part, with the same inscriptions as in the foregoing. Behind the posterior 
part is a moon-shaped sector marked Cerebrum, surrounded by three 
semicircular segments inscribed with the names of the coverings of the 

The Vatican Library at Rome possesses the Codex Urbinus (246), 
a MS written in the second half of the fourteenth century or the beginning 
of the fifteenth, including among its contents the anatomy of Mundinus. 
Where the structure of the eye is discussed, a later owner drew, on the 
margin of the page, a diagram of the arrangement of the coats of the eye 
in the manner already described and with the same inscriptions within 
the circles. 

Chronologically following the preceding pictures is one in the Leipzig 
codex (1183) ascribed to the first half of the fifteenth century. Sudhoff 

t ♦ 

^^^PfY^ ' 

Schematic Eye, from a MS of the First Half of the Fifteenth Century 
(Codex Leipzig No. 1183) 

does not agree with Hirschberg of BerHn that this diagram should be 
ascribed to the Spanish-Arabian ophthalmologist Alcoati. This hasty 
pen-and-ink sketch of the fifteenth century upon the margin of a page 


was copied from some unknown source. The evidence is proof of the fact 
that, independent of Arabic tradition, a cross-section of the eyeball 
must have been handed down during the Middle Ages through the 
Occident. He also points out that the placing of the cornea outside 
the conjunctiva is directly contrary to Alcoati. Alcoati did nothing 
original in ophthalmology and surely not in his anatomy. The latter 
originated with the Greeks and from them passed to the Arabs and thence 
to the Occident and to Salerno and other medical schools through many 
different channels, and finally also through the Latin translations from 
the Arabs. The Arabs made no anatomic investigations of their own 
on the eye, just as they made none on any other parts of the body. The 
many religious hindrances made the publication of drawings representing 
parts of the human body absolutely impossible or highly difiicult. But 
even as other diagrams and sketches of organs were made in Alexandria, 
so there can be no doubt whatever that diagrammatic drawings of the 
structure of the eye were there and found their way during the Middle 
Ages to the Orient and Occident. On the other hand, we have no proof 
that all the pictures of the eye which are found in the Latin editions of 
Arabic authors come from Arabic tradition. Sudhoff does not doubt 
that the Arabs possessed Greek diagrams of the eye in graphic form, but 
no MS of any Arabic work during the Islamic zenith contains a drawing 
of the eye. 

During the second half of the thirteenth century, the decline of 
Islam, the Syrian Halifa wrote a treatise on ophthalmology of which two 
MSS are known. The drawing in the Constantinople MS (924) of the 
sixteenth century illustrates the structure of the eye and its connection 
by means of the chiasm with the brain. This picture, before Sudhoff 
used it, had been published several times without text by Hirschberg. 

Another interesting drawing of the eye which also shows a horizontal 
cross-section divided into an anterior and posterior portion by a median 
line, as in the occidental models, is found in an Arabic MS (3008) in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris written in 17 14. This is a very late 
transmission if we consider that the portion on the eye by the Syrian, 
Salah-Ad-din, is said to have been written about the year 1296. The 
drawing was first published by Pansier and later again by Hirschberg, 
but without the anatomic text which Sudhoff gives. It illustrates the 
combination of two cross-sections of the globe perpendicular to one 
another, and plays even today a certain role in the Arabic world according 
to Hirschberg. Sudhoff does not agree with Hirschberg's interpretation 
of the picture, which is of no consequence in this discussion. Whether 

Schematic Eye, from an Arabic MS (No. 3008), in the 




it was the original illustration for Salah-Ad-din's textbook, and as such 
inserted about the year 1296, or whether it was drawn without any 
influence from the Alexandrian or even Byzantine sources, Sudhoff is 
not prepared to say. 

Further researches might establish for these graphic representations 
of the structure of the eye an earlier date than the year 1300, beyond 

Schematic Eye, from a MS (No. 924) in Constantinople (1560 a.d.) 

which none of the present illustrations go. Earlier drawings by Hobeisch 
of the ninth century and by Hammar of the eleventh century have not 
been preserved, as far as recent researches have gone. The assumption 
might also be made that all these drawings found their models in a 
late Alexandrian period which remained alive in the traditions of the 
Orient and Occident far into the fifteenth century, if not longer, and 


which appear to have been not without influence even upon Leonardo 
and VesaHus. (See also, Sudhoff's Archiv, 19 14-15, VIII, 1-2 1.) 

The oldest printed illustration of the structure of the eye is found 
in the Margarita Philosophica by Gregor Reisch, pubHshed by Kaspar 
Schott at Strassburg, on April 17, 1504. The external view of the eye 
on the same page is a revised reproduction by Johannes Peyligk and 
Magnus Hundt. The Freiburg Carthusian monk, Sudhoff says, undoubt- 
edly got his drawing from tradition, as is the case with most of the other 
illustrations in his book. 

With this early accessible model created in the various editions of 
the Margarita Philosophica, it found a place in other works, as for 
instance, Hieronymus Brunschwig's Distilierbuch. Very soon after- 
ward, it is found in many ophthalmic treatises with alterations and 
additions. Independent modifications, however, are first observed in 
a rather similar illustration which Walther Reiff uses in his Anatomi. 
However incomplete the illustration still is, there already appears a 
trace of some independent anatomic observation, some real study of 
nature. Reiff's picture of the eye had a long life and was reproduced 
by Anton Novarinus as late as 1681. 

Individual conception does not come to the surface until the pub- 
lication of the Fabrica humani corporis by Andreas VesaHus in 1543. 
His drawing is not wholly true to nature, especially as regards the crystal- 
hne lens. VesaHus could not free himself from the tradition that the 
crystalline lens had its seat in the center of the eye, a fact that he par- 
ticularly illustrates in several detailed drawings. 

In some respects, it must be admitted that Leonardo da Vinci had 
already, through his own individual observations, come nearer the 
truth than all his predecessors and all his successors up to the time of 
VesaHus. He not only treats of the anatomy of the eye, but also con- 
siders it from the viewpoint of optics. 


The creation of the t3^e of bloodletting manikin {Aderlassmann) 
arose from a decidedly anatomic and surgical need, and the picture 
therefore preserves its original purpose, or goes back to its fundamental 

' Sudhoff: op. cit., 29-48. Many other bloodletting manikins have been given in Sudhoff's 
Beiträge zur Geschichte der Chirurgiein Mittelalter, Leipzig,igi4, 6'j-ig7,'P\ates XLII-LVIII, 
but the translator has refrained from using these, as being new copyrighted material, adding 
little to the main tendency of Professor Sudhoff's earlier investigation. 


j,l.> j:^ '. 'v j.^j JvjU- A/ Jl.' ' 


Schematic Eye, from a Persian MS (1690 a.d.) 


principle, when it passes later in its transition into zodiac-manikins, with 
a schema of the male viscera. The early drawings of bloodletting mani- 
kins frequently showed the abdomen and thoracic cavities opened in 
order to render more strikingly and without words the best sites for 
venesection under the signs of the zodiac, and their relation to the most 
important internal organs. These were indicated by lines running from 
the zodiacal signs at the side of the drawing. In this manner the blood- 
letting picture served not only its purpose of instruction in venesection 
but also, with only a slight deviation from its purpose, questions relating 
to the location of the male viscera. The bloodletting manikin also 
monopolized and satisfied for a long time, and up to the end of the 
fifteenth century, the anatomic needs of physicians and surgeons. In a 
similar manner originated later the wound manikin (Wundenmann), 
whose body is mauled and pierced by stones, arrows, swords, and spears, 
the points of incision, or lesion, showing the sites for ligation of the differ- 
ent arteries, or for bloodletting. 

Much earlier the bloodletting figure illustrated graphically with the 
schemata of the viscera, the planetary influence of the twelve sections 
of the zodiac upon the human body {Tierkreiszeichenmann), and the 
most favorable localities for applying treatment. At first, the names of 
the zodiacal diagrams were written at or on the corresponding parts of 
the body as convenient aids for the memory. Later, however, the 
zodiacal signs were actually printed or drawn upon the manikin, or 
around the figure, with a separate line leading to the part of the body 
governed by the sign. Sudhoff regards the Etruscan donaria as the 
prototype of the zodiac-manikin, of which he gives a thirteenth-century 
specimen in colors in his Syphilis Album (191 2, pi. 3); another is found 
in a fifteenth-century Greek MS in Paris. 

A figure which very exactly designates places for bloodletting, giving 
the complete customary names of the vessels to be opened, originated in 
1432. It consists of a colored pen-drawing found in a Latin Munich 
MS (5595). A rather careless drawing of an early picture was engraved 
in 1 49 1 and published in a popular little book with rhymed rules for 
hygienic living, viz., Heinrich Louffenberg's Versehung des Leibs. 

The bloodletting figure of de Ketham constitutes a serious, scientific, 
and artistic piece of work that does not, in every single word, follow 
rigidly traditional lines but rather adopts the best from earlier authors. 
The figure was further developed and used for the first time in the ninth 
Venice edition (1507) of the Articella, and in all the later ones. The 
first edition appeared in 1480 and the work ran through fifteen editions. 


In a pen-drawing by Wolfenbüttel, representing the figure with the' 
signs of the zodiac, the names of the signs are written across the body 
and the various regions separated by horizontal lines. More frequently 
the astrologic dependence is strikingly illustrated by the pictures of the 
signs drawn directly upon the corresponding parts of the body. In 
the Augsburg woodcut of the Versehung des Leibs, 1491, the twins ride 
the arms of the zodiac figure. 

In the rather crudely drawn male figure with the signs of the zodiac 
in de Ketham, the signs are drawn on the body, and little plates contain 
the most concise information as to what month each sign of the zodiac 
corresponds, and what part of the body is governed by it. 

In the fifteenth century it was customary to remove the pictures of 
the signs to a distance from the body of the illustrated manikin. This 
was done so that the artist could illustrate at the same time the more 
important internal organs and involuntarily, or intentionally, he came to 
make anatomic illustrations of the viscera in situ. Thus the bloodletting 
manikin became the early model for the anatomic picture. 

Rarely were these signs dropped altogether and we meet with illus- 
trations showing visceral locations in a figure standing in the traditional 
position. Such a woodcut of some anatomic interest was printed at 
Haarlem in 1485 in a Low German translation of De proprietatihus rerum 
of Bartholomaeus Anglicus. Standing in front of a walled garden is the 
figure of a man with the abdominal cavity opened and a very diagram- 
matic representation of the viscera. Within the garden, the figure of 
Eve appears before the Lord, emerging from the side of the sleeping 
Adam. Although the abdomen is not opened widely, it shows all the 
viscera which could have interested the phlebotomist. 

One of the early illustrations with the signs of the zodiac and dissected 
abdominal organs is found in the Basel edition of 1504 of Reisch's 
Margarita Philosophica. 

The dissected phlebotomy manikin with the zodiacal signs in Martinus 
Flach's edition of Mundinus' Anathomia, published at Strassburg in 
1 5 13, comes without question within the scope of the visceral schema 
whose model was the early bloodletting manikin. 

The simultaneous occurrence on the same plate of the signs of the 
zodiac and the situs viscerum, brings out unmistakably the close connec- 
tion between the zodiac and the bloodletting regions. Thus the zodiac 
manikin was the indispensable complement of the bloodletting manikin. 

A sketch of a kind of bloodletting figure by Leonardo da Vinci shows 
to what clarity his artistic mind had advanced as regards his conception 

Gravida, FROxVi A Miniature Painted about 1400 a.d. in a Leipzig MS 

Codex 1122 

(From Sudhofl, Tradition und Naturbeobachtung. Leipzig, 1907, Plate XX) 


t- - ■'^" 


















Gravida, from Copenhagen MS, before 1450, Cod. Ny. Kgl. Saml. 84Ö, Verso Page 4 

(By courtesy of Professor Karl Sudhofif) 

\ r 

, --..%, ji *y-- 

''-C- - V 

i .t^Je^%^ 


<.ira.iuii. iKWAi CüPEXHAGEN MS, .\ i . ivi.i.. o.vAiu. 041/. i'AGE 2 (t7>ta I5I0 -v 
(By courtesy of Professor Karl Sudhofif) 

^*^„J^-Äi^J52^---':^ TJ^-^'i. • 

Female viscera in situ bv Lkonakuu ua \inli, 1510A.D. 


of the localization of the circulatory organs in the thoracic and abdominal 
cavities. The sketch is in the traditional posture and drawn upon the 
surface of the skin is the topographical anatomy of the circulatory 
apparatus with the liver, spleen, kidneys, and bladder, the "blood-vessel 
tree," as he himself had written alongside of the picture. 

ABOUT 1400-1543' 

In this series, Sudhoff bases his discussion on a drawing in the Leipzig 
Codex 1 1 22 (circa 1400), from a gravida in Codex germ. Monacensis 597 
(1485),^ and from two pictures in a Copenhagen series, here published. 

It represents a nude female figure, without a suggestion of the external 
genitals, in a slightly squatting position, with the legs spread apart to 
show the vagina. The arms are raised and slightly bent at the elbows. 
The uterus is the crude bottle-shaped type of the twelfth and thirteenth 
and earlier centuries. The top of the head is, covered with a headdress 
gathered in front with a ribbon, and with long tresses hanging down on 
both sides of the face. Drawn upon the thorax and abdomen of this 
undissected figure are the trachea and oesophagus, the heart inclosed by 
the lungs, the bottle-shaped stomach drawn in at the bottom, a lobeless 
liver with gall bladder, intestinal convolutions, at the left and right far to 
the side the kidneys, and directly in the middle line of the abdomen the 
pregnant bottle-shaped uterus, opening directly into the vagina. All 
these configurations are schematic in character, excepting the five or 
six months' old fetus which is in a standing posture, in a foot presentation, 
with the legs slightly bent and the hands covering the eyes. Although 
worthless anatomically, it is of immeasurable value as a missing link for 
the oldest typographic representation of the gravida, viz., the female 
situs viscerum picture in the edition of 149 1 of the Fasciculus medicinae 
by de Ketham. The conformity between this Leipzig drawing and 
de Ketham's woodcut is nearly perfect as regards the position, headgear, 
and drawing of the viscera. Although there are slight differences in the 
other details enumerated in the MS drawing, nevertheless Sudhoff reasons 
that the artist for de Ketham's work, or his publishers — the brothers 
Gregorii, must have used a model similar to this one, as more of the 
pictures must have existed. 

Another link in the series was found in a fugitive MS sheet, owned by 
Professor Gustav Klein, of Munich, probably about half a century later 

' Sudhoff: op. cit., 79-90. 

' Sudhoff's Archiv, Leipzig, 1907-8, I, pi. 4. 


than the Leipzig picture. This group of two MS drawings and de 
Ketham's woodcut is very instructive in every respect. The headdresses 
of the two MS pictures resemble each other more closely than that on 
the de Ketham woodcut, while, on the other hand, the viscera on the 
de Ketham picture and the Leipzig MS approach each other. On the 
whole, without going into more minute details, the documents pertaining 
to this particular branch of anatomy resemble one another so closely that 
a common model must have existed in antiquity and come down through 
the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. 

In the first Italian edition (1493) of de Ketham's Fasciculus, pub- 
lished by the brothers Gregorii, we have the first autoptic representation 
of the female viscera in a woodcut engraving, including the portio vagi- 
nalis. In the Latin, Ketham of 1495, the vagina is split by a frontal 
section, showing the cervix with the abdominal cavity emptied, to 
demonstrate the impregnated uterus and adnexa, with the kidneys 
in situ. 

Sudhoff brought to light, in 1907, an interesting connection between 
the printed copies of de Ketham and his MS sources, probably derived 
from earlier MSS in French, German, and Italian. In a Latin MS 
{circa 1400 A.D.) in the Bibliotheque Nationale there was found a complete 
series of the Ketham pictures of 1491, and much of the text in the 
Fasciculus. The drawings and the text of the Paris MS are not assembled 
as in the de Ketham of 1491, but the text is identical in places and the 
printed figures are evidently copies of the MS sketches. Sudhoff believes 
that a Johannes de Ketham collected the text and drawings about a 
century before 149 1, and that, when printed for the first time in 149 1, 
they bore his name. Of this, however, there is no definite information. 

This drawing of the position of the female viscera, but without 
improvement, was used in 1525 in Ein gut artzney die hienoch steet, and 
again by Reiff in 1541. 

Leonardo's great pictures of the female viscera have been preserved 
in a schematic outline drawing and in another of more finished character. 
Sudhoff infers that this finished drawing was designed for publication, 
and the outline drawing, as in modern custom, was to have been used for 
naming the various organs. This illustration again shows a notable 
fidelity to nature in its higher form. 

Minds of great originality and independence were rare at this time, 
but in the woodcut in Vesalius' Fabrica pertaining to the anatomy of the 
female, an absolute personal observation of nature is Hkewise shown in 
every line. No other picture of Vesalius, however, approaches da Vinci's 





tulaona \ c« »oir^t«!« WX 

fitoo" DiAnitif tn Inft 
&rtp(iearail(s or TOptA 
qiamuurrr« mites (oa 
pm ft batstf oe><i( (Do 
IKT {onapcf ToUflvidof 
ncnuni (U 1111110:04 nl 
mie nn nimie nui nn fit 
uuH IK t nimie (hguM lif 
giutiote n« habodldrt 
(asuinne 1 nnrUinmia 
son ctipM uHipcnc . 


' inoipbfi piun« n friguia (i t(! 

I A I • ' 4 

Schemata of the Female viscera in situ, from Ketham's Fasciculus medicinae, 
Venice, 149 i a.d. (after Wieger) 



Female Viscera in situ, from Vesalius, 1543 a.d. 


drawings so closely as this one, but no one ought seriously to believe 
that it was borrowed or plagiarized, as his own achievement was so 
tremendous and limitless. 

" The practice of plagiarism was widespread during this period. Pub- 
lishers and authors engaged in it in a wholesale way; both sketches and 
text were commonly copied without credit being given. The ethics 
of the rights of intellectual property were unrecognized. Now and then 
a touch of original observation was added to the traditional figures, but 
they were not perfected. Dependence on authority was still the deep- 
seated method of the intellectual life, and the rise of independent observa- 
tion was slow. But, the better intellects were opposing it, and with all 
these limitations the light of the Renaissance was breaking. Dependence 
on authority was giving way, and, finally, thanks to the work of his 
predecessors, Vesalius was able to establish a new method based on 
observation and reason. With the publication of his Fabrica in 1543, 
there was ushered in the era of good illustrations of anatomy. The pre- 
vailing mental habit of the time was now at least partly overcome, and 
the era of independent observation was started."' 

'Locy (William A.): "Anatomical Illustrations heloTeVesalius" Journal of Morphology, 
XXII, 4 (December, 1911). 


Mondino de' Luzzi, Mondini, Mundinus, Mundinus de Lentiis, the 
son of a pharmacist (speziale) at Bologna, later anatomist and professor 
at Bologna, has been recognized as the founder of anatomy in the Middle 
Ages, since he wrote for his students, in 131 6, an anatomic compendium 
which remained famous until the beginning of the sixteenth century. 
In the introduction to the book, he says, proposui meis scholaribus in 
medicina quoddam opus componere, "I have proposed to compose a work 
in medicine for my scholars." He himself dissected two female bodies 
in 13 1 5, as discussed in the chapter de vasis spermatis. He is said to 
have died in 13 18. 

[This compendium was without illustrations, at least nowhere does 
the text refer to any. It met a need universally felt just at that time 
and commended itself for its brevity, conciseness, and completeness, as 
well as for the fact that it taught for each separate organ the necessary 
anatomic technique, as, for example, in the first chapter: Situato itaque 
corpore vel homine mortuo per decollalionem vel suspensionem supino, etc., 
"accordingly, laying out the body of a man dead by decapitation or 
hanging, etc." 

Regarding the texture of the tissues he says: 

De partibus autem licet sint duplices consintiiles videlicet et compositae, de 
simplicibus non ponam distinctam anothomiam, quia earum anothomia non perfecte 
appareat in corpore deciso sed magis liquefacto in gurgitibus aquarum. Sed ponendo 
anothomiam membrorum organicorum de consimilibus loquar secundum quod 
consimile aliquod in aliquo membro organico dominatur: ut de came in anothomia 
coxae, de ossibus in anothomia dorsi et pedum et de anothomia neruorum in anothomia 
cerebri et nuchae. 

"As regards the parts, even though they are of two sorts, simple, of course, and 
composite, I will not set forth a separate anatomy of the simple ones, since the 
anatomy of these does not completely appear in the case of an ordinary cadaver, 
but in the case of a body dissolved in an abundance of water. But in setting forth 
the anatomy of the organic members, I will speak also of the related parts according 
as each particular part is dominant in the particular organ under discussion. For 
example, I will speak of the flesh in the anatomy of the hip, of the bones in the 
anatomy of the back and feet, and of the anatomy of the nerves in the structure of 
the cerebrum and back of the neck." 

After a general introduction dealing with the differences between 
the human and the animal body and their division, a description of the 



diflferent organs is given in the following order: (i) abdominal cavity 
{venter inferior), abdominal muscles, peritoneum, omentum, digestive 
organs, urinary and sexual organs; (2) thoracic cavity {medius venter), 
the breasts, bones and muscles of the thorax, pleura and diaphragm, 
heart, lungs, organs of the throat and mouth; (3) head {venter superior), 
skull, the brain and its cortex, eye, ear; (4) bones, spinal column, extrem- 

ities, the latter with the muscles. This division into Membra genitalia, 
naturalia, spiritualia, animata, which continued in use up to the seven- 
teenth century, and the custom of the anatomic textbooks of that time 
of beginning the order with the abdominal cavity were due to the scarcity 
of cadavers, which necessitated care in spreading the dissection over 
several days {Lectiones). During the first lessons, the abdomen and the 
viscera were demonstrated, Mondino says, quia prima ilia membra 
fetida sunt et idea ut primitus abiiciantur ab eis incipiendum est. "Since, 
to begin with, these members are fetid, and on this account we should 


make a start with them, in order that we may be able to throw them 
away as soon as possible"; in the second, the thorax and its organs 
(Membra spiritualia, lungs and heart) ; in the third, the head and its 
contents with the sense organs {Membra animata), and in the fourth, 
the extremities, muscles, and bones. Most of the older anatomic com- 
pendia, therefore, finish up with osteology. The famous French surgeon 
Guy de ChauHac, in the fourteenth century, gives the same account: 
Et ipsam (anatomiam) administravit multoties magister mens Bertrucius 
in hunc modum, collocalo corpore mortuo in banco (in other sections 
scamno) faciebat de ipso quatuor lectiones. In prima tractabantur membra 
nutritoria, quia citius putrent, ''And my own teacher, Bertrucius, many 
times conducted an anatomy lesson in this fashion. Placing the dead 
body on a bench he would give four lectures about it. In the first, 
would be treated the digestive tract, because these parts rot more 
quickly," iti secunda membra spiritualia (respiratory system and heart), 
in tertia membra animata (brain and senses), in quarta extremitates, a 
very expedient method (considering the economic use that had to be 
made of cadavers rarely obtainable), yet rashly derived in Joseph 
Hyrtl's Antiquitates anatomicae rariores, Vienna, 1835, 8°, page 45, and 
utterly misunderstood in Burggraeve's Rtudes sur Vesale, Ghent, 1841, 
S°, page 12. 

Everywhere in this compendium the author's own anatomic activity 
with human and animal cadavers is in evidence. He himself speaks 
repeatedly of this work, as for instance in the beginning: 

Vobis cognitionem partium corporis humani quae ex anothomia insurgit proposui 
tradere, non hie obseruans stilum altum sed magis secundum manualem operationem 
vobis tradam noticiam; 

"I have made it my purpose to give to you that acquaintance with the parts of 
the human body which arises from the study of anatomy. In this work I shall not 
strive for a lofty diction, but will rather acquaint you with the results of a dissection." 

And further on in cap. de anothomia matricis: 

Et propter istas quatuor causas mulier quam anothomizaui anno preterito 
scilicet 13 1 5 anno christi de mense ianuarij maiorem in duplo habebat matricem 
quam ilia quam anothomizaui eodem anno de mense marcij: potuit esse quinta 
causa: quam ibi ponit Auicenna, scilicet quia prima erat menstruata: et in tempore 
menstruationis impinquatur et ingrossatur matrix. Diuersificatur etiam matrix 
in quantitate ratione generis quoniam matrix plurium generatiui animalis maior est 
quam matrix unius generatiui, et propterea maior centies erat matrix porce, quam 
anothomizaui 13 16 quam nunquam viderim in femina humana; potuit tamen alia 
esse causa, quod erat praegnans et in utero habebat 13 porceUos et in ea monstravi 
anothomiam fetus siue pregnantis, etc. 


"And for these four reasons the woman that I dissected last year, that is, in 
January in the year of our Lord 13 15, had a uterus twice as large as the woman that 
I dissected in the same year in the month of March. There might have been a fifth 
reason, the one that Avicenna posits in this connection, i.e., because the first of these 
women had menstruated, and during the period of menstruation the uterus becomes 
engorged and is enlarged. Then, too, the uterus varies in size by reason of reproduc- 
tion, since the uterus of an animal that has borne several young is larger than the 
uterus of the mother of one, and for this reason the uterus of a sow that I dissected 
in the year 13 16 was a hundred times greater than I have ever seen in the female of 
the human species. Still, there may also have been another reason, because the 
animal was pregnant and was carrying in her uterus thirteen little pigs, and in the 
case of this animal I demonstrated the anatomy of the gravid or pregnant female." 

This in itself shows the year 13 16 as the date of the writing of the 
book and, at the same time, that Mundinus dissected, in 13 16, a pregnant 
sow and, in 13 15, two human female cadavers, the first one of which had 

The nomenclature is partly Arabic and partly Arabist: Mirach = 
abdominal muscles as a whole, ^«/'//ac//^ peritoneum. Mm = oesophagus. 
Venae guidech = jugulsir vein. Vena chilis (from xotXtr/s) = inferior vena 
cava, Caib = OS calcis; other names are in Latin, but differ frequently 
from the nomenclature of the present, as, for instance, Pomum grana- 
/ww = ensiform process, EpigloUus = \diTynx, Secundina and Aranea = 
chorioid and hyaloid of the eye, Zirbus = omentum, Monoculus = coecum, 
Pörtowanww = pylorus, Os /aw Je = occipital portion of the occipital bone, 
Os hasilare = body of the occipital bone with the sphenoid and the petrous 
portion of the temporal bone, Os adjutorium =, Os femoris = 
each innominate bone of the pelvis, Canna coxae = femur, Focilia = the 
two bones of the forearm and the leg, Rascetae = carpus and tarsus, 
Spalula = scsipula., Furcula = sternum and clavicle, Pec^ew = metacarpus 
and metatarsus, Pars silvestris = extensor surface. Pars domestica = 
flexor surface. Much attention has been given to zootomy, physiology, 
pathology, and operative surgery. 

There are a great many different editions, some of them with illustra- 
tions, although the original text had none. It is hardly possible to 
enumerate all of them; only a few of the older and more authentic 
editions are therefore given.^ 

' Besides the 31 editions cited by Choulant, the following list contains 18 not given or 
unknown to him: 

Lipsiae, 1493, 4°, Martin Landsberg, Panzer, I, 480, 63; Hain, 11637. 

Lipsiae, 1505, 4°, Panzer, VII, 497, 17. 

Venetiis, 1507, fol., Haller. 

Papiae, 1507, J. de Paucisdrapis, Stockton-Hough, Bibliotheca Medica. 

Venetiis, 1508, 8°, italice, Haller. 

[Footnote continued on Page o 2. ) 


1. Pavia, 1428, fol., published by Antonio de Carchano, December 19. 
Title: Anothomia Mundini praestantissimorum doctorum almi studii 

Ticiensis {Ticinensis) cura diligentissime emendata: impressa Papiae 
per magislrum Antonium etc. regnante Johanne Galeaz illustrissimo 
Insubrium duce sexto. (Panzer: Annal. typogr., II, 246, 8; Hain- 
Copinger 11634. Proctor 7051.) 

2. Bologna, 1482, foL, published by Johannes von NoerdUngen and 
Henrich von Haarlem, January 20. 

Page I a (Signature a i) : Incipit anathomia / Mundini. / ( ) Uia 
dixit I Gal. etc. colophon page 19 b: Hec Anothomia fuit emendata ab 
Exi I mio artium: et medicine doctor e. d. Magistro / Petro Andrea morsiano 
de Ymola in almo / studio Bononie cyrurgiam legente coadiuuanti / bus 
Mgro Johanne Jacobo caraia de buxelo / Et mgro Afithonio Frascaria 
Januensi cy / rurgie studentibus. Impressum per Johannem de / / noerd- 
lingen. Et henricum de hartem socios. / Anno dni. M. cccc. Ixxxij. Mense 
Ja- I nuarij die. xx°. Gothic t3^e in 2 columns, with signatures, 45 
lines, 19 pages, without illustrations, (Panzer: Ann., I, 214, 73; Hain 

3. Padua, 1484, 4°, published by Matthäus Cerdonis de Windisch- 

Page I a: Incipit anothomia Mundini. / (Q) Uia ut ait G. etc. 
colophon page 34 a: Hie modus imponitur anathomie Mundini: que 
non I paucis in locis emendata juit per excellentissimum artis et / medicine 
doctorem magistrum Hyeronimum de Ma- / feis de Verona impressaque 
per magistrum Mattheum cerdo- / nis de Uuindiechgretz Padue: Anno 
dni 1484. Gothic type without signatures, catchwords, and pagination ; 
illuminated initials, 34 Hnes, 34 pages. (Panzer: Ann., II, 375, 72; 
Hain, *ii6j6; Proctor; 6818.) 

[Footnote continued from page qi.] 

Argentorati, 1509, fol., Haller. 
Venetiis, 1512, 4°, Haeser. 

Bononiae, 1514, 4°, Justinianum Rubericum, Panzer, VI, 327, 70. 
Rostochii, 1514, fol.. Panzer, VIII, 280, 4. 
Venetiis, 1521, 4°, Haeser. 

Bononiae, 1522, 4° [George Jackson Fisher, Annals of Anat. and Surg., Brookl)^!, N.Y., 

Lugduni, 1525, 8°, Haller. 

Lugduni, 1527, 24°, Haller. 

Lugduni, 1528, 8°, Haller. 

Lugduni, 1529, 12°, Haller. 

Venetiis, 1538, 12°, Haller. 

Lugduni, 1551, 12°, in Matteo Corti, Haller. 

Venetiis, 1580, 12°, Haeser. 


4. s. I. et a., 4°. Leipzig, published by Martin Landsberg. 

Page I a: Woodcut covering the page: on a chair a man is sitting 
with coat and high cap, in his left hand an open book, on the left side of 
the picture a rock and six linden trees, below, on a table, a dissected 
cadaver, beside its left foot lies a curved knife, to the right of the cadaver 
stands a young man in a short garment, bare-headed and with long curls, 
grasping the intestines of the cadaver with both hands; to the left at 
the top of the picture the following is printed in type: Anothomia 
Mun I dini Emendata per / doctor em meter stat; page ib: 24 verses: 
Est opere pretium — bona cuncta serit, below them Martinus mellerstat 
medicus; page 2a: Incipit Anothomia Mundini / () Via ut ait. G. etc., 
concluded on page 39a; page 39b: Sequitur additio domini gentilis / de 
fulgineo que est reprohatio alt / quorum dictorum Mundini in ano / thomia 
prescripta, concluded on page 40a with 4 verses: Hie labor expirat — 
in arte Vale. ; page 40b blank. Gothic type in projecting lines, signa- 
tures A * E, 34 Unes, 40 unnumbered pages. This edition is also given 
thus: Lips, i^pj and ijoj in 4°, probably an impression by Martin 
Landsberg of Würzburg, who printed at Leipzig from 1490 to 151 2. 
Martin Pollich of Melierstadt was professor at Leipzig until 1502; from 
then on he was professor in Wittenberg where he brought about the 
founding of the university. He died December 27, 1513. (Bibl. Rivin. 
2319; Panzer: Ann., I, 480, 502; IV, 345, 342; Hain-Copinger 11633; 
Proctor 2994.) 

5. Venice 1494, 4°, published by Bernardinus (de Vitalibus), 
February 20. Gothic type. 

Colophon: Venetiis per Bernardinum Venetum, expensis Hieronymi 
Duranti. Mcccc. 94. die 20. Febr. (according to Panzer: Ann., Ill, 
362 (1850); Hain: 11638, neither saw it). Hieronymus de Durantis 
lived in Venice in 1493-94, Bernardinus de Vitalibus from 1494 to 1507. 

6. Venice 1498, 4to, published by Johannes and Gregorius de Gregoriis, 

Title: Anatomia Mundini emendata a Petro Morisono de Imola 
impressa per J oh. et Greg, de Gregoriis, according to Panzer: Ann., 1, 
214, 73; Hain 11639, both relying on Boerner: Noctes Guelphicae, 
page 177, who claims to have seen the edition in the Rathsbibliothek in 
Leipzig. Nevertheless, it is probably a new edition of number 2 (Bologna 
1482) and the name Morisonus is only an error for Morsianus.^ 

The woodcuts are better than Hundt's (page 38) according to Boerner; 
they seem therefore to be anatomic prints. Haller: Bibl. anat., I, 146, 

' This paragraph ends original. 


says of this edition : cum malts figuris, "with poor figures." In Morsianus ' 
edition, which appeared in 1482, in Bologna, and which Hain (11635) 
himself had seen, there were no pictures. There were also none in the 
edition which was included in Ketham's Fasciculus medicinae Venet., 
1495, although the publishers were also the Gregorii, known as active 
promoters of the woodcut in Italy. 

7. Pavia, 1512, 4°, pubHshed by Jacobus de Burgofranco. 

With a woodcut illustration of the saints Cosmas and Damianus; 
cf. von Rumohr: Geschichte und Theorie der Formschneidekunst, p. 57. 
Panzer: Ann., VII, 497, 17. 

8. Strassburg, 151 3, 4°, published by Martin Flach. 

Title: Mundinus j De omnibus humani corporis / interioribus mem- 
bris I Anathomia. On the back of the title-page: Joannes Adolphus 
Physicus Egregio Leonardo Apothecario, Medico expertissimo, apud 
Basileam etc. Desideraverunt plerigue medicinarum alumni, ut Mundinus 
ipse physicus preclarissimus, quern omnis studentium vniuersitas, colit 
ac veneratur vt deu?n, tandem emendatus in lucent venial etc. — Vale: 
Ex Argentina ipso die beatorum martirum testium christi etc. Anno 
etc. Millesimo quingentesitno Tredecimo; These martyrs are neither 
named, nor represented; they are probably the saints and physicians 
Cosmas and Damianus of the above-mentioned edition, after which 
this edition may have been printed. The text begins on page 2a: 
Ijicipit anatho / mia Mundini, and concludes on page 38b. It is followed 
by the enumeration of the bones, muscles, and nerves. Page 40a: 
Impressit Argentine Martinus Flach / Anno domini. M. D. xiij. Gothic 
type with signatures A-K: 40 unnumbered pages. The editor 
Adelphus gave an Additio to some passages in the text. One of these 
(Sign. Fiiijb) is accompanied by a small woodcut printed in the text 
with reversed letters, and representing the heart, particularly the 
Ventriculus medius which was thought to be between the two halves 
of the heart, and the orifices of the coronary vessels. The cut does not 
belong to Mundinus' text. A woodcut representing a man with dis- 
sected thoracic and abdominal cavities and a narrow band over his geni- 
tals tied at his left hip, is in some copies of. this edition on the title-page, 
in others below the colophon, and in others at both places. Surrounding 
the man are twelve medaUions with the signs of the zodiac from which 
lines are drawn to the organs of the body ruled by them. There is no 
lettering either on or around the plate. This illustration appeared also 
as a fugitive anatomic plate with German verses printed all around the 
plate. A reversed copy of the plate appeared with the figures of the 


signs of the zodiac changed and these words engraved on the plate by 
the side of each sign: Bos, Gut, Mittel. Panzer: Ann., VI, 58, 273. 

9. a [Geneva], 151g, 4°, December 20. 

Title: Anathomia Mundini. / En lector libellum Mundini quem de 
parti- 1 bus humani corporis inscripsit ah omni er / rore mendaque alienum: 
nee non cum an- / notationibus in margins positis et / locis vtilioribus Aris. 
Aui. Ga. ce / terorumque medicorum uhi quod / auctor dicit clarius locis / 
allegatis videre pote- / ris. Addita est nu- / per rime tabula an / notationum 
ac I particularum / totius li- / belli. Page ib: a woodcut, a reduced 
reproduction of the dissection from Ketham's Fasciculus medicinae, 
from the inferior plate with a few changes: the platform is decorated 
differently, the window to the right is without casements, to the left 
are only two persons, to the right only three, and everything is more 
crosshatched than on Ketham's plate. The text begins on page 2a, 
and concludes on page 23b: Explicit anathomia Mundini. / Impressum 
Geben. Anno domini. M. ccccc. et. xix. / die vero vigesima mensis decembris. 
Page 24 contains an index to the chapters, at the end: Finis tahule. 
Gothic type, sign, a-f, no catchword, 49 lines, 24 unnumbered pages. 
This print is mentioned nowhere and is in the possession of the Univer- 
sity Library in Leipzig. It is probably a reprint of Mundinus' text in 
Ketham with the addition of marginalia containing mostly quotations 
and indexes. 

10. Marburg, 1541, 4°, pubKshed by Christian Egenolph. 

Title: Anatomia Mundini, ad vetustissimorum, eorundemque aliquot 
manu scriptorum, codicum fidem collata, iustoque suo ordini restituta. 
Per Johannem Dryandrum Medicum professorem Marpurgensem. Mar- 
pur gi, in offic. Christiani Egenolphi. At the end of 1541; with 46 

11. Pavia, 1550, 8°, published by Camillo Borio. 

Contains a commentary by Matteo Corti (Curtius) consisting of 
four hundred pages. Cf . Giuseppe Cervetto : Di alouni illustri anatomici, 
Verona, 1842, 8°, page 7; Haller: Bibl. anat., I, 170. 

Besides these, ]Mundinus' text appeared in the following: 

aY in Ke.tham's Fasciculus medicinae, Venet. 1495, fol., ij Octob.; 
ibid. 1500, fol., ly Febr.; ibid. 1500, fol., 28 Mart.; ibid. 1513, fol., 
10 Febr.; ibid. 1522, fol., ji Mart., after the revision which Petrus 
Andreas Morsianus of Imola prepared in Bologna for the edition of the 
students, Johann Jacob Cararia (Caraia) de Buxeto and Frascaria of 
Genoa. In the oldest edition of Ketham, Venet. 1491, fol., 26 Julii. 

' Boemer: Noctes Guelphicae, p. 177. 


Mundinus' text is missing, and with it the illustration of the dissection 
belonging to the text. No other illustrations, besides this one, accom- 
panied Mundinus' writings in Ketham's compilation. The edition 
Venet. 1522 has annotations by Alessandro Achillini. 

hy in Jac. Berengarii de Carpi: Commentaria super anatomia Mun- 
dini, Bonon. 1521, 4°, prid. non. Mart., distributed in chapters over a 
very extensive commentary, and as promised in the title: in pristinum 
et verum nitorem redactus. Twenty-one illustrations are here inserted 
by Berengarius to accompany Mundinus. 

cY translated into Italian in Fasdculo de medicina vulgarizato per 
Sehastiano Manilio Romano, Venez. i4gj,fol., 5 Febr., an Italian trans- 
lation of Ketham's compilation. Mundinus is completely translated, 
the text begins with sign, f iii, and the dissection from the older and 
better plate, which was probably used here for the first time, is also 

' Boerner: Noctes Guelphicae, p. 177. 'Ibid. 


Marc' Antonio della Torre, Marcus Antonius Turrianus, of Verona, 
an anatomist, came from a distinguished Lombardian family alleged 
to have been of princely descent. His father, Girolano, taught 
medicine at a very early age at Padua, about 1442, then in Ferrara, 
and again in Padua after 1487, and died in the month of February, 1505. 
Of his four sons, Giulio chose jurisprudence. Marc' Antonio, medicine, 
Giambattista, astronomy, and Raimondo, belles lettres. All won fame 
in their respective caUings. 

Marc' Antonio was born about 1473, ^.nd took his doctorate degree 
in medicine and the liberal arts at Padua. About 1501, he lectured 
there on theoretical medicine, and was soon made professor in ordinary. 
His fame won him a call to Pavia to establish there a school of anatomy. 
There he directed attention to anatomic errors, especially of the newer 
anatomists such as Mundinus, Zerbi, and others, and from whose meager 
descriptions he probably called attention to the rich, although likewise 
erroneous, anatomy of Galen. At Pavia he also prepared a great 
anatomic work, the appearance of which, however, he did not live to see. 
In the fall of 1506, he was called to Riva di Trento, on Lake Garda, on 
account of a malicious fever epidemic raging there, and soon after fell 
a victim to the disease. He died there September 22, 1506 (or 151 2), 
at the age of thirty-three, and was later solemnly interred in Verona 
beside his father in the church of San Fermo. His likeness can be 
found in the collections of Reussner and Freher, and also in the work by 
Cervetto mentioned below. It was copied from a painting by Venuti 
and lithographed by Guelmi. 

None of his writings have been preserved. For his illustrations, 
he employed the famous painter Leonardo da Vinci, whose work we 
shall, therefore, mention in another chapter. 

Jovius, Paulus: Elogia vir or urn Uteris illustrium, Basil. 1577, fol. 

Chiocco, Andrea: De collegii Veronensis illustribus medicis et philosophis, V'erona, 
1623, 4°, p. 20. 

Cervetto, Giuseppe : Di alcuni illustri anatomici italiani del decimoquinto secolo 
indagini, Verona, 1842, 8°, pp. 46-66. 

Moehsen: Bildnisse, p. 75; Medaillen-Samml. I, p. 129 (Rudolphi, Index 
numistnatum, Berol. 1825, 8°, p. 120, declares the medal represented there to be 



Hunter, William: Two Introductory Lectures, London, 1784, 4°. 

Blumenbach: Introd. in histor. med. litt., p. 117; also his Medicinische Bibliothek, 
III, p. 141 and 728. 

Marx, Karl Friedrich Heinrich: Über Marc' Antonio della Torre und Leonardo 
da Vinci, die Begründer der bildlichen Anatomie; Abhandl. d. K. Gesellschaft der 
Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Göttingen, 1849, IV, 131-48. 

Fracastorius, Hieronymus: Carmen in obitum Antonii Turriani, in Ejusd. et 
M. Flaminii carmina, Venet., 1759, 8°, p. 73. 


Leonardo da Vinci, the painter, was born in 1452, in the castle of 
Vinci in the valley of the Arno. For four years he was a pupil of Andrea 
Verocchio in Florence, and lived for a time in Rome, until he was called 
to Milan in 1487. Toward the end of 1499, he went to Florence where 
he stayed, excepting a short sojourn at Rome, until 15 15, when Francis I 
called him to France. He died at St. Cloud in the year 15 18. (Accord- 
ing to others he lived from 1443-15 19.) 

As an artist, he assisted the anatomist Marc' Antonio della Torre 
(see page 97) for an anatomic work which della Torre intended to publish, 
but was prevented from finishing by sudden death. Up to the present 
time these anatomic illustrations have not yet been found. 

Of the thirteen volumes of drawings left by Leonardo da Vinci, 
twelve came into the possession of the Ambrosian Library at Milan, 
through the gift of Count Galeazzo Arconato, but were taken to Paris 
in 1796 by the French, from whence only a part of them were returned 
to Milan. 

The thirteenth volume came into the hands of King Charles I of 
England and now constitutes a part of the Royal Collection of Hand 
Drawings in England. Charles I kept this volume, together with 
sketches by Hans Holbein, in a separate closet, and thus this treasure 
remained hidden in Kensington Castle until the beginning of George 
Ill's reign, when Dalton brought it to light and published thirteen 
engravings from it. This volume of da Vinci's sketches is an imperial 
foUo, bound in calfskin, with the inscription: Disegni di Leonardo da 
Vinci restaur aii da Pompeo Leoni. It contains 234 or 235 sheets with 
779 sketches done in most varied ways, many with pen on common paper, 
some with black and red chalk on blue, brown, or red paper, or with 
metal-point on colored paper, and a few in India ink. Among them are 
portraits, caricatures, single figures, compositions, riding, fencing, and 
tournament scenes, horses and other animals, flowers, illustrations per- 
taining to optics and perspective, to rifle practice, hydraulics, and 
mechanics. Besides these, there are a large number of very exact 
drawings of anatomic subjects done with a fine pen and representing 
chiefly heads, the extremities with their muscles and vessels, the female 
genitals and the fetus, several of the viscera, and also studies of the 



anatomy of the horse. Da Vinci's portrait is also among the drawings. 
The entire text is written from right to left (in mirror-writing) in a 
very fine hand. The language is Italian. Cf. Knox: Great Artists and 
Great Anatomists, Lond. 1852, 5°, p. ij6. 

Another collection of such sketches (at first in the possession of Don 
Venanzio de Pagave, later in the hands of Giuseppe Bossi) was acquired 
by the Imperial and Royal Academy of the Fine Arts at Venice, through 
public purchase from the Abbate Celotti. 

Giuseppe Vallardi also collected in his travels about 360 pages of 
similar sketches by da Vinci, 

Vasari {Vite de' pittori, Rom., 1759, 4°, II, 8; Firenze, 1568, 4°, 
III, p. 7) gives exact and instructive information on the way these 
sketches were made: 

Attese di poi (Lionardo) ma con maggior cura alia notomia degli uomini, ajutato e 
scambievolmente ajutando in questo Messer Marcantonio della Torre, eccellente 
filosofo; che aUora leggeva in Pavia e scriveva di questa materia e fu de' primi 
(come odo dire) che cominciö a illustrare con la dottrina di Galeno le cose di medicina, 
e a dar vera luce alia notomia, sino a quel tempo involta in molte e grandissime 
tenebre d'ignoranza, ed in questo si servi maravigliosamenta dell' ingegno, opera e 
mano di Lionardo, che ne fece un libro disegnato di matita rossa e tratteggiato di 
penna, ch'egli di sua mano scortico, e ritrasse con grandissima diligenza, dov'egli 
fece tutte le ossature, e a quelle congiunse poi con ordine tutti i nervi, e coperse di 
muscoli i primi appicati all' osso ed i secondi, che tengono il fermo, e i terzi, che 
muovono, e in quelli a parte per parte di brutti caratteri scrisse lettere, che sono fatte 
con la mano mancina a rovescio, e chi non ha pratica a leggere, non I'intende perche 
non si leggono, se non con lo specchio. Di queste carte deUa notomia degli uomini 
n'e gran parte nelle mani di M. Francesco da Melzo, gentiluomo Milanese, etc. 

"He (Leonardo) afterwards gave his attention, and with increased earnestness, 
to the anatomy of the human frame, a study wherein Messer Marcantonio della 
Torre, an eminent philosopher, and himself, did mutually assist and encourage each 
other. Messer Marcantonio was at that time holding lectures in Pavia, and wrote 
on the same subject; he was one of the first, as I have heard say, who began to apply 
the doctrines of Galen to the elucidation of medical science, and to diffuse light 
over the science of anatomy, which, up to that time, had been involved in the almost 
total darkness of ignorance. In this attempt Marcantonio was wonderfully aided 
by the genius and labour of Leonardo, who filled a book with drawings in red crayons, 
outlined with the pen, all copies made with the utmost care (from bodies) dissected 
by his own hand. In this book he set forth the entire structure, arrangement, and 
disposition of the bones, to which he afterwards added aU the nerves, in their due 
order, and next supplied the muscles, of which the first are affixed to the bones, 
the second give the power of cohesion or holding firmly, and the third impart that 
of motion. Of each separate part he wrote an explanation in rude characters, 
written backwards and with the left hand, so that whoever is not practiced in reading 
cannot understand them, since they are only to be read with a mirror. Of these 


anatomical drawings of the human form, a great part is now in the possession of 
Messer Francesco da Melzo, a Milanese gentleman, etc. "' 

This tends to show that there actually existed a reciprocal relation- 
ship between della Torre and da Vinci. The former assisted da Vinci 
in his anatomic studies (for artistic purposes), with anatomic instruction 
and preparations, while the latter aided della Torre's scientific researches. 
From what we have learned, it appears that all their efforts benefited 
the graphic arts, rather than anatomic science. We are, therefore, 
inclined to regard all these sketches, excepting one only, as studies 
carried on by the artist with the aid of the anatomist, rather than as 
drawings done for the benefit and in the interest of anatomic science. 
At any rate, the sketches done for della Torre's projected anatomic 
work have not yet come to light. 

A great number of da Vinci's sketches, contained in the volumes 
that were formerly kept in Milan, and now in part held in Paris, were 
pubHshed in 

Recueil de Testes de caracteres et de charges dessinees par Leonard de 
Vinci Florentin et gravees par M. le C. de C. {Comte de Caylus) A Paris, 
chez J. Mariette, 1730, 4°. 

This book contains nothing pertaining to anatomy, but merely 
caricatures of heads. The preface by Mariette, however, contains 
very valuable remarks on da Vinci. The second edition of the Recueil 
de Testes de caracteres was published (in Paris) in 1767, 4°, and here 
the title-page and the two last plates (chiaroscuro in the edition of 
1730) are replaced by copies in the style of aquatint or of sketches by 
L. Bonnet, cf. Weigel's Kunstkatalog no. ig402. 

Carlo Giuseppe Gerli: Disegni da Leonardo da Vinci. Milano 1784, 
fol.; edition 2, con note illustrative da Gius. Vallardi, Milano, 1830, 
f ol. ; with original copperplates from the first edition. 

In this second edition we find the following plates of human anatomy : 
plate 6, three figures representing the muscles of the neck, the shoulders, 
and the lower extremities; plate 14, the muscles of the breast, the neck, 
and the upper extremities; plate 8, the muscles of the lower extremities; 
plates 2 and 13, drawings pertaining to the theory of the proportions 
of the human body. 

A number of drawings on seven plates, taken from the volume of da 
Vinci's sketches in the possession of the King of England, were published 
in John Chamberlaine's Imitations of Original Designs by Leonardo 

'(Translation by E. H. and E. W. Blashfield and A. A. Hopkins' Vasari's Lives of 
Painters, New York, 1907.) 


da Vinci, London, 1796, fol., included in John Chamberlaine : Original 
Designs of the Most Celebrated Masters of the Bolognese, Roman, Florentine 
and Venetian Schools, London, 181 2, fol. 

Among these are six plates pertaining to osteology and myology for 
artists. The seventh plate represents a female and male body in sexual 
intercourse, both cut in a plane through the median line from front to 
back and from the shoulders down to the lower end of the abdominal 
cavity. On the same plate there are three more anatomic figures, 
one of which pictures the digestive organs, another the male genitals, 
and a third a male torso. To all of them is added a well-nigh undeci- 
pherable text in mirror-writing. This copperplate in Chamberlaine's 
Imitations, which probably could also be had separately, is certainly 
the same which was in the possession of Blumenbach at Göttingen 
where Fiorillo saw it. {Geschichte der zeichnenden Künste von ihrer Wieder- 
auflebung bis auf die neuesten Zeiten, Göttingen, 1798, fig. 8, I, 311.) 
This same illustration is repeated in 

Tabula anatomica Leonardi da Vinci summi quondam pictoris e 
bibliotheca Augustissimi Magnae Britanniae Hannover aeque Regis de- 
promta, venerem obversam e legibus naturae hominibus solam convenire, 
ostendens. Lunaeburgi, 1830, 4°, sumtib. Heroldi et Wahlstabii, typis 
exscripserunt Fr. Vieweg et filius. Brunswigae, four leaves and one 
lithographic plate. 

This is probably taken from Chamberlaine's collection, since nothing 
is said about its being copied from the original sketch. Nor is there 
any further comment added, excepting two mutilated passages from 
Blumenbach's Introductio in historiam medicinae literariam, and his 
Medicinische Bibliothek. The contours are nearly the same in both 
plates, but the crosshatching shows some difference. In the Lüneburg 
plate the left foot of the female figure is complete, whereas it is missing 
in the Chamberlaine plate. The character of the writing on the plates 
seems to differ. The anatomy of the internal organs is pre-Vesalian 
and was not sketched from nature, but merely after descriptions. 

The bones and muscles on the other six Chamberlaine plates are 
drawn with fidelity from nature, and are artistically true and beautiful. 
Though one must not expect a high degree of anatomic exactness, they 
are nevertheless better and more exact than the Berengarian representa- 
tions in the same style. Chamberlaine reproduces the mirror-writing 
on all his anatomic plates, while it appears on only one of the GerH 
plates. In Chamberlaine's collection the drawings and the engraving 
(by Francesco Bartolozzi) are better than those in Gerli's edition. 



pA ''1 


Da Vinci, in his treatise on the art of painting {Trattato della pitlura), 
refers to a book on human anatomy written by himself, which (chap. 22) 
contained sketches and in which (chaps. 212 and 223) he promises a 
volume on the movements of the body and its parts from the anatomic 
point of view. An extract of this book is said to have appeared under 
the title of 

Fragment d'un traiU sur les fnouvemens du corps humain et la maniere 
de dessiner les figures suivant des regies geometriques, 
which is supposed to have been published in nine folio sheets by E. 
Cooper, a dealer in engravings in London, at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century. See Fiorillo, loc. cit., I, 304. 

[Etchings after original drawings by da Vinci have been found by 
Wenceslaus Hollar (b. Prague 1607, d. London 1677) in the collection of 
Count Arundel. Among them are illustrations of skulls and muscle- 
heads, also entire musclemen. Cf. Sotzmann in Deutsches Kunstblatt, 
1852, no. 2, page 17. The library of the Venetian Academy possesses 
drawings of the human figure by da Vinci illustrating Vitruvius, includ- 
ing the Italian translation of this author made by da Vinci, allegedly 
from a better text of Vitruvius than is now in existence. Both the 
drawings and the text have recently been pubhshed by Joseph Bononi 
in London. 

There should also be mentioned here Venturi's Essai sur les ouvrages 
physico-mathematiques de L. da Vinci, avec des fragmens tires de ses 
manuscrits apportes de V Italic, Paris, 1797, 4°, A. F. Rio's Leonard de 
Vinci et son ecole, Paris, 1855, 8°. Weigel: no. 20961. A comparison 
of da Vinci with Buonarroti and Raphael is given in Knox: Great 
Artists etc., pp. 133 ff.] 

Besides the writings quoted in this article and the one on della Torre, 
see also the following: 

Vasari: Vite de' pittori, Rom. a, 1759, 4°, II, i et seq. 

Rogers, Charles: A Collection of Prints in Imitation oj Drawings, London, 1778, 
I. iff. 

Ottley, William Young: The Italian School of Design: Being a Series of Fac- 
similes of Original Drawings by the Most Eminent Painters and Sculptors of Italy, 
London, 1823, f., p. 17 ff. 

Von Gallenberg (Count Hugo) : Leonardo da Vinci, Leipzig, Friedrich Fleischer, 
1834, 8°; with Leonardo's likeness and 4 lithographs, among them a drawing illustrat- 
ing the proportions of the head and chest. 

Rigollot: Catalogue de I'ceuvre de Leonard da Vinci, Paris, 1849, 8°. 

[Da Vinci (Leonardo) : / manoscritti di Leonardo da Vinci della reale biblioteca di 
Windsor. Dell'anatomia fogli A. Pubblicati da Teodora Sabachnikof, transcritti e 


annotati da Giovanni Puimati, con traduzione in lingua francese. Preceduli da una 
studio di Mathias Duval, folio, Paris, E. Rouveyre, 1898. 

Fogli B, Turin-Rome, 1901. 

Quaderni d'anatomia. Fogli della Royal Library di Windsor. Puhhlicata 

da Ove C. L. Vangenstcn, Ä. Fonahn, H. Hopstock. Con traduzione inglese e tedesca, 
6 vol. Christiania, J. Dybwad, 1911-16. 

— Notes et dessins. Feuillets inedits, reproduits d'apres les originaux ä la 

Bihliothcqiie du chateau de Windsor, 12 vol. fol. Paris, E. Rouveyre, 1901. This 
contains facsimiles of the whole Windsor Codex but without transcription or trans- 
lation. With the Quaderni edition completed, this edition is now obsolete, but not 
the Dell' anatomia fogli A e B.] 

[Leonardo made over 750 separate anatomical sketches, an exhaust- 
ive account of which would be far beyond the scope of this book, indeed 
would fill a volume. They include not only the extensive studies of 
skeletal and muscular structures above indicated, but also drawings of 
the heart, the lungs, the nerves and blood vessels, the viscera and the 
brain, executed with wonderful fideHty to fact, and with marginal com- 
ments which make Leonardo the founder of iconographic and physio- 
logical anatomy. In scientific accuracy, these drawings eclipse those in 
Vesalius and are not approached in artistic beauty by anything before 
the time of Soemmerring and Scarpa. The correct curvature of the spine 
and the true position of the foetus in utero are delineated for the first 
time, as also the atrio-ventricular band of the right heart, which Sud- 
hoff has named after Leonardo. Leonardo made cross-sections and casts 
of the ventricles of the brain, studied the antagonistic action of muscles 
by means of tape models, made orthogonal projections of the unrolled 
valvular structures of the heart and investigated the hydraulics of the 
blood-current. He was the founder of physiological anatomy. For a 
full account of the Quaderni, see M. Holl: Arch. f. Anat., Leipzig, 1905, 
hi; 177: 1910, 115; 319: 1913, 225-94: 1914,37-68; 1915,1-40. Also 
K. Sudhoff : Arch. /. Gesch. d. Med., Leipzig, 1907, 1, 67; 317. Also A. C. 
Klebs: Bull. Med. Hist. Soc. Chicago, 1916, 66-83; ^-^^d Boston Med. and 
Surg. Journal, 1916, CLXXV, i; 45.] — F. H. G. 


Michelangelo Buonarroti, painter, sculptor, and architect, whose 
family name originally was Canossa, was born in 1474, at Caprese, 
worked mainly in Florence and Rome, and died in the latter city on 
February 17, 1564. He occupied himself with anatomy more than 
many other artists, particularly while engaged in making a crucifix out 
of wood for the church of the cloister of San Spirito in Florence, and 
when living there was well supplied with cadavers for his study. For 
twelve years he pursued his anatomic studies while completing his 
artistic training, both in Florence and in Rome. Special mention should 
also be made of his acquaintance with the famous anatomist Matteo 
Realdo Colombo (Realdus Columbus), who died in Rome in 1559. 

Among the works to be mentioned here are the following: 

A sheet in Seroux d'Agincourt's Histoire de Vart par les monumens, 
etc., Paris, 181 1 ff., fol., tom. VI, pi. 177, representing the opening of a 
dead body. The body lies stretched out on a table from which the right 
arm hangs down, and in the middle of the lower part of the chest a 
candle is placed, the only source of light. At the head of the cadaver a 
man stands holding in his right hand a large compass pointing downward. 
At the foot, on the left side of the body, stands another man, pointing 
with his right index finger to the right flank of the corpse and holding 
in his left hand a large broad knife with its point turned upward. The 
whole picture is sketched boldly and is rather gloomy and appalling 
to look at. 

A sheet in the same work, pi. 178, with five different studies of 
the human body, only one of which concerns us, viz. : a representation 
of the back and the gluteal region, and of the left side of the body and 
a part of the left upper arm. The muscles of the back are removed 
so as to show the ribs and the intercostal muscles and the posterior wall 
of the abdominal cavity down to the hip bone. A hasty sketch. 

A sheet in imperial folio, engraved by Giovanni Fabri, a Bolognese 
engraver. The signature is, Dal disegno originale di Michel Angelo 
Bonarota, etc. It is dedicated to King Stanislaus August II of Poland 
by Francesco Albergati Capacelli; below, on the right-hand side, 
G. Fabbrif. It represents a three-quarter view of a man standing. His 
head is in profile; of the right arm only the shoulder is drawn, the arm 





itself being left out. The right tibia and foot are incomplete toward 
the end. The skin is not dissected oflf, but the muscles stand out very 
clearly. The left hip joint is indicated with a star. On the right side 
of the picture is drawn a graduated scale for the whole figure, and a 
separate scale for the left arm. In the left-hand corner of the picture 
we see a smaller drawing illustrating the proportions of the human body, 
and drawings of a skull, the cervical vertebrae, the first rib, a clavicle, 
and the upper part of the shoulder blade. The proportions of the arm 
as compared with the median line of the body are marked oflf by means 
of three quadrants. A semicircle is drawn from the crown of the head 
to the sole of the foot, with the body height as the diameter. The 
names of the parts and the numbers are written in Buonarroti's own 
script. The drawing as well as the engraving is very beautiful and clear. 
It is a pen drawing. The sheet is very valuable and also very instruc- 
tive, since it gives exact information as to Buonarroti's conception of 
the proportions of the body. As Stanislaus August was king of Poland 
from 1705 to 1736, the sheet must have been engraved within that 

A sheet in Vivant Denon's Motiumens des arts du dessin chez les 
peuples tant anciens que modernes, Paris, 1829, large fol., pi. 76 (described 
in the text on page 75), drawn by Dubois de Beauchene after a pen draw- 
ing in the collection of Baron Denon. It represents a sitting male 
figure, with the muscles of the back, the left arm, and the left side 
beautifully and clearly worked out. On the same sheet is a torso, with 
head and one arm. 

A copper engraving with two standing male figures and the cor- 
responding skeletons is often included in this group of sheets; but it 
really has nothing to do with Buonarroti and is the work of the painter 
Rosso (Maitre Roux). (See article p. 113.) 

There should also be mentioned what Moehsen {Bildnisse, p. 79) has 
given us on Buonarroti and his anatomic drawings. 

Condivi, Ascanio: Vita di Michelagnolo Buonarroti, Roma, 1533, fol., Firenze, 


Vasari: Vite de^ pittori, Roma, 1759, 4°, T. Ill, 185, et seq. 


Raphael Santi (Sanzio), the most perfect painter of modern times, 
also an architect, was born in Urbino on March 28, 1483, on Good 
Friday; and died in Rome on April 6, 1520, on Good Friday. He was 
a pupil of his father, Giovanni Sanzio or Santi, and of Pietro Vanucchi, 
in Perugia, and later on was chiefly active in Rome and Florence. 

On his anatomic studies Vasari writes: 

Datosi dunque alio studiare gl' ignudi ed a riscontrare i muscoli delle notomie, 
e degli uomini morti e scorticati con quelli de' vivi, che per la coperta della pelle non 
appariscono terminati nel modo, che fanno levata la pelle, e veduto poi in che modo si 
facciano carnosi e dolci ne' luoghi loro, e come nel girare delle vedute si facciano con 
grazia certi storcimenti, e parimente gli effeti del gonfiare ed abbassare ed alzare o 
un membro o tutta la persona, ed oltre cio I'incatenatura dell' ossa, de' nervi e delle 
vene, si fece eccellente in tutte le parti, che in un ottimo dipintore sono richieste. 
Ma conoscendo non di meno, che non poteva in questa parte arrivare alia perfezione 
di Michelagnolo, come uomo di grandissimo giudizio considero, che la pittura non 
consiste solamente in fare uomini nudi, ma ch' ella ha il campo largo, etc. 

"But he thenceforth devoted himself to the anatomical study of the nude figure, 
and to the investigations of the muscles in dead and excoriated bodies as well as in 
those of the living; for in the latter they are not so readily to be distinguished, because 
of the impediment presented by the covering of the skin, as in those from which the 
outer integuments have been removed; but thus examined, the master learnt from 
them in what manner they acquire fulness and softness by their unity each in its due 
proportion, and all in their respective places, and how by the due management of 
certain flexures, the perfection of grace may be imparted to various attitudes as seen 
in different aspects. Thus also he became aware of the effects produced by the infla- 
tion of parts, and by the elevation or depression of any given portion or separate 
member of the body or of the whole frame. The same researches also made him 
acquainted with the articulations of the bones, with the distribution of the nerves, 
the course of the veins, etc., by the study of all which he rendered himself excellent 
in every point required to perfect the painter who aspired to be of the best: knowing 
nevertheless, that in this respect he could never attain to the eminence of Michel- 
angelo; like a man of great judgment as he was, he considered that painting does not 
consist wholly in the delineation of the nude form, but has a much wider field." 
(Translation by E. H. and E. W. Blashfield and A. A. Hopkins: Vasari' s Lives of 
Painters, New York, 1907.) 

Nevertheless, we find in the collections of his sketches a number of an- 
atomic studies either for known paintings or of a general nature, namely: 

I. In the Academy of Graphic Arts in Venice, four pen drawings: 
{a) An anatomic study of a torso with thighs. Passavant II, 470, 
no. 30; (b) A wrinkled hand of an old person, seen from the palm, a 





study from nature, p. 476, no. 87; (c) Three arms, a study drawn with 
the pen and shaded, p. 476, no. 89; (d) A man's chest, with the addition 
of one arm and a torso done by another hand, p. 476, no. 90. 

2. In the collection of the Archduke Carl at Vienna. Studies from 
the body of a bearded man; beside him a youthful head turned in the 
same direction, and the upper part of a boy's body; two children's heads, 
one of which is crossed out — a hasty pen sketch, p. 521, no. 259. 

3. In the collection of Wicar at Lille: (a) Anatomic studies in pen: 
One whole figure, two arms, and one foot, p. 610, no. 517; (b) Anatomic 
studies in pen, p. 612, no. 534. 

4. In the collection of Sir Thomas Lawrence in London : (a) Anatomic 
studies: Two feet and one head, a pen sketch from Antaldo Antaldi's 
collection, p. 577, no. 418; (b) A group of women at a burial in the Palace 
of Borghese, 12 inches high, 8 inches wide, p. 557, no. 342. 

This latter sheet, which is also in the collection of the Marquis 
Antaldi in Pesaro, and which is hastily sketched with a pen, contains 
the group of the fainting Mary supported by three women. Within 
Mary's body the whole skeleton is drawn with rapid pen strokes, out- 
lining the bones and their connections in good proportion. Considering 
the utter passiveness of Mary's body, more emphasis was placed upon 
mass than upon active motion. The sketch, therefore, emphasizes the 
skeleton and its passive position rather than muscle. Of the figure 
behind Mary only the head, the neck, the right shoulder, the right arm, 
the left knee, and the lower parts of both legs are outlined. At the neck 
and the shoulder the muscles are indicated, of the feet only the bones 
are very hastily suggested. On the same picture three women's heads 
are also sketched without any anatomy. 

This sheet came from the collection of the Marquis Antaldo Antaldi 
of Pesaro into the possession of Sir Thomas Lawrence, president of the 
Royal Academy in London. After the latter's death, in 1830, in London, 
it was acquired by Woodburn Brothers, art dealers of London, who 
purchased Lawrence's entire collection for £20,000 sterling. Later this 
anatomic sheet, together with other sketches, passed into the possession 
of the Prince of Orange, afterward King of the Netherlands. It was 
auctioned at The Hague on August 12, 1850, after the King's death, 
and sold to Mr. Leembrugge of Amsterdam for 1230 florins. 

An engraved copy of this drawing can be found on plate 8 of the 
following work: 

Lawrence Gallery: A series of Facsimiles of original drawings, by 
Rafaelle da Urbino, selected from the matchless collection formed by 


Sir Thomas Lawrence, late President of the Royal Academy, London, 
published by S. and A . Woodburn, i84i,Jol., 8 leaves of text and ji etchings. 

All the excellent engravings are facsimiles of Raphael's own drawings. 
Lawrence died at London in 1830. See Weigel: Kunstkatalog, no. 15453. 

The Academia di San Luca at Rome preserved a skull which was 
erroneously taken to be Raphael's. Of this several plaster casts were 
made and circulated. But in September, 1833, Raphael's grave in the 
Pantheon of Agrippa, which hitherto had not been opened, was visited. 
According to a report by Vasari, the grave was supposed to be underneath 
a statue of Maria del Sasso (Sanzio) erected by Lorenzo Lotti. The 
grave was found on September 14, 1833, covered by a low arch especially 
built for the grave. On the arch rested the statue. The skeleton and the 
prominent larynx were well preserved. The skull had twenty-nine 
beautiful white teeth, and only the back part of the head showed slight 
effects from water which had entered the grave. The height of the 
skeleton was seven palms and six inches, or nearly five feet, two inches, 
Parisian measure. Plaster casts were made of the skull, the right hand, 
and the larynx. They were then deposited with the other remains in 
a sarcophagus presented by Pope Gregory XVI, and reinterred in the 
place in which they were found, on October 18, 1833. There are in 
existence drawings by Vincenzo Cammucini representing the skeleton, 
the grave, and the sarcophagus. They were lithographed by Giam- 
battista Borani and supplemented by a description of the foregoing 

Passavant, J. D.: Rafael von Urbino und sein Vater Giovanni Sanli. Two parts 
with 14 illustrations. Leipzig, 1839, 8° and fol. 

Vasari: Vile de' piltori. Rom. 1759, 4°, II, 88 el seq. 


Rosso de' Rossi, II Rosso, Maitre Roux (Rous), painter, was born 
in Florence in 1496, took poison in 1541, and died at Fontainebleau. 
He was a pupil of Andrea del Sarto, worked in Florence and other 
Italian cities and went to France in 1530, where, with Primaticcio and 
other artists at Fontainebleau, he was given commissions by King 
Francis I. He was on friendly terms with Benvenuto Cellini in Italy, 
but in France the two seem not to have gotten along well. 

(Vita, Lips., 1833, 12°, I, 41, 48, 187; II, 129.) 

Of his works, mention is made of a copper engraving, 8 inches, 9 lines 
high, and 12 inches, 3 lines long, which represents the upper layers of 
muscles of two standing male figures and their skeletons. The left- 
hand figure shows the front view, the right-hand figure a back view; 
weapons and vessels constitute the accessories in the picture. This 
sheet is one of Rosso's, judging from its drawing. It was, however, 
engraved by his student and assistant, Domenico del Barbiere, also 
known as Domenico Fiorentino, who was born about 1506 in Florence 
and worked with Rosso at Fontainebleau. In the left inner corner of 
the plate we read : Domenico Fiorentino; Rosso is not mentioned. The 
drawing of this very rare and precious sheet, which is in the Cabinet 
of Etchings at Dresden, has been erroneously ascribed to Michelangelo 
Buonarroti, but it belongs to an anatomic sketchbook which Rosso 
intended to edit for Francis I, but which was never completed on account 
of his death. 

Vasari: Viie de* pittori, Rom. 1759, 4°, II, 293 et seq. 

Monier, P.: Histoire des arts, qui ont rapport au dessein, Paris, 1698, 8°, p. 308. 

Bartsch: Peintre graveur, Vienne, 1818, 8°, XVI, 359. 

Moehsen: Bildn. p. 78. 

Weigel: Kunslkatal. no, 20608. 





Johannes de Ketham, a German physician, living in Italy toward the 
end of the fifteenth century, edited a collection of current writings by 
medical men of his time for the use of practicing physicians, and gave 
it the title Fasciculus Medicinae. In this book we find the very first 
anatomic illustrations of any kind, and the first wood engravings. All 
the different editions of this work are of great importance because of the 
woodcuts they contain. The latter are in the peculiar manner of upper 
Italy, and especially that of Mantegna, but are of different values and 
are not the same in the various editions. The best-known editions are 
the following: 

Venet., 14^1, fol., impr. per Johannem et Gregorium fratres de Forlivio, 
die 26. Julii. 

This Latin edition is the first edition. It is of larger size than the 
later ones, and contains larger woodcuts, twelve and one-half inches to 
fourteen and one-half inches high, and eight to nine inches wide. Page 
I a is blank; page ib bears the title Fasciculus Medicinae vn red Gothic 
character; page 13b, the colophon: Finis fasciculi medicine Johannis 
de ketham. Reuisus per georgium de mon-tejerrato Artium et medicine doc- 
tor em, etc. Then follow pages 14 and 15: Consilium Petri de Tausignano 
pro peste evitanda is the conclusion of page 15b. Page 16 is blank. 
Gothic type in two columns with signatures. Pages 14 and 15 are in 
smaller type and without signatures. The book contains the following 
illustrations: Page ib shows four small circles in the corners, with 
descriptions of the four temperaments. In the center there is a larger 
circle with twenty-one urine glasses intended for illumination. Two 
of the lower ones contain black urine, represented directly by means of 
the woodcut. In the center field there are eight smaller circles printed 
in red. The same type is used under each urine glass. Page 2b bears 
the title Tabula secunda De flobotomia and shows the bloodletting 
man {A der lassmann), a large male figure, upon whose various parts 
are printed the names of the twelve signs of the zodiac. The places 
for venesection are marked with dots and lines running out into the 
margin. The margin contains printed explanations in little squares. 
The whole page is longer than the other pages and folded in at the bottom. 
Page 5a bears the title Secunda tabula fleubotomie, etc., and shows a large 



male figure over which the pictures of the signs of the zodiac are 
distributed. At the bottom there is a landscape with trees, and at 
the left a landscape with a mountain. Around the figure are quadrangles 
containing explanations. This page is also folded in at the bottom. 
Page 5b, with the title Tabula tertia de mulier e, illustrates the picture 
of a sitting woman with her thoracic and abdominal cavities cut open, 
of the size of the woodcuts mentioned above. In the abdominal cavity 
we see the opened uterus with a cowering fetus. On the whole, this 
illustration is a crude picture of the thoracic and abdominal cavities, 
arbitrarily sketched, without any truth to nature. On the various 
parts of the figure are named the diseases these parts are liable to, some- 
times also the name of the part. Both sets of names are printed on 
the figure. Explanations are given in the margin. On this page, too, 
the lower margin is folded and printed on. Page 9a, with the title 
Tabula quarta De Cyrurgia, shows a man, on whose various parts possible 
injuries are indicated, and the inflicting weapons, such as daggers, 
clubs, knives, arrows, etc., pictured. Diseases are also named, such as 
bubo, smallpox, warts, etc. The names of the internal parts of the thorax 
on the abdomen are printed on the figure itself. In the margin, explana- 
tions are also printed. This figure is smaller than the others, and the 
sheet, therefore, is not folded. Page 12a bears the title Tabula quinta 
De anathomia, and shows a male figure, drawn a trifle better and covered 
more sparingly with names of diseases, most of which are printed on the 
side margins of the sheet. At the top we find four circles and within 
the circles printed lists of the psychic powers. This sheet also is not 
folded. (See Hain: Repert. bibliogr. 9774; Weigel: Kunstkatalog, no. 
12257; Panzer, III, 295, 1354.) 

Venet., 1493, fol., stampito per Zuane e Gregorio di Gregorii, a di 
5, Februario; Italian translation. 

The format is shorter and narrower than the foregoing edition. The 
drawing and the engraving of the figures (ten and a half inches high, 
seven to seven and a half inches wide) are better. On page 52a we find 
the colophon : Qui finisce el Fasciculo de mediana Vulgarizato per Sebas- 
tiano Manilio Romano E stampito, etc., in Venexia, and on page 46b, the 
index. The printing throughout is round black type; Gothic characters 
occur only in the marginal explanations of the illustrations. The lines 
are complete; a full page has forty-eight. There are forty-six pages, 
and signatures from a to i. Page la is a woodcut; at the top is a library 
shelf, with eight books, on which the names of the authors appear in 
woodcut letters. Beneath it is engraved in large letters, Petrus de 


Montagnana. In the center of the plate we observe a half-length portrait 
of a man; on his right side a window and a desk with one book; on his 
left side (the right-hand side of the picture) a larger desk with an open 
volume of Pliny; in the centerfield there are bookcases; the middle 
one is open. In the lower part of the picture sits a sick man with a 
stick in his right hand and a woman with a rosary in her left hand. 
Both have baskets at their side. On the right we see a young man 
entering, with a stick in his right and a small basket in his left hand. 
Page lb is also a woodcut. At the top, three medallions, and below them 
two windows; in the window at the right a person looking out. At the 
bottom, six figures, one of which, at the right-hand margin, holds a urinal. 
All are beardless and wear headdresses. Before them stands a bare- 
headed boy, who also holds a urine flask. On page 2a, the circle with 
the twenty-one urine flasks and the inclosed smaller circles have Gothic 
printing inside. Everything is smaller than in the first edition. For 
page 4a the same plate is used that was used for page 12a of the former 
edition. This is the only plate that has been used unchanged in this 
translation. On page 8a, the woodcut of the man with the pictures 
of the signs of the zodiac is reduced, but better engraved. The landscape 
has been left out. The bloodletting manikin on page 8b has been 
redrawn and improved upon. Nothing is printed on top of the figure 
itself. The man on page 12b with the wounds has also been redrawn. 
On page 19 we should find " La figura delta matrice trata dal natural,^' 
according to the index, but the sheet is missing in this copy. Page 20a, 
a person infected with the plague; a picture that was not in the first 
edition and belonged to the Tausignano. The woodcut covers the entire 
page. It represents the following scene: A sick person, covered up to 
his chest, but otherwise bare, lying in bed. At his right are three women. 
The middle one holds a dish, while at the left stands a physician holding 
a sponge in front of his mouth and feeling the pulse at the right wrist 
of the patient. At either side of the physician stand two young men 
with burning torches in their hands. The one at the physician's right 
carries, besides, a small basket. At the bottom, to the right, sits a cat. 
On page 26b, we find another picture which did not appear in the first 
edition. This illustration also covers the entire page. It represents 
the opening of a cadaver, appearing for the first time in this edition, and 
precedes the one in the Anatomia Mundini. At the top a lecturer's 
chair; in the chair a youthful-looking, beardless man, with headdress, 
lecturing and raising his left hand above his right. On either side of 
the chair we see a window, composed of a great number of small round 




windowpanes. The window at the left is ajar; the window at the right 
is shut, but one of the casements is broken. Below the professor's 
chair lies a naked male cadaver. A dissector, whose dress is distin- 
guished by a row of buttons, is about to cut open the chest of the cadaver, 
using a long curved knife. Behind him stand seven persons whose heads 
reach to the upper edge of the chair. Three are disposed at the left 
side of the picture. The one in the middle is bareheaded. On the 
right side of the picture stand four persons, one of whom is also bare- 
headed. The person lowest in the picture and standing at the head of 
the body holds a small wand in his hand and appears to demonstrate or 
to guide the dissector. Below the table, over to the left side of the pic- 
ture, stands a small basket. All these woodcuts are without hatching, 
and, in particular, the plates on pages la, ib, 20a, and 26b are done in 
beautiful, clean, strong outlines, with lifelike expressions in the faces, 
the drawing and the engraving of great value. [The description of this 
edition, as pointed out, had been made after an incomplete copy where 
signature d, pages 19-25, were missing. It is therefore not certain on 
what page the two woodcuts, the plague victim and the dissection 
stood, but nevertheless their description has been accurately made after 
the originals which were in Choulant's copy. According to the signature 
this work should have fifty-two pages.] See Weigel: Kunstkatalog, 
no. 9974. Hain does not mention this edition; Copinger, II, 2433- 
3449; Panzer, III, 331, 1617. 

Venet., i4g^,fol., impr. per Joannem et Gregorium de Gregoriis fr aires, 
die 75. Octobris. 

The Latin edition of this book is of the same width as the Italian 
edition, but shorter by four lines. The colophon on page 40b is as 
follows: Hec Anothomia fuit emendata ah eximio artium: et medicine 
doctor e. d. magistro Petro Andrea Morsiano de Imola in aimo studio 
Bononie cyrurgiam legente coadiuuantibus magistro Joanne Jacobo cararia 
de buxeto. Et magistro antonio Frascaria Januensi cyrurgie studentibus. 
Impressus Venetiis, etc. Gothic type, in two columns, with signatures 
but without pagination; 53 lines to the page; 40 leaves, 9 of which have 
woodcuts. Page ib: The woodcut which appeared in the ItaHan 
translation on page la has been used again; that is to say, the picture 
showing the bookshelf with the lecturer's chair below and the figures 
in the lower part. On page 2a we see the plate which is found on page ib, 
of the Italian translation, the picture of the uroscopist. Here, too, 
the same plate has been used. Page 2b: The circles with the urine 
glasses. Page 4a: The bloodletting manikin, the same plate as is 


found on page 8b of the Italian translation. Page 8a, the zodiac- 
manikin, the plate of page 8b of the ItaUan translation. Page 8b, the 
figure of a sitting woman with her abdomen cut open; the uterus 
unopened and not pregnant. The vagina is cut open; the digestive 
organs have been removed, and only suggestions of the kidneys, ureters, 
and the vessels leading to the ovaries can be seen. This plate differs 
considerably from the illustration on page 5b in the 1491 edition, and is 
likely to have appeared in the ItaHan edition. The injuries on page 14a 
are taken from the same plate as appears on page 12b of the ItaHan 
translation. Page i8a has the figure on page 12a of the edition of 1491, 
and on page 4a of the Italian translation; the same plate has been used 
again. Page 21a: The person infected with the plague, as on page 20a 
of the ItaHan translation. Here also the same plate has been used. 
Page 26b is the same as 26b of the ItaHan translation, representing the 
opening of a dead body. It is, however, a new plate poorly engraved. 
The draughtsman seems to have had the original plate before him, but 
aUowed himself many variations. The window, at the left, has no case- 
ments, and permits a view upon a landscape; in the window at the right 
none of the casements are broken. The lecturer in the chair has a book 
in front of him and raises his right hand above his left. The scrotum 
of the corpse is not visible. On the table upon which the body Hes, 
one can see places where the table legs are inserted, which were not visible 
in the older plate. The dissector is bareheaded, his dress is not buttoned 
all the way up, but is open at the neck. The persons standing behind 
him all have their heads covered, with the exception of the head farthest 
to the right, which is covered in the older plate. The lowest figure 
standing close to the head of the cadaver has no small wand in his left 
hand and no right hand. The small basket is on the right side instead 
of the left side of the picture. The parquetry of the floor is composed 
of a much greater number of fields than are apparent in the original 
picture. The expression on the faces of the figures is by far less beautiful. 
The technique of the drawing is cruder and poorer. The engraving is 
clumsy, as can be noticed, particularly, around the eyes and the mouths 
of the persons. 

It seems probable, then, that the original plate had become useless 
or had been lost before the arrangement and pubHcation of this edition. 
In the copy in the Pauliner Library at Leipzig all the plates are stenciled, 
but show beautiful values in the fleshtones and give evidence of a manner 
of coloring quite different from what was then customary in Germany. 
[Panzer, III, 368, 1901; Hain-Copinger, 9775; Proctor, 4550.] Hain, 



however, erroneously quotes Bureto for Buxeto in the concluding words. 
See also Weigel: Kunstkatalog, no. 3494. The plate representing the 
opening of the dead body, both in this and the following editions, was 
evidently done by a different draughtsman and wood engraver from the 
one who did the other plates with figures, although a!l may have 
belonged to the same school. 

Venet., 1^00, foL, impr. per Joannem et Gregorium de Gregoriis fr aires ^ 
die 77. Fehruarii. 

The size and shape of this Latin edition are the same as those of the 
former edition. The print is a trifle smaller and of Gothic character. 
The text is arranged in two columns, with signatures and catchwords, 
but without pagination. There are sixty-six lines to a page and thirty- 
two pages. Page 32a, concluding sentences: Impressum Venetiis, etc., 
followed by : Explicit Fasciculus medicine in quo continentur: videlicet, etc. 
Index and printer's device {Druckerstock) , with the letters Z.G., standing 
here perhaps for Zuane Gregorio. The same plates 
as in the above-mentioned edition. Page la, 
bookshelf and chair; page ib, uroscopist; page 2a, 
urine glasses; page 3b, bloodletting manikin; page 
6b, signs of the zodiac; page 7a, woman; page 
iia, injuries; page 14a, the male figure with four 
circles in the upper field; page i6b, the person 
infected with the plague. This plate, however, 
was shortened at the bottom so as to leave out 
the cat. In place of the upper part of the cat, 
which was left after the shortening, we see oak 
flooring, but the traces of the inserted wood blocks 
are quite evident. Page 20b : The opening of a dead 
body, taken from the plate of the last-mentioned 
edition; naturally is a poor representation. Through the shortening of 
the plate, the small basket has disappeared, and one can see traces of 
the inserted wood block in the lowest line of the oak flooring. See 
Hain-Copinger, 9777; Proctor, 4561. 

Venet., 1500, fol., impr. per Joannem et Gregorium de Gregoriis fratres, 
die 28. Martio. 

An absolutely new Latin edition, using the same woodcuts. 
Panzer, III, 469, 2584; Hain, 9776; Proctor, 4562; Weigel: Kunstkatalog, 
no. 10941. 

Venet., 151 3, fol., impr. per Gregorium de Gregoriis, die 10. Febr. 
Latin edition. Panzer, VIII, 410, 607. 


VeneL, 1522, fol., impr. per Caesar em Arrivabenum Venetum, die ult. 
mens, Martii. Latin edition. 

[See also Choulant's Handbuch der Bücherkunde für die ältere Medicin, 
edition 2, Leipzig, 1841, 8°, pp. 402-5. Many statements should, how- 
ever, be corrected there by what has been given in this section since at 
that time Choulant could not avail himself of many editions consulted 
later.] — Haller, I, 152. 

[In addition to those already given in this section and in that 
on Mundinus, the following editions should be added : 

Veneliis, s.a., fol., per Joannem et Gregorium de Gregoriis fr aires, Hain, 9773, 
Panzer, III, 492, 2767. 

Pampelona, 14Q5, G. de Brocar, Stockton-Hough; Spanish translation. 

Burgos, I4Q5, J. de Burgos, Stockton-Hough; Spanish translation. 

Venezia, 1508, per Joannem et Gregorium de Gregoriis fratres, italice, Stockton- 

Mediolani, 150g, J. de Castelliono, italice, Stockton-Hough. 

Antwerpiae, iji2,fol., Claus de Grave, Panzer, VI, 5, 17. 

Sevilla, 1517, J. Cromherger, Stockton-Hough; Spanish translation. 

Venetia, 1522, fol., C. Arrivahene, italice; Italian translation. 

Venezia, 1688, Giov. Ant. Vidali, italice, Stockton-Hough.) 


Johannes Peyligk (Peilick) [the son of the burgomaster Bar- 
tholomaeus Peyligk of Zeiz, was born in the latter city in 1474, and died 
September 8, 1522, in Leipzig where he had been professor of law and 
alderman. He wrote a philosophic work in Aristotle's scholastic style, 
of which only the following edition is known: 

Leipzig, published by Melchior Loiter, 1499, August i2,fol. 

Title: Philosophie Naturalis / Compendium: Libris phi / sicorum: 
De gener atione et corruptione atque / de Anima Arestotelis correspondens: 
nofi sine ac / curata Lucidissimaque Textus eiusdem elu / cubratione, 
ex varijs beati Thome doctor is an / gelici Egidii quoque Rhomani doctis- 
simorum Philosophie / interpretum voluminibus attente congestum; below 
it four verses Ad lectorem. Page ib: Studiosis philosophic scholaribus 
Johannes Pey / ligk Czitzensis. Artium liber alium Magister S. D. / Cum 
vos condidissimos .... Valete foeliciter. Page 97b: Et tantum de 
membris animalibus. Et per consequens de anathomia to / tius corporis 
humani suarumque partium principalium. De alijs hie non / expressis 
diligens scholaris phisicorum inter pretationem diligentius / inquirat. 
Impressum est opus istud in insigni oppido Liptzensi ope- / ra et solertia 
Melchiar Latter Anno salutifere incarnationis Mil / lesimo quadringen- 
tesimo nonogesimo nono pridie idus septembris. Gothic type with signature 
A-Q, 97 unnumbered leaves. Hain-Copinger, 12861; Panzer, I, 493, 
205 ; Proctor, 3036 A. 

The last chapter in this work is entitled : Compendiosa capitis physici 
declaratio, etc., and contains a brief anatomy of the entire human body 
with the divisions then customary: Membra naturalia, spiritualia, el 
anima ta. This chapter is accompanied by anatomic woodcuts of very 
crude workmanship, first on page 91b: a bust with the viscera of the 
three cavities, much poorer and less true to nature even than the later 
illustrations by Magnus Hundt (p. 125). Indeed, they are only diagram- 
matic representations after the Arabists. Then follow ten small wood- 
cuts printed in between the text, representing separate organs. This 
last chapter had been looked upon as a separate work by Peyligk and 
indeed even as an anatomy of the head, but Capitis physici does not 
mean *'of the head of the body" but *'of the chapter on the nature 
(of the human body)," and contains the entire human anatomy. This 
chapter has, however, been printed several times separately: 
Leipzig, 1 516, fol., published by Wolfgang Stocket. 



Compendiosa Capitis phisici declaratio: / principalium humani 
corporis membro- / rum figuras liquido ostendens: phi / losophie aliimnis 
admodum / profutura.; below four verses: Qui sunt humani .... 
intueare node. On the back of the page: a large woodcut, representing 
the head and trunk with the anatomy of the three cavities, all defined 
by words which are either engraved on the block or were later in type; 
between the text following it are ten small woodcuts printed in. Page 8a : 
Lips, impressit Vuolfgangus monacensis, 1516. Gothic type with sig- 
nature, without catchwords or pagination, 8 pages.^ — Similar earlier 
impressions are: Lips. 1510, 1515, and a later one: Lips. 1518. fol. 
(Haller: Bihl. anat. I, 154, 156). 

These illustrations of 1499, which Magnus Hundt had re-engraved 
somewhat better for his own work and to which he added many others, 
had formerly been taken for the oldest anatomic representations. But 
Ketham (p. 115) had preceded them in Italy, and the skeleton in the 
larger Hortus sanitatis in Germany, since many of the editions of the 
Hortus must have been pubHshed before 1499. This skeleton shows more 
truth to nature, and Ketham more taste in the drawing, than in the 
illustrations by Peyligk. — Sudhoff (Karl): Stud. z. Cesch. d. Med., Part 
VIII (1909), 113-21.] 


Magnus Hundt, professor at Leipzig, was born in Magdeburg in 
1449, and died in Meissen in 15 19, when the university had been removed 
to that city on account of the plague. He pubhshed: 

Antropologium de hominis dignitate, natura, et proprietatihus; .... 
Per Magnum Hundt, parthenopolilanum Ingenuarum artium Magistrum 
in gymnasia Liptzen. — Colophon: Impressum et finitum est hoc Opus 
Liptzick per Baccalarium Wolfgangum Monacensem. Anno nostre 
salutis 1501, 4". Gothic type with the printer's mark of Wolfgang 
Stöcklin; 120 leaves; Panzer, 
VH, 138, 12. 

The quires are marked with 
signatures from A to U. Each 
quire has six pages, with the 
exception of quires D and M, 
each of which has only four 
pages. Under U, page 6b, we 
find the concluding phrases, 
followed by another four pages 
marked with signature A con- 
taining the alphabetical index 
and list of errata. The latter 
concludes with these words: 
Et tantum de lima Si preter ea 
limata studiose et humanissime 
lector inepta et a veritate aliena 
inveneris Operi etenim longo 
phas est obrepere sommim tii 
ipse sis pius absque invidia et 
mordacitate corrector. Deo laus. 

Complete copies of this 
edition are rare. A complete 
copy must have 120 pages; 
the last page is blank. The anatomic woodcuts are very crude, 
merely schematic, and the drawings are not done from nature. They 
sometimes cover the entire page, as, for instance, on the back of the 



title-page, a head which recurs on page G 6b; on page G 4b, an entire 
body with the names of the parts; on page I 4a, a hand with Chiro- 
mantie markings; on page L 2a, the internal organs of the thorax, and 
the abdomen, Figura de situ viscerum. Other plates are inserted in 
the text. 

Formerly these illustrations had been looked upon as the oldest of 
anatomic illustrations, but they are not. They are, however, the most 
complete representation of all the internal parts up to that time, as 
neither Ketham nor his predecessors had been able to produce them. 
They also give a clear idea of pre-Berengarian anatomy, and seem to 
be the aggregate of the views entertained in the fifteenth century as to 
the position and the shape of anatomic parts. Neither bones nor muscles 
are represented. 

Plainer, Johann Zacharias: Progr. de Magno Hundt, tabularum anatomicarum, 
ut videtur, auctore. Lips. 1734, 4°, and in his: Opusc, II, 35-42; Haller, i, 153. 
Boerner: Nodes Guelph. pp. 167-77. 
Sudhoff, Karl: Stud. z. Gesch. d. Med., Part VIII (1909), 115-21. 


Of the great number of illustrations in the well-known encyclopedia 
of all sciences, the Margarita philosophica, edited by Gregor Reisch, 
{circa 1467-1525), prior of the Carthusian monastery in Freiburg and 
confessor of Emperor Maximihan I, a work frequently reprinted, often 
with supplements, certain diagrammatic anatomic representations, quite 
contrary to nature, should be mentioned, although they might not be 
found regularly in all editions. It was not ascertained by Choulant 
whether they occurred in the oldest edition of Heidelberg, 1496, 4°; in 
the intervening editions they are found as follows: 

I . In Liher VII, a man with dissected thoracic and abdominal cavities 
and the viscera suggested in them; pictures of the twelve signs of the 
zodiac are drawn either directly on, or beside the figure, and accompanied 
by lettering also engraved on wood ; this woodcut occurs in the editions : 

Friburgi, per Joann. Schottum Argen{tinensem) , i^oj, 4°, citra Jestum 
Margarethe {Juli). 

S. I.; opera Joann. Schott Argentinensis, 1504, 4°, ly, kalendas Apriles 

Basileae, industria Michaelis Furterij et Joannis Scoti, 1508, 4°, 14, 
kalendas Martias {February). 


die 5, Martii. All 

Basileae, Mich. Furterius impressit, 1517, 4 
these editions printed from the same wood blocks. 

2. In Liher IX a man with dissected thoracic and abdominal cavities,; 
in the dissected neck one can see the trachea, in the thoracic cavity the 
right lung and the heart on the left side; in the abdominal cavity, on 

Visceral Anatomy from Reisch's "Margarita Philosophica," Johann Schott, 1503 

(after Wieger) 

a black background, liver, stomach, spleen, intestine, kidney, and bladder. 
The Latin names of the organs are engraved in small type either directly 
upon or beside them. At the top, beside the head, Corpus phisicum is 
engraved in capitals; this woodcut is found in the following editions: 

Argentorati, per Joh. Griininger, 1504, 4°, in vigilia Mathiae 
(February 23) (according to a statement made by the Leipzig anatomist, 


Johann Christian Rosenmüller in the Intelligenzhlatt der Leipziger 
Literatur Zeitung, 1804, February, p. 122). 

Argentorati, per J oh. Griininger, 151 2, 4°, pridie kalend. Junij {May). 

Argentorati, per J oh. Griininger, 151 5, 4°, nono kalend. Februarias 
{January) . 

The plates are struck off from the same block in all these editions. 
In the two following editions, the plates are made from another block, 
cut after the preceding one. The line around the margin and the black 
girdle about the hips are left out, and instead the male genitals are shown. 
The inscription Corpus phisicum engraved on the above-mentioned 
plate is also omitted, but the names of the organs are the same and are 
cut on the block. These editions are the following which have already 
been mentioned : 

Basil., indusir. Mich. Furterij et Joan. Scoti 1508, 4°; 

Basil., Mich. Furterius impress., i^iy, 4°. 

3. In Liber X the figures of the eye on one plate: a) a front view of 
the eye with pupil, iris, conjunctiva, and eyelids; b) a cross-section of 
the eye representing diagrammatically the cornea and the aqueous 
humor in their order. Both figures of the eye are given with the Latin 
names of the various parts engraved in wood directly upon the figures. 
Each figure is separately inclosed in a square; the cross-sectioned eye 
looks to the right. These figures occur in the editions already quoted of: 

Argentorati, per Joh. Griininger, 1504, 1512, 1515, 4°, and also in the 
following which have been mentioned before : 

Friburgi, per Joan. Scott. Argen., 1503, 4°. 

S. I., opera Joan. Schott, 1504, 4°. 

Basil., indpstr. Mich. Furterij et Jo. Scoti, 1508, 4°. 

Basil., Mich. Furterius impress. 1517, 4°. 
In these four latter editions, however, the plate is struck off from another 
block, a reverse copy of the preceding one, without the marginal line, 
and with the cross-sectioned eye looking to the left. 

4. In Liber X a profile of a head with the cranial cavity dissected 
and suggestions of the coronal suture, occipital suture, and the cerebral 
convolutions. The three "cerebral cells," i.e., ventricles, are shown con- 
nected with each other by narrower canals of which the one between the 
anterior and the middle cell is called Vermis. Written in the fore part 
of the anterior cell are the words Sensus communis, in back of that at the 
top, Fantasia, and at the bottom, Imaginativa; in the middle cell above, 
Cogitativa, and below, Estimativa; in the posterior cell one reads Memora- 
tiva. From the words Sensus communis, lines run to the root of the 


nose, to the eye, to the ear, and to the tongue; on the root of the nose 
is written Oljactus, upon the tongue Guslus. This head was missing, 
perhaps only in Choulant's copy of the edition s. /., op. Joan. Schotti, 
1504. In all the other editions mentioned, the drawing of the head is 
found, without exception. In the two Basel editions (1508, 151 7), and 
perhaps also in the Freiburg edition of 1503, the plate used is a different 
one, is less minutely crosshatched, but copied in reverse. The head, 
therefore, looks to the left in all editions. A reduced copy of this head 
may be found in Lodovico Dolce: Dialogo nel quale si ragiona del modo 
di accrescere e conservar la memoria, Venezia, 1562, 8°, 120 pages, on 
page 5. 

The later edition of the Margarita philosophica Choulant did not see. 

The figures of the Strassburg editions: the visceral manikin with the 
black girdle (Number 2), the two figures of the eyes (Number 3), and 
the head (Number 4) may also be found in the edition of Hieronymus 
Brunschwig (Braunschweig) : Liber de arte distillandi de compositis, das 
Buch der wahre?i Kunst zu destillieren Composita und Simplicia, pub- 
lished in Strassburg by Joh. Grieninger, 1512, fol., Book V, entitled 
Thesaurus pauperum oder Micarium on pp. 284, 295, 306. 

The age of the edition may, to a certain extent, be concluded from 
Lib. Ill, tract. 2, cap. 6, de conclusione, where the date of a letter shows 
the year of the printing of the edition or perhaps the year immediately 
preceding it. 

Ebert: Bihliogr. Lexik, no. iS8g2. 
Serapeum, 1845, p. 367; 1846, p. 63.] 


Laurentius Phryesen, Frisen, Frisius, a Dutch physician of Colmar, 
later city physician of Metz, wrote, among other books, a popular treatise 
on medicine which was published under the following title : 

Spiegel der Artzny desgeleichen vormals nie von keinem doctor in iütsch 
ussgangen ist, nützlich und gut allen denen so der artzet radt begerent, auch 
den gestreifelten leyen, welche sich underwinden mit artzney umbzegon. 
In welchem du findest bericht aller hendel der artzney, gezogen uss den 
fürnemsten büchern der alten, mit schönen bewerten stucken und kurtzwy{li)- 
gen reden, gemacht von Laurentio Phryesen von Colmar, etc. Colophon: 
Getruckt und vollendet in der Keiserlichen stat Strassburg von Johannes 
Grieninger uff sant Gilgen tag, etc. 1518, fol. small, 184 leaves with 
signatures, 2 Col; Panzer, I, 417, 907; also his Zusätze to the Annalen 
der altern deutschen Literatur, 1802, 149. 

In this work we find, besides other woodcuts which frequently 
appeared in Grieninger prints, two anatomic woodcuts (See Fugitive 
Sheets, pp. 163-64) both in small folio and dated 151 7. The first 
plate (Sheet B) represents the body down to the knees, with the thoracic 
and abdominal cavities cut open, six smaller figures pertaining to the 
anatomy of the brain, and a picture of the tongue. The names of the 
parts are given mostly in German. Above the plate is the following 
title: Ei7i contrafact Anatomy der inneren glyderen des menschen durch 
Wendelinum hock von Brackenau, zu Strassburg declariert und eygentlich 
in beywesen viler Scherer Wundartzt gründlich durchsucht. On the plate 
itself is cut the words: Anatomia corporis Humani, 1517. The second 
plate (Sheet A) represents a skeleton with the names of the bones given 
in Latin on the margin. At the top is engraved the year, 1517; a title 
is not given. Wendelin Hock came from Brackenau in Württemberg 
and practiced medicine in Strassburg. 

[The second edition of Phryesen's Spiegel der Arznei, Straszburg, 
Grieninger, 151g; small folio, is said to contain only a revised copy of 
this woodcut, without the verses; but in the title Hock is incorrectly 
called Hack (cf. Sotzmann, loc. cit., p. 19; also Panzer, I, 425, 936; 
Zusätze, p. 161.] 

Blumenbach attributes the woodcuts to a pupil of the elder Holbein, 
a certain Johann Waechtelin, who lived in Basel, and is perhaps identical 




with Johann Ulrich ( ? Pilgrim), or the so-called master with the pilgrim's 
staff, who is known to be the engraver of very rare woodcuts in chiaros- 
curo. (Bartsch: Peintre grav. VII, 449.) [One is almost led to think 
that he had before him the plate with the verses (Blumenbach: Intro- 

ductio in histor. medicinae litter ariam, p. 114), but perhaps it was the cut 
described in connection with Grieninger's edition of 1529.] The plates 
by this man Waechtelin, or Vuechtehn, are on the whole very scarce, 
as he seems to have died quite young. He is known almost solely 
by a series of Passion figures: Passio Jesu Christi saluatoris mundi, 


vario Carminum genere F. Benedicti Chelidonij Musophili doctissime 
descripta. Cumfiguris artificiosissimis Joannis Vuechtelin. Fol. These 
same woodcuts were used in Geiler von Kaisersperg's Postill ("Book of 
Homilies"), in four parts (folio), published at Strassburg by Schott, in 
1522. If any woodcuts in Phryesen's book are to be credited to Waech- 
telin, it could only be the woodcut on the back of page 18 in the edition 
of 1518, representing an instructor seated and two persons standing 
before him, but not the anatomic plates themselves. One is more 
inclined to attribute them to Hans Baldung Grien (Grün), unless we 
assume that Waechtelin did the engraving after that master's drawings. 

The anatomy itself is pre-Berengarian, and is much superior to any 
anatomic illustrations then known. The manner of representation is 
pecuHar, especially the anatomy of the brain, which has been treated 
in a wholly new and exceptional fashion. The drawing and the engraving 
are beautifully done, particularly in the non-anatomic parts. Of these 
illustrations of the brain, five, on newly cut wood blocks, as also the 
illustration of the tongue on page 70b, 86, were used in Johann Dryander's 
Der gantzen Artzenei gemeiner Inhalt, Frankfurt on the Mayn, 1542, folio. 

[In 1529 two other editions, A and B, of Phryesen's Spiegel der Arznei 
appeared in Strassburg: the older one, pubhshed by Johann Grieninger, 
has a re-engraved viscera manikin, the later one, pubhshed by Balthassar 
Beck contains neither the skeleton nor the viscera manikin, but only 
the bloodletting manikin that still remains to be mentioned. 

a) The edition by Grieninger is entitled: Spiegel der Artzny gemachet 
vnd widervmb mit ernst vbersehen vnd gebessert durch den hochgelerten 
Laurentium phriesen, etc., and contains the colophon Getruckt vnd vol^ 
lendet in der Keyserlichen Löblichen statt Straszbnrg von Johanni Grüninger 
auf Mittwoch nach Letare. Jn dem jar M. D. xxix. Small foHo. It 
contains 6 unnumbered pages and 164 numbered pages, the first one of 
which bears the Number IX. There are, therefore, altogether 162 pages 
with signatures in two columns. The viscera manikin is engraved on a 
plate seven inches, two lines high and five inches, two lines wide, above 
it in type: Ein cen traf act Anatomi der inner n glider der / menschen durch 
den hochgelerten phisicum vnd medicine doctor wendelinum hak von bra / 
kenä zu Strasz. declariert in bywesen viler wundartzt grüntlich durchsucht. 
Upon the plate is engraved: Abteilung des houptz vnd des hirns cellen. 
Roman numerals are used everywhere. The tongue in the upper right- 
hand corner of the picture is not numbered, but designated zung. To 
the right are the illustrations of the brain, II, IV, V, to the left I, III, VI. 
On the cadaver are engraved the words Lung, Leber, der mag, bias; on 


the side of the cadaver, to the left in the picture and very near the 
shoulder, speissror, to the right and close to the shoulder, but a little 
lower, luftrör, to the left, diafragma, below that, gall, to the right, hertz. 
The intestines turned out of the body constitute a much larger mass than 
on the original plate; engraved beside them is krösz, to the right of the 
spleen, miltz, and in the renal region on both sides, nier, on the right side 
the word is slightly lower. The head is not bent back, as before, the 
hair is curly, the heart is vertical, the genitals are covered with a narrow 
piece of cloth folded crosswise, and the femurs touch each other. It is 
evidently another woodcut than that edited by Schott. It seems there- 
fore that Grieninger himself had a new wood-block cut, taking the old 
plate as a model but making several changes. The edition has, by the 
way, many other non-anatomic pictures which also appear on other 
plates by Grieninger. Toward the end of the book we read: Auch 
so wer mein meynimg gewesen, dir zu beschreiben den dritten theyl der 
practic der artznev so hab ich vernummen, wie disz erst neuwlich zu Strasz- 
burg geschehen ist, etc. ("I had also in mind to describe to you the third 
part of the practice of medicine, but I have learned that this has only 
recently been done in Strassburg etc.") This omitted third part is the 
Wundarznei, and this passage, therefore, must refer to the second 
edition of Gerssdorff's Feldtbuch: Strassburg, 1528, 4", which appeared 
only one year before. 

b) Beck's Strassburg edition of Phryesen's Spiegel der Arznei, foHo, 
was also published in 1529 with this note on the title-page: Gebessert 
vndre widumb fleissig übersehen Durch Othonem Brunfels, and the follow- 
ing colophon: Cetruckt vnnd vollendet in der Keyserlichen mind Löblichen 
Statt Straszburg vofi Balthassar Beck, vff den. ocviij. tag des Augstmonats. 
In dem jar vnsers seligmachers Jhesu Christi. M. D. .xxix. The title has 
a broad woodcut frame with figures; page xi has the picture of the 
con traf acter Lasszman (''counterfeit bloodletting manikin"), but other- 
wise there is neither the skeleton, nor the visceral manikin, nor any 
other picture in the book; 141 numbered pages. The drawing as well 
as the engraving is very poor. The anatomy is pre-Berengarian. The 
illustrations pertaining to the brain, the tongue, as well as the skeleton, 
are left out. 

Another edition of the Spiegel der Arznei, prepared jointly by 
Phryesen and Brunfels, was again pubHshed in Strassburg, by Balthazar 
Beck, 1532, 14. March, fol. The title has a very broad, woodcut frame 
with many figures, and within it: Spiegel der artzney, vor zeyten zu nutz 
vnnd trost den Leyen gemacht, durch Laurentium Friesen, aber oft nun 


gefelschet, durch vnfliesz der Buchtrucker, yetzund durch denselbigen 
Laurentium, vnd M. Othonem Brunfelsz, widerumb gebessert vnnd in 
seynen ersten glantz gestellet. Hiemit sollen widerruft, vnd falsch declariert 
sein alle exemplar disz Buchs, so vor disem truck vszgangen seind. 
MDXXXII. This edition has no picture except the title and contains 
6 unnumbered and 142 numbered pages. 

The anatomy of the visceral manikin is pre-Berengarian, but much 
better than in any of the anatomic illustrations that had become known 
up to that time. The presentation is original, and in particular, the 
anatomy of the brain, in the smaller figure that surrounds the cadaver, 
is new and unique. Five of these figures, re-engraved, however, appear 
in Johann Dryander: Der gantzen Artzenei gemeiner Inhalt, Frankf. 
am Meyn, b. Chr. Egenolff, 1542, foL, as also the illustration of the 
tongue, on pages 70b and 86.] 

The representation of the skeleton in Phryesen's book reappeared in 
Hans von Gersdorff's, surnamed Schilhans' Feldtbuch der Wundartzney, 
Strassburg, 1535, foL; 1540, fol. 

This picture, however, is merely a copy and does not bear the date 
of the year, 151 7. The title of the page is printed above and reads: 
Ein Contraf acter Todter mit seinen bainen fugen und glidern und gewerben 
auss bewehl loblicher gedechltnus hertzog Albrechts Bischof zu Strassburg 
durch maister Niclaus Byldhauwer zu Zaberen warlich in stayn abgehawen 
un nach anzaig rechter gewysser Anatomey mit sein latinischen namen 
verificiert. Below are twenty-four lines of poetry: 

Der Todt bin ich grausam vngestalt 

Vnd doch des lebens außenthali. 
Wannich flaisch / ädern leblich trag / 

Behalt all glyder vest on klag, etc. 

In the edition of Schilhans' Feldtbuch, Strassburg, published by 
Johann Schott, in 1528, 4°, this skeleton is missing. Hans von Gersdorff 
was a citizen and surgeon of Strassburg. 

A very poorly drawn and crudely engraved skeleton, with the trunk 
partly covered with skin, is also found in a few editions of the Ortus 
Sanitatis by Johannes Caub or Kaub (Joannes de Cuba) , whose pubHca- 
tions go back as far as the last decade of the fifteenth century. We find 
it in the Latin edition, Ortus sanitatis, S.l. 15 17, foHo, on the back of 
page seven of quire J, and also in the German edition, Getruckt zu Strasz- 
burg von Johannes Grienyngern vnd vollendet vff sant Gertrudten tag im 
iar 1529, on page Aij. It is also found in an old Latin edition, without 


place and year, 55 lines, on the back of page Kj. It can always be found 
at the beginning of the Tractatus de animalihus; that is, on the back 
of page one, where the explanations are printed around it. It is suffi- 
ciently known that the Hortus sanitatis, i.e., "The Garden of Health," 
is not an anatomic work, but was written for medical men and students 
of natural history. (Haeser cites two other editions: Marpurgi, i537> 
4°; Frankfort, 1557, fol.) 

Blumenbach: Introductio in histor. medic. liUerariam, p. 114. 
Baldinger: Neues Magazin, III, 135-40. 


Giacomo Berengario da Carpi, Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, also 
called Carpus, was born in the little town of Carpi in Modena. The 
son of a surgeon, he received instruction in anatomy from his early years 
and became well versed in the subject, having been, by the way, a pupil 
of Aldus Manutius. He praises the latter's course in academic subjects, 
which he attended together with Albertus Pius, the magnate of Carpi. 
He took his doctor's degree in Bologna, taught surgery in Pavia and, 
from 1502 to 1527, in Bologna. Later he went to Ferrara and lived for 
some time in Rome, where he earned much money treating syphilitic 
patients. At his death in Ferrara in 1530, he was thus able to bequeath 
a considerable fortune to the duke. 

He seems to have read a great deal, especially in Celsus, and was 
famous as a surgeon and as a physician. He is credited with the earliest 
use of mercury in the treatment of syphilis. Benvenuto Cellini says 
that Berengario da Carpi spent six months in Rome, and that his 
treatments consisted of salves and fumigations; but after his departure 
all his patients became worse, and the people threatened to kill him if 
he returned. He also says that the Pope sought to engage Berengario, 
but that Berengario refused to enter anyone's service. Cellini also 
attributes to Berengario great learning and a good knowledge of the 
art of drawing: 

Capito a Roma un grandissima Ceruscio, il quale sido mandava Maestro Jacoma 

da Carpi aveva questo valente uomo molta intelligenza del disegno. . . . 

era molto litterato: maravigliosamente par lava della medicina, etc. (Benvenuto 
Cellini vita, I, cap. v, II, cap. vii, edit. Lips. 1833. 12°, I, p. 45; II, p. 72.) 
"There arrived in Rome a surgeon of the highest renown, who was called Maestro 

Giacomo da Carpi He was a great connoisseur in the arts of design A 

man of much learning, who used to discourse wonderfully about medicine." {The 
Life of Benvenuto Cellini, translated by John Addington Symonds.) 

His passion for the graphic arts is also demonstrated by the fact that he 
was once the possessor of Raphael's painting of John the Baptist (now 
in the Tribune in Florence), which he acquired in return for services 
given to Cardinal Colonna. (See Passavant: Rafael I, 303.) 

Berengario devoted most of his time to anatomy, to which he seems 
to have had a special leaning, and he prides himself on having dissected 
several hundred bodies. He has been reproached with having dissected 



living bodies, but without justification. What he calls Anatomia 
vivorum is nothing but the so-called Anatome fortuita, i.e., at operations 
and from injuries the surgeon gets to see the internal organs and their 

(Tempore enim nostro non fit anatomia in vivis, nisi forte a medicis, ut mihi contingit 
interdum in incidendo apostemata etc., ubi cognoscunt colligantias membrorum, 
positiones et operationes et omnia requisita in anatomia. Carpi commentaria, 
fol. 4b.) 

"For in our time anatomy is not practiced on the living, unless, perhaps, by physicians 
as sometimes falls to my lot in cutting an abscess, etc., when they acquaint themselves 
with the anatomic relations of the organs, positions and operations and all the things 
that are requisite in anatomy." 

Mundinus was his paragon in all matters of anatomy. After writing 
a very elaborate commentary on the latter's textbook, in 152 1, he decided, 
in 1522, to write a similar compendium of his own. This decision gave 
rise to his two anatomic works : 

Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini 
una cum textu ejusdem in pristinum et verum nitorem redacto, 

Isagogae breves perlucidae ac uberrimae in anatomiam humani corporis 
. ... ad suorum scholasticorum preces in lucent datae. 

In a twofold relation Berengario became the founder of a new epoch 
in anatomy, Mundinus' work was a rather poor compendium, depend- 
ing in part on the imperfect anatomy of the Arabians which he attempted 
to improve upon through only a few dissections of his own. Further- 
more, it had already become obsolete, and many of its shortcomings 
had long ago been recognized. Berengario was an indefatigable observer 
and was, therefore, able to correct a great number of errors. He was 
the pioneer of independent research in the anatomy of separate parts 
of the body. 

Mundinus never used any illustrations. The illustrations published 
later in his books had not been taken from nature, but from books and 
descriptions, and were generally nothing more than representations of 
traditional errors, at least as far as anatomy for physicians was con- 
cerned. Berengario was the author of the first illustrations made from 
nature. His innate feeling for the graphic arts seems to have aided 
him considerably in his first attempts. 

The Commentaria contain (besides Mundinus' work, which Beren- 
gario copied by chapters) a veritable treasure of rare information and 
anatomic experiences. The latter frequently contradict the traditional 
views and are clearly proved in the text. 


The only and very rare edition is : 

Bononiae Jj2i, 4°, per Hieronymum de Benedictis, pridie Nonas 
Martii, 528 leaves with Roman pagination. 

The title is a woodcut. At the top the coat-of-arms of the house of 
Medici (the book was dedicated to the Cardinal Giulio de' Medici), 
between two columns the title Carpi commentaria, etc., printed in red; 
at the lower shafts of the columns the printer's cipher Hye. Be. in small 
shields. The printer of the book may also have been the engraver. At 
the bottom of the plate is represented the opening of a cadaver. There 
are present, the lecturer sitting at the left, the bare-headed dissector, 
who seems to be removing the skin with a large knife, and three other 
persons who are covered. One of them is dressed in a long coat. Two 
coats-of-arms are at the base of the columns. The first six plates repre- 
sent the abdominal muscles, praiseworthy for their anatomical fidelity. 
The drawing, however, is stiff, and the layers of muscle fibers are only 
crudely hinted at by means of engraved lines. Plates 7 and 8 represent 
the veins of the upper extremities; plate 9, the veins of the lower extrem- 
ities, that is, only the veins that are usually opened in venesection; the 
drawing and the engraving are poorly done. Plate 10 represents the 
figure of a sitting woman; behind her a bed curtain. Her abdominal 
cavity is cut open and shows the spermatic (utero-ovarian) vessels, the 
ovaries, the uterus, and the bladder with the ureters. The whole is 
more schematic than true to nature. Plate 11 likewise represents the 
figure of a woman sitting and holding a veil behind and over herself with 
her left hand. In the abdominal cavity we see the internal genitals 
in a schematic representation. Plate 12 shows a woman standing and 
holding a veil behind and over herself; her abdominal cavity and preg- 
nant uterus are cut open. On a pedestal beside her the picture of the 
uterus with the cotyledon is repeated on a larger scale. These three 
plates reveal a freer and more finished drawing. Plate 13, the spinal 
column, represented schematically. Plates 14 to 18 appear to have been 
intended chiefly for the graphic arts. They represent an emaciated 
man; a man with a rope in his hand; showing the superficial muscular 
layer of the front of the whole body; a man crucified; showing the 
superficial muscular layer of the whole frontal surface of the body; the 
same muscular layer seen sidewise in a man pressing a board against 
his knees; finally the superficial muscular layer of the back of a man 
holding an ax in his left hand. All five plates are based on free and 
artistic drawing. Plates 19 and 20 represent skeletons. One skeleton 
holds a skull in either hand. The drawing as well as the engraving are 


poor. Plate 21, the bones of the hand and foot. This plate shows a 
better and more correct drawing; the foot is especially commendable. 
It is surprising that no illustrations of any internal organs are given, 
with the exception of the above-mentioned pictures of the uterus. One 
is inclined to attribute the exclusive attention given to bones and muscles 
to the fact that the author was a surgeon and a lover of art. The men- 
tion of another edition^ of the Commentary, Bonon. 1552, 4°, or foUo, 
seems to be based on an error, just as the mention of an English transla- 
tion^ of the Commentary, London, 1664, 12°, is evidently due to a mistake. 

The Isagogae is an anatomic compendium intended to take the place 
of Mundinus' Compendium, and is superior to the latter. It was dedi- 
cated to Albertus Pius, Comes Carporum, and was first pubHshed in the 
following edition: 

Bononiae, 1522, 4°, impr. per Benedictum Hectoris, die jo. Decembr., 
72 leaves, with German pagination. (Panzer, VI, 333, 118.) 

The title has only a border with flowers inclosed. The woodcuts 
are reproductions from the plates of the former edition. Plate 14, the 
emaciated man; plate 16, the crucified man; and plate 17, the muscle- 
manikin with the board on his knee, are missing. In plate 13, the spinal 
column, has been altered, and is a less schematic and more natural 
representation. On page 25a, a new plate has been added representing 
two uteri, one of them with the attached tubes and ovaries. The names 
of the parts are printed upon them. This illustration is hardly true to 
nature, but becomes significant in so far as the older view that the uterus 
ended in horns and cells has here been contested, and the cavity of the 
uterus has been represented without them. There has also been added 
the side view of a muscle manikin {Muskelmann, i.e., a full-length 
figure exhibiting its dissected muscles), with a long staff, upon which the 
figure leans with both hands. The drawing has been done boldly and 
freely, and has been but sparingly crosshatched. [In the copy from the 
Leipzig Pauliner Library which Choulant consulted, the three female 
figures were missing; but it seemed to him that they belonged to the 
edition, because, just at the place where they were supposed to be, two 
pages were also missing in his copy (pages 23 and 24, quire C), which 
would go to show that they had been removed from the copy. There 
is too little of the text missing to account for the pages which are lacking. 

' Haeser refers to this edition. 

'Both Haller and Haeser quote this edition under the title: "^liKpoKovnoypa^ia; or, A 
description of the Body of man; being a practical Anatomy, London, 1664, 8°. Choulant's 
reasoning that this was based on an error is quite right, as the work contains illustrations from 
Vesalius with the text from Bauhin, Casserius, Paaw, and Laurentius. 


The /^a^oge edition of Bononiae, 1523 (15 July), contains the 3 
schematic uteri on page 24, recto. The printer was Benedict Hectoris. 
(A copy is in the possession of Professor George Sumner Huntington, 
Coll. of P. & S. N.Y.) 

Professor W. Vrolik of Amsterdam had in his possession a Strassburg 
edition of Berengario's Isagogae breves under the title: Isagogae breves 
et exactissimae in anatomiam humani corporis per illustrem medicum 
Carputn, in inclyto Bononiensi gymnasio chirurgiac professorem; in its 
dedication we read, Joanni Locero medic, professori expertissimo. Argen- 
torati, quarto nonas Junii 1530. This edition contains the illustrations 
of the edition of 1522, but besides these a group of splanchnologic 
illustrations, viz., four of the heart, two of the brain, and myologic 
representations different from those in the previous edition. These 
are probably the illustrations mentioned by Haller {Bibl. anat. I. 169). 
Since, however, this edition was not prepared by Berengario himself, 
and since such illustrations are not found in the edition of Venice 1535, 
it seems doubtful whether they are his at all. The date of the edition 
is also uncertain since the date of the dedication cannot be accepted as 
decisive.^ It is true, though, that mention is made of an edition Argen- 
torati, apud Henr. Sybold, 1530, 8°. (Linden: Renov. p. 478.) 

The 1522 edition was followed by those of Venet., 1523, 4°, and 
Argentorati, 1533, 8°. (Panzer, VI, 123, 849.) 

Haller saw both these editions and says that, in the first, the female 
figures were added for the first time, which is incorrect, after what has 
been said above. Perhaps he saw an incomplete copy of the edition 
of 1522 and did not examine it thoroughly. Haller also asserts that he 
found in the edition of 1523 other representations of the uterus and pic- 
tures of the brain and heart which have not even been found in the 
edition of 1535. 

Venet., 1535, 4°, impr. per. Bernardinum de Vitalibus Venetum, 63 
leaves with German pagination; the last leaf has the erroneous number 
61. (Panzer, VIII, 542, 1781.) 

The title-page represents at the bottom a dissection at which are 
present the lecturer, at the right, sitting behind a desk, with an open 
book before him, the dissector with his head covered, holding up a large 
knife, and eight other persons. One of these standing on the level ground 
at the head of the cadaver, points with a small staff to the place where 
the dissector is supposed to begin to cut. The body is still unopened. 
At the feet of the body we see a servant bringing something into the room. 

' Panzer cites an edition of 1530, 8°, sine loco, IX, 150, 430. 



He is the only person without headdress. The other six are sitting or 
standing on a dais. At the left of the body, on the floor, we see a large 
water basin. Both drawing and engraving are excellent and superior 
to those of the other plates. This sheet belongs to the school of Man- 
tegna, or at least to a different school of art than the other plates, which 
are inferior, although also north-Itahan sheets. They are, nevertheless, 
of equal interest. The anatomic plates are in number and content 
identical with those of the edition of 1522 and represent the same subjects. 
They are, however, all re-engraved and altered and betray a considerably 
inferior workmanship. Haller is probably referring to this circumstance 
when he points out this edition as minus nitida. 

The reprint of the Isagogae attached to Alex. Benedicti anatomice 
Argentor. 1528, 8°, contains smaller and very poor woodcuts. 

It has been asserted repeatedly, and as often denied, that the wood- 
cuts in both works of Berengarios da Carpi were done by his con- 
temporary, Hugo da Carpi, the wood engraver. In any case, this cannot 
be said of all the plates, and may perhaps be true only of plates 14 to 18 
of the Commentaria, intended for artists. (Haller, I, 167.) 

[Berengario's illustration of the abdominal muscles is recalled by the 
woodcut on page 245b in Petri Aponensis Conciliator dijfferentiarum, 
Venet. 1504, fol. 17. January, which is 0.163 meters high and 0.130 
meters wide and belongs to Diferentia cxcix (199): Quod bezel seu 
incisio super umhilico competat in hydropisi. It represents two nude 
figures holding each other by their shoulders. At the abdomen the 
anatomy of the abdominal muscles is shown, less correctly and less 


accurately drawn and engraved than in Berengario's illustration. It 
seems, however, that drawings of Berengario's figures were in the hands 
of several physicians before 1521, when they were printed, and that 
these drawings were added in the above-given edition of the Conciliator. 
Pietro de Abano (b. 1250, d. 1315) did not himself insert these illustra- 
tions in his work; they are not only missing in the edition Mantuae, 
1472, fol. (Hain, i), but there has not even been provided any space 
for them, nor is any reference made to them in the text, two facts which 
are true of all the other graphic illustrations of the work. They were 
also missing in the edition of Venet. 1548, fol. which Haller saw {Bibl. 
anat. I, 145). It was unknown to Choulant in which other editions than 
that of Venice 1504 these representations occur.] 


Albrecht Dürer was born at Nuremberg, May 21, 147 1, and died 
there April 6, 1528. Like Leonardo da Vinci, he wrote treatises on 
mathematics, chemistry, hydraulics, anatomy, and other scientific sub- 
jects that one would imagine to have been beyond the range of an artist's 
knowledge. If not really the founder of the German School, he perfected 
the art which had already existed in his country. He was one of the 
first artists in Germany who practiced and taught the rules of perspec- 
tive, which he is said to have learned from Lucas von Leyden. His 
scientific works were written during the latter portion of his life and he 
lived to see only two of his 150 books printed. 

His book on human proportions was prepared for the press after his 
death by his lifelong friend WilHbald Pirkheimer, to whom Dürer had 
previously dedicated it, and it appeared in October, 1528. 

Hjerin sind begriffen vier bücher / von menschlicher Proportion, durch 
Albrechten / Dürer von Nürenberg erfunden vnd be- / schriben, zu nutz 
allen denen, so zu di- / ser kunst lieb tragen. / M.D.XXViij., below this 
title is Dürer's monogram. At the end of the book, on page 129b 
(sign. Ziij). Gedruckt zu Nürenberg durch Jeronymum Formschneyder / 
auf Verlegung Albrecht Dürers verlassen witib im jar von / Christi geburt. 
1528. am letzten tag Octobris., followed by the Privilegium on page 130 
(Ziiij) and on page 131: Elegia Bilibaldi Pirckeymheri / in obitum 
Alberti Düreri, printed in the Gothic t^-pe of the book; page 131b con- 
cludes it with a few epitaphs and these words: Obijt autem non sine 
magno amicorum desy- / derio. viij. idus Aprilis. Anno. M.D.XXviij. 
Aetatis vero suae. Ivij. / Bilibaldus Pirkeymherus / amico integerrimo. 
M.P.; on page 132: Corrigierung etlicher worte, etc. Page 132b is 
blank, fol. The first and very rare edition is printed in Gothic type 
with indentures and comprises 132 pages with signatures and many 
woodcuts in the text, some of them covering the entire page, without 
catchwords and pagination; Ebert: no. 6442; Weigel: no. 291, 9923. 

Hjerinn sind begriffen vier / Bücher von menschlicher Propor- 
tion, durch Albrechten / Dürer von Nürenberg (so) erfunden vnd beschri- / 
ben, zu nutz allen denen, so zu diser / kunst lieb tragen. / M.D.XXViij., 
below this the monogram and under that: Zu Arnhem, Bey Johan 
Janssen, Buchführer daselbet. Anno M .CCCCCC.J J J . Without colophon, 



on page 130 (Ziiij) the Privilegium, on page 131a:. Elegia etc., printed 
in Roman type, concluded on page 131b with: amico integerrimo. 
M.P.; page 132 is blank, the list of corrections, i.e., errata of the first 
edition, being omitted, fol. Is otherwise copied from the earlier edition, 
page by page, with signatures, but without catchwords and pagination. 
The woodcuts are the same and appear to have been printed from the 
rather worn and, in some cases even warped blocks of the original edi- 
tion; only on the page with signature Qiiij b, the two upper heads are 
from other drawings. On the title of many copies the words: Zu 
Arnhem — M.CCCCCC.JJJ. are omitted, so that this edition might easily 
be confused with the original. But the difference in the impression as 
above described will help to distinguish them. 

The work itself is divided, as its German title indicates, into four 
books. The first two books treat of the proper proportions of the human 
form and its separate members, according to a constructed scale. He 
first divides the body into seven parts, each having the same measure- 
ment as the head, and he next considers the same divided into eight 
parts, giving also a separate consideration to the proportions of children. 
The woman, he considers, ought to be an eighteenth part shorter than 
man. In his proportions of the female figure he follows, perhaps 
unwittingly, the celebrated standard of the Venus de' Medici. 

In his third book he changes these proportions according to mathe- 
matical rule, and gives examples of ludicrously fat and thin figures, in 
which some one proportion is frightfully exaggerated. In the fourth 
book he shows the human form in movement, and treats especially of 

It is to this book that Hogarth alludes in his Analysis of Beauty, 

when he speaks of Dürer, Lamozzo, and others having "puzzled mankind 

with a heap of minute unnecessary divisions" in their instructions for 

drawing the human form; and Lord Bacon, in his essay "On Beauty," 


A man cannot tell whether Apelles or Albert Dürer were the more trifler: whereof 
the one would make a personage by geometrical proportions, the other by taking the 
best parts out of divers faces to make one excellent. Such personages, I think, 
would please nobody but the painter that made them. 

The first book Dürer saw through the press himself, as stated in the 

preface by Pirkheimer, 

That although the pious and artistic Albrecht Dürer had written these four books, 
yet that he had only been able to revise and correct one of them; for before the other 
three could be ready, death snatched him away. Doubtless, if he had had time, he 
would have altered, augmented, or diminished many things; but his friends consider 
it better to give forth these three books without his corrections, than to suppress them. 


In 1532-34 Joachim Camerarius prepared a Latin translation of 
the work, which was pubUshed at Nuremberg with the title: 

Alherti Dureri darissimi picto- / ris et Geometrae de Symmetria / 
partium in rectis forniis / Jiumanoriim corporiim, / Libri in latinum / 
conuersi; below this four Latin distichs and Dürer's monogram. At 
the end of the book: Norimhergae excudebatur opus aestate Anni A 
Christo. I seruatore genito M.D.xxxij. In aedib. / viduae Durerianae., 
one blank page. fol. First part, comprises books i and 2.—Clariss. 
Pictoris et Geometrae / Alter ti Dureri, de varietate fi- / gurarum etflexuris 
partium ac / gestib. imaginum, libri duo, qui / priorib. de symmetria 
quon- I dam editis, nunc primum / in latinum conuersi / accesserunt. / 
Anno M.D.XXXiiij. At the end: Finitum opus Anno a salutifero 
partu. 1534. g. Cal. Decem. / Impensis viduae Durerianae, per Hieronymum 
I Formschneyder Norinbergae; then one blank page. fol. Second part, 
comprising books 3 and 4, is concluded by Elegia Biblibaldi, etc., several 
Latin, and one Greek poem, and M. Beatis .... integerrimo. M.P., 
one page of errata and the colophon given above. These two volumes 
contain the complete translation of the original German edition, by 
Joachim Camerarius senior (b. 1500-d. 1574), the woodcuts are prints 
from the original blocks. Gothic type, with signatures, but without 
catchwords and pagination. (Ebert: no. 6443; Weigel: no. 292, 1861, 
17780.) This work embodies the first application of anthropometry to 
aesthetics, and is technically interesting because it contains the first 
attempts to represent shades and shadows in wood engraving by means 
of crosshatching. 

The short biographical sketch that Camerarius has given us in his 
preface to this edition is now perhaps of greater interest than all the rest 
of the book, but the number of editions and translations of this work 
that appeared in rapid succession during the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries showed that it must have supplied a want in its day, and must 
have been highly esteemed, not only by the Germans, but by students 
of other countries as well, as is evident from the following. 

de symmetria, etc., iibri qua tor. Paris., apud Christianum 

Wechel 1573. Camerarius' translation; an earher copy of this transla- 
tion, Paris. T-SiSi fol-, is mentioned by Ebert: no. 6443, note, but is 
doubted by Heller. 

Les I qvatre livres / d^ Albert Dvrer, / Peinctre et Geometrien 

Tres I excellent, De la Proportion / des parties et pourtraicts / des corps 
humains / Tradvicts par Loys Meigret / Lionnois, de langue Latine en 
Franqoise. A Paris, / Clwz Charles Perier / ijj^.fol., 2 and 124 pages 


with newly engraved copies of the original figures, in original size; the 
translation is made from Camerarius, Ebert: no. 6444. 

Les I quatre livres / d' Albert Dürer / Peinctre et Geometrien 

tres excellent, / De la proportion des parties et / pourtraicts des corps / 
humains. / Traduicts par Loys Meigret lion- / nois de langue Latine en 
Franqoise. Arnhem, / Chez Jean Jeansz, i6ij,fol., 2 and 124 pages, new 
title: Arnhem, i6i4,fol.; Ebert: no, 6444, note; Weigel: no. 294,4887. 

Di I Alberto Dur er / pit tore e geometra / chiarissimo. / Delia 

simmetria dei corpi humani, / Libri Quattro. / Nuovamente tradotti dalla 
lingua Latina nella Italiana, / da M. Gio. Paolo Gallucci Salodiano. / 
Et accresciuti del quinto libro, nel quale si tratta, con quai modi possano / 
i Pittore, e Sooltori mostrare la diversitd delta natura de gli huomini, / e 
donne, e con quali le passioni, che sentono per li diuersi / accidenti, che li 
occorrono. Hora di nuovo stampati. Opera a i pittori, e scoUori non 
solo I vtilo, ma necessaria, et ad ogn'' altro, che di tal materia desidera / 
acquistarsi perfetto giudizio. / In Venetia, MDXCI. / Presso Domenico 
Nicolini. At the end on the front side of the page, the printer's mark 
with the colophon: In Venetia, MDXCI. / Appresso Domenico Nicolini. 
fol. This translation has also been made from Camerarius; the wood- 
cuts are newly engraved copies of the original blocks; the added fifth 
book is written by Gallucci himself and is without illustrations; Ebert: 
no. 6445; Weigel: no. 1863. 

Di Alberto, etc., Iti Venetia, presso Mainetti, ijg4,fol. After 

the preceding edition, Ebert: no. 6445; Weigel: no. 293. 

Beschryvinghe van Albrecht Dur er, Van de Menschelycke 

Proportion. Begrepen in vier onderscheyden Boecken, zeer nut ende pro- 
fytelyck voor alle Liefhebbers deser Konste. In H Latyn ende Hoodguytsch, 
tot Nuerenbergh ghedruct, tot koste van syne naegelaten weduwe, In 't Jaer 
ons Heeren 1527. Ende nu in onse Nederlantsche Sprake overgheset, tot 
dienste der ghener die de konste beminnen, ende de Latynsche ofte de Hoog- 
duytsche sprake niet en verstaen. Tot Arnhem 1622, fol. A Dutch 
translation, made from the Nuremberg German or Latin edition with 
prints from newly cut blocks, Weigel: no. 11946. There is also an 
English translation of 1666. In Joseph Heller: Leben Dürers, II, 
Part 3, Leipzig, 1831, 8°, a Portuguese translation, made from the 
ItaHan edition, is mentioned among a rather extensive literature of 
Diirer's work on proportions, pages 996-1013, with a description of the 
original manuscript in Dresden, on pages 998-1006. 

Opera Alberti Dureri, das ist, alle Bücher des — Albrechten 

Durers von Nürenberg, so viel deren von j hm selbst in An. 1525 vnd 1528 


kurtz vor vnd gleich nach seinem todt in Truck gehen, etc mit sein 

selbst sigenen gemach ten vnd geschnittenen zugehörigen Figuren, von newem 
aufgelegt vnd getruckt. Zu Arnhem, Bey Johan Jansen, Buchführer 
daselbst. Anno M.DCJJJJ, fol. Contains the books on the measure- 
ments by means of the compass and ruler, on the human proportions and 
fortifications, in German, with woodcuts; cf. Haller: Bibl. anat. I, 171. 


Johann Eiclfmann, called Dryander, died as professor in Marburg 
m 1560. He belongs entirely to the Mundinus-Berengarian School, as 
he had the latter's figures redrawn and copied. In his edition of Mun- 
dinus' works (1541) are six plates of the abdominal muscles; the two 
figures of the sitting woman; the uterus; the veins of the arm and the 
foot; the bones of the hand and foot; the muscle man with the rope; 
the plate showing the muscular layer of the back; and the plate of the 
crucified man. Most of them are inferior to Berengarius, with the excep- 
tion of the plate representing the veins of the arm and foot, which is 
better than the original. Many of the plates bear the dates of the years 
1536 and 1537; occasionally also a monogram of the initials G and B 
intertwined, G and above it G V B, or V B, or G, with a compass before it. 
(See Brulliot: Diction, des monogrammes, II, 2834, 2839.) This makes 
it apparent that different wood engravers were engaged in the work. 
But, on the whole, one can recognize the school of Hans Brosamer. The 
latter used to work chiefly for the pubUshing house of Egenolff in 

Dryander is generally regarded as among the first anatomists who 
made illustrations after their own dissections. All pictures which he did 
not take from Berengarius, Phryesen, or, in part perhaps, from Vesalius' 
earliest productions, are illustrations drawn from his own dissections. 
Two of his works should be mentioned in our discussion : 

Anatomiae, h.e. corporis humani dissectionis pars prior, in qua singula 
quae ad Caput spectant recensentur membra, atque singulae partes, singulis 
suis ad uiuum commodissime expressis figuris, deliniantur. Omnia recens 
nata. Per J oh. Dryandrum, Medicum et Mathematicum. Item Anatomia 
Porci, ex traditione Cophonis, Infantis, ex Gabriele de Zerbis. Marpurgi, 
apud Eucharium Ceruicornum, 1537^, m. Junio. 4°. 

In this work there are twenty plates. The first sixteen plates repre- 
sent twenty-one figures of the head and brain. The last four plates, 
those of the chest and the lungs, have been added as an appendix and 
as models for his succeeding book. With the exception of the second, 
.plate, which occurs twice in this work, all the plates are reintroduced 
in the following edition, only that all nonessential parts and the margins 
are mostly cut off from the wood block. In the edition of 1537 we 



cannot find any illustrations after Berengarius. All the plates represent 
anatomic figures from his own dissections. They are crude, yet do not 
lack a certain fidelity to nature. 

Anatomia Mundini, ad vetvstissimorum, eorundemque aliquot manu 
scriptorum, codicum fidem collata, iustoqiie smo ordini restituta. Per J oh. 
Dryandrum Medicum professoretn Marpurgensem. A dieci,ae sunt, quarum- 
cunque partium corporis, ad uiuum expressae figurae. Adsunt et scholia,* 
etc., Marpurgi, in officina Christiani Egenolphi; at the end of the book: 


We find altogether forty-six larger and smaller plates, some of them 
with several figures. To the illustrations taken from the previous work 
eight entirely new plates are added, of the author's own, representing 
the stomach, the alimentary canal, the liver, the spleen, the kidneys, 
the genitals, and two skeletons, and eighteen plates representing the 
abdominal muscles, bones, and veins of the arm and foot, muscles of the 
front and the back of the body, and the figure of a crucified man. These 
latter plates are copies of Berengarius' plates, but are slightly changed. 

From this book several anatomic illustrations (prints from the same 
original wood blocks) were used in a later work by the same author. 

Der gantzen Artzenei gemeiner Inhalt. Franckfurt am Meyn, bey 
Christian Egenolff, 1542, mense Martio, fob, no leaves (the same 1557). 

Twenty-three of the leaves, some of them with several figures, are 
plates taken from the above-mentioned book. Two sheets are entirely 
new and represent (i) a figure, showing the vascular system, with heart 
and liver, and (2) a figure showing the cutaneous veins of the back 
(leaves 7 and 8). On pages 70b and 86, we, furthermore, find five smalleü 
figures representing the brain and the tongue. These figures are the 
same as those of Laurentius, Phryesen, Spiegel der Artzney, Strasburg, 
1518, fob, but are positively new engravings. A great many other 
figures are non-anatomic, and were probably all done by Hans Brosamer. 
Some of them can also be found in other works. (Haller, I, 174.) 

[Panzer adds to those already given, Bononiae, 1523, 4°, VI, 333, 123; 
Coloniae, 1529, 8°, VI, 408, 530b; Haller cites Francofurti, 1547, fob, 
with Dryander, der ganzen Arzney gemeiner Inhalt.] 


Giovanni Battista Canano, Joannes Baptista Cananus, physician in 
ordinary to Pope Julius III, went, after the latter's death in 1555, to 
Ferrara as physician in chief {protomedicus) . He is said to have been 
still living in Ferrara in 1578 at the age of sixty- three, which would 
fix the year of his birth at 15 15. He began a book on the muscles of 
the human extremities and had a relative, the Ferrarese physician, 
Antonio Mario Canano, aid him in his anatomic studies. The Ferrarese 
painter Girolamo da Carpi (Hieronymus Carpensis, b. i5oi,d. 1556 or 
1569) made the drawings for the illustrations of the book. Canano 
calls this artist pictorem nostro aevo non minus diligentem quam insignem 
("a painter of our time as painstaking as he is famous"). It is probable 
that the famous Agostino de' Musi (Augustinus de Musis, Agostino 
Veneziano) engraved the drawings in copper. Neither Bartsch nor 
other writers on art mention these illustrations. 

This work was never completed, however, although we read in the 
preface {reliquos sub calchographi praelo jam positos mox edituri) "pres- 
ently going to pubUsh the remaining [books] which are already in press." 
Only the first book of the work consisting of twenty leaves with twenty- 
seven illustrations from copper engravings was published under the 

Musculorum humani corporis picturata dissectio per Joannem Bap- 
tistam Cananum Ferrariensem medicum, in Bartholomei Nigrisoli Fer- 
rariensis patritii gratiam, nunc primum in lucem edita. s.l.e.a. 4°; at the 
end, Libri primi finis; 20 leaves, last page blank; Sign. A-E. 

The engravings, in long quadrangles, take up the left half of the page 
and represent the muscles and bones of the upper arm and forearm. 
On some of the plates, letters are engraved for explanations. The 
drawing is unusually exact for those days. The engraving and cross- 
hatching are very clean, yet the difference between bones and muscles 



has not been brought out clearly enough; also a few of the bellies of the 
muscles {Muskelbäuche) appear unnatural. The paper is thin and 

As the book remained incomplete and probably never appeared in 
the book market, and as only a few copies of the first volume were given 
away by its author, the work has become very rare, and only three or 
four complete copies are known to exist. One of them was in the Hbrary 
of Count Bute and seems to have come into Haller's possession. A 
second one, which Haller himself saw, belonged to Conrad Gesner, who 
had inscribed his name in the book with the remark that he had received 
it from Agostino Musto of Ferrara in 1543, perhaps from the engraver 
Agostino de' Musi. A third is in the Royal Library in Dresden. This 
one has on its title-page the following words, written in characters of the 
sixteenth century: Sum Andreae Aurifabrj Vratislaviens. Doctor. 1545, 
Venetiis. From these indications, the book must have been printed 
before 1543. Judged by the illustrations, it also belongs to the pre- 
Vesahan period of anatomy. It is possible that the appearance of 
Vesalius' Fabrica in 1543, which represented muscles in a particularly 
beautiful manner and which was received with such general approval, 
broke off the continuation of Canano's work. On the other hand, no 
other anatomist but Galen is mentioned in Canano's book. It has been 
asserted that another edition was pubHshed, Ferrariae, 1572, 4° {Merck- 
lift Linden, renov. p. 524), but nothing is said about it in Haller, I, 192. 
[To the three copies that have so far been known of the rare work by 
Canano; Musculorum corporis humani picturata dissectio should be 
added a fourth copy which the Royal Library in Berlin purchased for 
twenty ducats from the estate of the anatomist, Karl Asmund Rudolphi. 
(Sotzmann: Deutsches Kunstblatt, 1852, p. 19.)] 

Ebert, no. 3441. 

Falkenstein, Karl: Beschreibung der Königl. ößentl. Bibliothek zu Dresden, 
Dresden, 1839, 8°, p. 733. 


Charles Estienne (Etienne), Carolus Stephanus, was a descendant 
of the famous family of printers of the same name, and was for some time 
foreman in his brother's printing estabHshment. In 1542 he received 
the degree of doctor of medicine in Paris and died in 1564. 

De dissectione partium corporis humani lihri tres, a Carolo Stephana, 
doctore Medico, editi. Vna cum figuris, et incisionum declarationihus, a 
Stephano Riuerio Chirurgo compositis. Parisiis. A pud Simonem Coli- 
naeum. 1545, foL, 23, 375 pp. 

This work was completed up to the middle of the third book as early 
as 1539, but the work remained unfinished oh enatam controversiam 
("because of a dispute which has arisen"). In the French edition we 
read, a cause dhmg proces qui survint. The author complained of plagiar- 
isms that had been published, particularly in Germany. The prepa- 
rations for this work seem to have been made long before its first 
appearance, for several plates bear the dates 1530 (p. 154), 1531 (p. 155), 
1532 (pp. 150, 151). The author speaks with praise of the assistance 
rendered him by the surgeon Etienne Riviere, who is named in the title, 
and who assisted him both in his dissection and in the drawing of the 
illustrations. The first plate on page 13 actually bears the monogram 
S.R. The other plates either have no monogram or have that of the 
wood engraver, Francois Jollat, of Paris, who was well known between 
1502 and 1550. The Lorraine cross, or the cross of Jerusalem, is also 
used as a monogram, quite in accordance with the custom of many French 
wood engravers during a period of about one hundred and ten years. 
(Cf. Jules Renouvier: Des types et des manieres des mattres graveurs, 
Partie II, Montpellier 1856, 4°, p. 169.) It is said that P. Woeiriot is 
the author of several drawings, but this is impossible if the latter was 
born in 1532. One should perhaps much rather suggest Jean Cousin 
or Maitre Roux (Rosso) or Jean Goujon, that is to say, masters of the 
Renaissance. The work of the wood engraver is particularly excellent. 
The drawings, on the other hand, are neither tasteful nor anatomically 
correct, the best representations being, perhaps, the entire muscle- 
figures. The anatomy throughout is pre-Vesalian and the figures of 
the abdominal viscera quite arbitrary and false. The figures of the 
thorax, the brain, and the eye are better. The plates generally represent 




the whole body with a great many nonessential elaborations, so that the 
rendering of the actual anatomic portion is small and indistinct. The 

C (^lo ia loro irirria TOi 

ftTTTiif rn gicznm i\e Ceiri. 

Ur^.ifUi tn cpio rFjJcritiu- 


E X>iititlo'nchu'tfiii3BCDKL 

r Orijo l^ualisnifchillr 
Ü I/OL-niu m^olitam <Mni 

n (' du{l.i& inffgOT fitnia (y 
rufB,n,firirr ^irirtrs oti 
flKormvatucoilnla fi>l) 
Xni> ttiinrot Olio fCICitlj tu 

I Oculiiaohedcttain. 

bodies are often artistically drawn, but are placed just as often in queer 
and repulsive positions. The female figures, on the whole, excel the male 
figures. The earlier plates of the latter are clumsier and perhaps 



follow older Venetian-Paduan examples; the latter plates, beginning 
with page 236 and up to page 287, approach the bold style of Buonarroti. 

From page 161 on, such parts of the entire figure as contain anatomic 
material for illustration are given on separate small woodcuts, super- 
imposed and set in, and completely surrounded by the letters referring 


to the legend, the borders of such insertions being more or less evident. 
This seems to show that either before or after the pubUcation of the work, 
these lay figures served for other than anatomic purposes. The legend 
is printed on separate little plates and can therefore be removed. There 
are altogether sixty- two full-page plates, among them several repetitions; 
and besides these there are a great many engravings inserted in the 
text, particularly those pertaining to the study of the muscles and the 
eye. The text is more instructive than the illustrations, and is particu- 
larly significant from the viewpoint of the history of anatomic discoveries, 
since Estienne was himself a dissector, began his work long before the 
appearance of Vesalius' work, but did not finish it until after the latter's 
pubHcation. There exists one copy of the work on parchment and with 
illuminated figures. 

A French translation was published under the title: 
La dissection des parties du corps humain diuisee en trois liures, faictz 
par Charles Estienne docteur en Medecine: auec les figures et declaration 
des incisions, composees par Estienne de la Riuiere Chirurgien. Paris, 
chez Simon de Colines, 1546, fol., 16+406 pp. 

The illustrations are the same as in the Latin edition, with the excep- 
tion of the first five plates. These contain two side views of skeletons 
which we do not find in the Latin edition. The plate representing the 
back view of the skeleton with architecture is missing here, but occurs 
on page 352. In the Latin edition it is repeated on page 324, The 
French translation, therefore, has in all sixty-three wood engravings. 

Haller, I, 195. 
Ebert, no. 6960. 

Weigel, no. 17772, with animadversions as to the different artistic tendencies of 
the illustrations. 


Fugitive sheets {fliegende Blätter), with pre-Vesalian anatomy, repre- 
senting whole figures with the names of the parts or explanatory texts, 
were published either on a single broadside or on two sheets, each with 
printing on one side only. In this period several appeared. They were 
generally intended to disseminate popular information, or to give 
instruction to barbers and surgeons, and were probably to be hung up 
in their anterooms. Usually they show an already obsolete anatomy 
for the time in which they appeared, seldom a scientifically exact repre- 
sentation. They were, in the nature of things, predestined to be scat- 
tered and lost, and, on this account, are now all of them exceedingly rare. 

In addition to the first six Vesahan plates mentioned in the article 
on Vesalius, of which there were a few reproductions, these include: 

Two sheets: Osteotome, i. ossium corporis humani divisio ex Galeno 
praecipue collecta. Paris., apud Christianum Wechelum, 1536, fol. 

This represents a front and back view of the erect skeleton in wood- 
cuts, with Latin explanations printed on the margin. In the copy 
before me, the figures are colored brown, on a yellow background. The 
drawing is better, and, as regards anatomy, more exact than that in 
Berengarius, Dryander, and Ryff. The woodcut is beautiful and dis- 
tinct, but the proportions of the skeleton are neither beautiful nor true. 
The skeletons themselves are not without anatomic errors and fall con- 
siderably short of Vesahan representation. These two sheets can also 
be found in some copies of the Greek edition of Galen Basil. 1538, 
fol. V. 

Two sheets: Nicolai de Sabio viscerum viva delineatio, Venet., 1539, fol. 

These represent a male and a female body in which the abdominal 
viscera are drawn on separate, movable layers, in a fashion suggestive 
of their sequence from front to back in the human body. The arrange- 
ment is similar to that which Vesalius adduces and illustrates in his 
Epitome. The anatomy is older, showing the liver with many lobes. 
The drawing is crude. (Haller I, 179, 333.) 

Two sheets: Anatomia oder ahconterfeyung eines mans leih, wie er 
inwendig gestalt ist, .... eines Weybs leib, wie sie inwendig gestalt ist. 
Gedruckt tu Nürnberg durch Hans Guldenmundt, s. a. fol. 



Representations of a man with a twig in his right hand and an apple 
in his left, and of a woman with a flower in her left hand, both nude 
and seated (evidently intended as Adam and Eve). The anterior wall 
of the trunk can be opened and turned upward. Beneath it is shown 
the anatomy of the thoracic and abdominal cavities. The pictures of 
the internal parts cannot be turned aside or removed separately. The 
anatomy is pre-Vesalian. In the female figure we see the uterus enlarged 
and opened; in it a cowering fetus,' with its hands before its eyes. In 
the female figure the names of the different organs are engraved on them, 
mostly in Latin, sometimes in German, as Nier (kidney), Plostdarm 
(colon), Masdarm (rectum). On the male figure we find instead of the 
entire words only letters. Above each figure and on both sides of it, 
we find a description in German of the several organs and separate 
representations on small wood engravings. These representations and 
descriptions are the same on both sheets, with the exception of the 
sexual organs. On both sheets the principal figure and the side figures 
are illuminated. The drawing and the engraving of the principal figure 
are rather good and done with crosshatching, probably by the wood 
engraver, Peter Flotner, of Nuremberg, who died in 1546. We must not 
confound these two sheets with the following : 

Ausslegung vnd beschreybung der Anatomi, oder warhafften abconter- 
fetung eines inwendigen carpers des Manns vnd Weybes, mit erklerung 
seiner innerlichen gelider, etc., i^jg. Gedruckt zu Nürnberg durch 
Hans Guldenmundt, 4°. 

Twelve sheets with crude wood engravings between the text, repre- 
senting individual organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities and 
conveying popular instruction in anatomy and remedies for various 
diseases. There are no entire figures among them. The wood blocks 
used are also not the same as those of the above-described plates, but 
blocks by Hans Weygel, which we will mention further on. This book 
was republished in Ulm in 1541, 4°. (Haller, 1, 180.) Guldenmundt was 
a wood engraver and a printer in Nuremberg and is supposed to have 
worked between 1520 and 1546. 

Two sheets with the monogram C. B. in copper, fol. 

Illustrations of a man and a woman with the apple and the flower, 
both nude and in sitting postures. Copied from the above-mentioned 
woodcuts. Here, too, the picture of the front wall of the trunk can be 
opened up, allowing a view of exactly the same anatomy with the same 

' The statutory position of the fttus in ukro was first correctly given in the MS draw- 
ings of Leonardo da Vinci. 


names and the same letters as in the above-mentioned figures. The 
representation of the uterus with the cowering fetus is also entirely the 
same. I am unable to see from the copy before me whether text and 
illustrations surround the main figure, the edges of my copy being cut 
close to the margin of the plate. On the copperplate itself nothing else 
can be seen. Both sheets are colored. On the sheet showing the male 
figure the monogram C. B. is engraved on the left-hand side at the 
bottom. On the second sheet representing the female figure this mono- 
gram is missing. It may stand perhaps for Cornehus Bos (Bus, Bosch), 
a copper engraver and dealer in copper engravings, who moved to Rome 
in 1540. These sheets were probably engraved in Germany or the 
Netherlands before his departure. 

Two sheets: Anothomia, oder ahconterfettung eines Mans leyb, wie 
er innwendig gestaltet ist, .... eines Weyhs leyb, wie er innwendig 
gestaltet ist. Getruckt zu Strasshurg durch Heinrichen Vogtherren, 1539, fol. 

Representations of a man and a woman, nude, sitting figures, with 
some kind of garment thrown around their hips. The right hand 
is hidden behind the thigh, the left hand is lying on the garment, but, 
like the right hand, holds nothing. The apple and the flower are left 
out. The picture of the front wall of the trunk can be folded upward. 
Beneath it the anatomy of the internal organs is not merely drawn, 
but the different pictures of the various organs can also be lifted up 
separately. The names of the organs are printed on the parts either 
in Latin or German. The uterus shows the crouching fetus with its 
hands placed on the sides of its head without covering the eyes. The 
drawing is by far cruder, and the anatomy is even more .obsolete, than on 
Guldenmundt's sheets. Moreover, we find, just as on the latter's sheets, 
printed text with illustrations of the different organs above and on both 
sides of the principal figure. These, indeed, are the same illustrations as 
on the Guldenmundt sheets, but a different wood engraving. Two 
wood engravers and art dealers in Strassburg had the name Heinrich 
Vogther. The older one was a painter, copper etcher, and wood engraver, 
and is supposed to have been born in Augsburg, in 1490. The younger 
one is said to have been born in 15 13. These sheets are probably by 
the older man. [A description of Vogther's plates, in which eight smaller 
anatomic woodcuts are printed, is contained in: Avszlegung vnnd be- 
schreibubg der Anathomi, oder war haßten abconterfetung eynes inwen- 
digen carpers des manns vnnd weibes, mitt erklerung seiner innerlichen, 
gelider etc. Getruckt zu Straszburg durch Heinrichen Vogtherren. Anno 
M.D. XXXiX. 4°, 18 pages Gothic type with signatures and catchword.] 


There is supposed to have been a second edition of the above-described 
Anotliomia, Strassburg, 1544, fol., which Haller saw: Ahconterjeytung 
eines Manns leih, wie er inwendig zu sehen ist, .... eines Weihs 
Leih, etc. This edition was also pubUshed as two illuminated sheets. 
(HaUer, I, 180.) 

[Two sheets: Anatomia interiorum partium humani corporis ac 
earundem situs, figura, numerus, positio, haud iniucunda cognitu. — 
Anatomiae perutilis interiorum muliebris partium cognitio ac earundem 
.... cognitio. Argen torati, apud Jacohum Jacu^ndum, 1551, 1552, fol. 

Representation of a man and a woman with the Latin text on the 
back with smaller illustrations of single organs within. The principal 
figures are identical with those published in 1539 by Vogther in Strass- 
burg. The plate with the male figure bears the date 1551, the female 
figure the later date. Both plates are illuminated.] 

Two sheets: Anathomia oder abconterfectung eines Mans leih, wie er 
inwendig gestaltet ist, .... eines Weihs leib, wie er inwendig gestaltet ist. 
Gedruckt zu Nürnberg, durch Hans Weygel, Formschneyder, 1556, fol. 

They are exact copies of the figures by Vogther, but different and, 
indeed, inferior woodcuts. The internal anatomy is also demonstrated 
in exactly the same way. The smaller woodcuts between the text that 
surrounds the main figure are the same drawings but re-engraved. 
Several of the wood blocks had been used before for Guldenmundt's 
book: Ausslegung und beschreybung der Anatomi, Nürnberg, 1539, 4°. 
Both sheets are illuminated. Hans Weygel of Amberg was a wood 
engraver and art dealer in Nuremberg and died there in 1590, 

Two sheets: Anathomia, oder Ahcontrafectung eines Mans Leih, 
wie er inwendig gestaltet ist, .... eines Weihs Leib, wie er inwendig 
gestaltet ist. Gedruckt zu Nürnberg, durch Matthes Rauch Brieffmaler, 
1584, fol. 

The woodcuts are taken from the same plate which Weygel had been 
using. The arrangement of the sheet is exactly the same. The smaller 
woodcuts in the surrounding text are also taken from the same blocks. 
The only sheet before me, the sheet of the female figure, is illuminated. 

Two sheets: Anathomia oder Ahcontrafectung eines Mans Leib, wie 
er inwendig gestaltet ist, .... eines Weihs Leih, wie er inwendig gestaltet 
ist. Gedruck zu Franckfort am Mayn, bey Conrad Corthoys. s. a. fol. 

The drawing is the same as that of the above-mentioned sheets, i.e., 
it repeats Vogther's figure. The woodcut of the main figure is new and 
so are the smaller woodcuts in the text. All around the sheet runs a 
decorated border; within it is the German explanation with the smaller 


woodcuts, on both sides of and above the main figure. The sheet before 
me, the sheet of the male figure, is illuminated. 

[Two sheets: Anathomia, oder Ahcontrafedung eines Manns Leib, wie 
er inwendig gestaltet ist .... eines Weihs Leib, wie, etc. Gedrukt zu 
Nürnberg, hey Georg Lang, Formschneider, etc., 1588, fol. 

These represent also Vogther's figures, with German text. The 
plate used, however, is another one by Hans Weygel. The sheet 
Choulant describes had a male figure and was illuminated. Georg Lang, 
Formschneider or wood-block cutter and illuminator in Nuremberg, is 
believed to have died in 1620. A comparison of the fugitive leaves 
mentioned on p. 155 and elsewhere in this chapter with the first six 
Vesalian plates will show, by the way, that there are no copies from those 
six plates on any of these sheets. The fugitive leaves are all representa- 
tions of an obsolete pre-Vesalian anatomy.] 

Single sheet: Anatomie tres-vtile, pour congnoistre les parties interieures 
de Vhomme et de la femme. Composee par Maistre Andre Vesali, auec 
ample declaration des veynes principales et maniere de hiene Signer {bien 
saigner), etc. Paris, par Jean de Gourmont, 1585, fol. 

At the top, in the center of the sheet, we see a large woodcut repre- 
senting a tiled bathroom. Above, a small window through which one 
can see a landscape. In the room a nude man sits on a wooden bench 
and at his left sits a nude woman. Both have a narrow garment fastened 
at their hips. The woman's garment covers the right forearm. The 
man is holding his left hand over a water basin. The woman has in 
her right hand a small tablet with a handle on which are inscribed the 
words: Nosce te ipsum. Know thyself. The veins of the arms and 
the feet are drawn only on the male figure and are marked with letters. 
The part representing the anterior wall of the trunk can be turned upward 
and one sees then a pre-Vesahan anatomy of the internal parts of the 
thorax and abdomen, which again may be turned aside separately. On 
the foot-rest of the bench, to the left, we find a monogram R. S., and below 
it the dissecting knife. Above the male figure these words are printed: 
Interiorum corporis humani partium viva delineatio; above the female 
figure the following words: Perutilis anatomes interiorum muliebris par- 
tium cognitio, etc. On both sides of the plate there are anatomic explana- 
tions of the parts. Below them the whole width of the plate is taken 
up by directions for venesection, and the names of the veins involved. 
The woodcut itself is illuminated in colors. The mention of VesaHus 
in the title is only a pretense, for the anatomy is not Vesalian, but 
more obsolete than should have been expected even at that time. A 


second edition of this print was published in Paris for Michel de Matho- 
niere, 1613, fol., using the same plate, but the picture is not colored 
in the copy before me. The printed text is the same and so is the 
title: Anatomie tres-vtile, etc., de bien Seigner, as is here corrected. 
The monogram is also on this plate. These prints belong to the Dutch 
school of art. The monogram should, therefore, not be interpreted as 
standing for Raffaello Sciaminossi (Schiaminossi), who, by the way, 
was not born till 1570 and, for this reason alone, could not have done 
the engraving. There exist, however, two prints done by him, viz.: 

Two copperplates: Aderlassmann von vorn und vom Rücken gesehen, 
14 inches, 10 lines high, 14 inches wide. 

The first print represents the front view of the figure of a naked man, 
to the left of it the head of the same figure, and to the right the abdomen 
of a woman. The places for venesection are indicated. The second 
print represents the back view of a similar figure, with the monogram 
in the lower right-hand corner. 

See Bartsch: Peint. grav. XVI, 211, and following pages: 128, 129; 
see also Nagler: Künsterlexikon, XVI, 156. 

Single sheet: Aderlassfigur. 

This represents a patient prepared for a venesection. The figure 
is sitting at the left, with its arms on a table to the right. On the arms 
the veins are exposed. Cupping instruments, lancets, etc., are lying 
beside the figure. On the floor, also to the right, stands a decorated 
water basin and beside the basin we discern the mark of the famous 
Bolognese painter and copper etcher, Bartolommeo Passarotti (b. 1530- 
d. 1592). At the top we read ^^ Incidendarum Venarum Typus." The 
height of the print is twelve inches; width, eight inches four lines, in 
old French measure. Bartsch did not describe this unusually rare and 
exceedingly clever etching in his work on this master (Peintre graveur, 
XVIII, i). The print may have been intended for a book. Moreover, 
it should be added that illustrations of the bloodletting manikin {Ader- 
lassmann), either as a skeleton or as a muscle-manikin, can be found 
in almost all editions of the French Books of Hours (Heures). 

[Viscerum hoc est interiorum corporis humani partium descriptio is 
the main title of an oblong folio sheet a little more than nineteen inches 
wide, consisting of several prints pasted together. The two central 
prints, each about twelve inches high and five inches wide, show on one 
a nude man seated, and on the other a nude woman seated. Each 
figure, from the sternum down to the pubes, is provided with six and 
seven flaps, respectively, which are cut out and fastened one on top of 


the other in such a way that they may be folded aside to give a view of 
the position and the connections of the internal organs. They are 
marked with letters, with the exception of the uterus and the parts 
relative to the female, which are designated by numbers. Two prints 
of the same size are pasted to the right and left of this print; one at the 
left contains the explanation of the letters (among the names of organs 
Greek and even Arabic occur) while the other one presents the explana- 
tion of the numbers under the title: De utero et mulier ihus vasis. 
Below at the right may be read Membra hominis positu, numeroque 
tabella figurat. Quid longis opus est, si brevis esse potes. and seventeen 
lines to the reader with Lectori S. underneath. To the left of the figure 
of the man there is a shield with the words, Antwerpiae, apud Sylvestrum 
Parisium, Typographum, and between the legs of the woman a similar 
shield with the words Sylvester Parisium, figurarum sculptor imprim^bat 
Antwerpiae. Both figures are well drawn and equally well engraved. 
Sylvestre de Paris was a form-cutter {Formschneider) and printed epistles 
in Antwerp during the first half of the sixteenth century. The descrip- 
tion of this sheet was given by Privy High Councilor of the Treasury 
Sotzmann of Berlin. 

Single sheet: Skeleton. 

This represents a human skeleton on a folio woodcut with the words: 
Anathomia ossium corporis humatii. At the right is stated that it was 
done after Ricardus Hela, Nurinberge, i.4.g.j. This sheet is found 
appended to a work which formerly belonged to the well-known physi- 
cian, Hartmann Schedel, and is now in the possession of the Munich 
Hofbibliothek (Venet. 25. Sept. 1492.). Letters of his are bound with 
the book and are followed by the printed book catalogue of Joh. 
Regiomontanus: Hec opera fient in oppido Nuremberga Germanie ductu 
Joannis de Monteregio (Ebert: no. 18768) on a printed sheet, which 
again is followed by a blank page preceding the plate of the skeleton by 
Hela; cf. H. F. Massmann: Die Zylographa in München, Leipzig, 1841, 
8°, p. 34; Serapeum, 1841, p. 312. 

Two Sheets: Skeleton, A; Viscera-manikin, B. 

These were published by Johann Schott in Strassburg 151 7. foL, 
representing a skeleton and the viscera-manikin. (Weigel: Kunst- 
katalog, no. 18708c, 18777, 20083): 

A. Front view of skeleton, head slightly turned to the right side of 
the body, arms hanging down, on both sides and wherever there is space, 
Latin names of bones have been engraved upon the plate, and in the 
uppermost left-hand corner of the picture the year, 1517. At the top, 


above the plate, is printed in type: Eitt contrajacler Todt mit sein heinen 
fugen vnd glyderen / vnnd gewerben, vsz beuelh loblicher gedächtnüsz 
hertzog Albrechts biscof zu Straszburg, durch meister / Nicklaus bildhawerf 
zu Zabereb worlich in stein abgehawen, vnd noch anzöig rechter gewisszer 
Anatomy / mit sein latinischen namen veriß eiert. Below the plate 
printed in type, twenty-four verses of moral reflections upon death in 
two columns: Der Todt binn ich grausam ungstalt, Vnd doch des lebens 
vfenthalt .... Eer Gott, dein acht, die welt vernicht. Dein seel ewig, der 
leib verblicht, followed by Joh. Schott's printer's mark. 

This is the original form of the sheet. It was designed as a fugitive 
anatomic sheet and not planned for any book, and could well pass for 
an anatomic and emblematic wall-picture. In this form, folded together 
obhquely in the middle, it was first inserted in the first edition of Hans 
von Gerssdorff : (called Schylhans) Feldtbuch der wundartzney, Straszburg, 
bei Johann Schott, 151 7, small folio. In another edition of this book 
which appeared later in a smaller size and also published by Johann 
Schott, Strassburg, 1528, 4°, this plate is also said to occur (Blumenbach: 
Beschreibung der Knochen, preface, page 19), but it is missing in my copy 
and might frequently be missing on account of its being too large for 
the size of the edition. Many an owner of the book might have pre- 
ferred not to have the plate sewed in, but to use it separately. It is 
said to have been omitted altogether in the edition of Straszburg, 1526, 
4°, but to have been inserted in that of 1530. 

The same woodcut, struck off from the same block and folded together 
obliquely in the same fashion, may be found in Laurentius Phryesen von 
Colmar: Spiegel der Artzny, Strassburg, b. Johannes Grieninger, 15 18, 
small folio, but here it is without any printing, i.e., the title, the verses, 
and Schott's printer's mark are omitted. The second edition of this 
. small foho is said to contain only an inferior, somewhat changed 
copy of the skeleton, also without printing (Sotzmann, Deutsches 
Kunstblatt, 1852, no. 2, p. 19). Regarding Phryesen and his works 
see page 130. 

B. Viscera-manikin, part of a male figure, from head to below the 
knees, with a wide piece of cloth thrown over the thighs, thoracic and 
abdominal cavities dissected; also seven accessory figures, the brain, 
cranial cavity, and tongue, with engraved German designations on the 
plate. At the top, above the head, is engraved: Anatomia corporis ] 
humani / . 1517. Above the plate is printed: Ein contra/act Anatomy 
der inneren glyderen des menschen / durch den hochgelerten physicum vnd 
medicine doctorem Wendelinum hoch von Brackenaw, zu Straszburg / 


declariert. vnd eygentlich in heysein viler Scherer vnd Wundärtzt gründtlich 
durchsucht. Below the plate forty-six verses are printed in three col- 
umns : 

Ein spyegel binn ich gschickter ärtzt .... Erlernest vor statt, art, natur Eins 
yeden glyds. als mein figur (Mit gzeügnuss sag ich dir fürwor) Hans wächtlin hat 

recht bey eim hör Abcontrafayt kunstUch vnd wol Als dann klorlich anzeigt 

Guido, Den Hsz vereteütscht im Feldtbuch frey, Danckbar würst sein sey wie im sey. 

"I am a mirror, skilful physician .... you may learn of the place, the kind, and 
the nature of every organ. As my figure was correctly reproduced by Hans Wachtlin 

(I tell you truly and have evidence of it) from a harlot, artistically and well As 

clearly announced by Guido. Read his German version in the Feldtbuch. You will 
be thankful whatever it may be." 

Below the verses: Gedruckt zu Strasshurg / durch Joannem Schott, and 
his printer's mark. 

This indicates the fact that the plate was either drawn or engraved 
by Hans Wächtlin (Vuechtlin) of Basel, also called the master with the 
crossed pilgrim's staves {?nattre aux bourdons croises) and Ulrich Pilgrim 
on account of his monogram, and renowned for a series of passion figures, 
but on the whole known only for a few plates. (Bartsch: Peint. grav. 
VII, 449; Heller: Geschichte der Holzschneidekunst, pp. 74, 432; Weigel: 
Kunstkatalog no. 191 15; Schneegans in Naumann's Archiv für die 
zeichnenden Künste, II, no. 2, pp. 148 £f.) In the drawing and engraving 
this plate excels, especially with regard to the non-anatomic parts, the 
skeleton A, which was evidently done by a less skilful hand. Further- 
more, one learns from the above verses that Schott was then planning 
the publication of Gerssdorff's Feldtbuch der Wundarznei and that, 
although primarily editing the drawing as an independent fugitive 
sheet, he intended to insert it later in this book, which was published 
by him in the same year (15 17). For this book begins with a German 
version of the anatomy given in Guy de Chauliac's surgery, and Guy 
(Guido), mentioned in the forty- third verse (the third verse from the 
last), is the same Guy de Chauliac {Guido de Chauliaco) who, in the first 
half of the fourteenth century, was teaching in Montpellier, and who, 
even later, was still known among French surgeons as Le Guidon, his 
real name being perhaps just as much responsible for this pseudonym 
as his being such a reliable guide to the surgeons. This sheet announced 
itself as an independent fugitive sheet, inasmuch as the appended ana- 
tomic nomenclature and the verses written below are self-explanatory 
from an anatomic and emblematic point of view. It also belonged 
formerly as a fugitive sheet in Meuselbach's library and as such came 
to the Royal Library in Berlin (Sotzmann, loc. cit.). In the form here 


described, it was inclosed (obliquely folded) in the above-mentioned 
edition of Gersdorff's Feldthuch der Wundarznei, Strassburg, 1517, small 
folio. Besides being in the Feldthuch, the print B was also contained in 
the previously mentioned edition by Grieninger of Phryesen's Spiegel 
der Artznei, Strassburg, 15 18, small folio, struck off from the same block, 
but the verses, Schott's address, and his printer's mark are omitted. It 
seems that Grieninger borrowed the plate from Schott and although 
he removed the latter's address and mark, he did not put his own address 
in their stead. The title is the same, but slightly changed, the second 
line beginning with den, and the third reading as follows: declariert 
vnd eygentlich in heywesen viler Scherer Wundartzt gründlich durchsucht. 
(See Phryesen, page 130.) The word vnd is here either accidently 
omitted, or the writer had in mind the French barbiers chirurgiens 
(chirurgi a tonstrina). 

As early as 1517, Schott had another, smaller viscera-manikin, an 
entire figure to below the feet, engraved for Gersdorff's Feldtbuch der 
Wundarznei. This cut shows much poorer drawing and engraving, 
but nevertheless, the larger plate by Wächthn {B) in Hock's anatomy 
might have served the artist as a model for the anatomic parts. The 
figure itself, however, is absolutely different. This smaller plate was 
planned to serve both the demonstration of the anatomy and to indicate 
the places for bloodletting, which are designated on the plate by engraved 
lines and letters. In the lower left-hand corner is engraved: Contra- 
facter Lasszmann, 1517. That this plate was especially engraved for 
Schott's first edition of Gersdorff's Feldtbuch of 151 7 is evident, not only 
from the size of the plate which exactly fits this edition, but also from 
the last words of treatise i , chapter 1 2 of this edition of the Feldtbuch 
(page 13b): 

Solich anatomy ist in der jorzal Christi. M. ccccc. xvij. in der loblichen statt 
Straszburg, in beysein ettlecher der gelerten vnd bewerten physicis, doctoribus, 
chirurgicis vnd schereren noch art ersucht vnd durchgriindt, an eim erbetten todten 
man mit dem sträng gericht. Künstlich declariert durch den erfarnen vnd hoch- 
gelerten medicine doctorem wendelinum hock von Brachenaw, vnd alsbald abcon- 
trafact verzeyshnet mit aller gestalt, färben, vnd worer anzöige wie du es in nochgonder 
figuren findest. 

"Such anatomy was examined in the usual manner and thoroughly investigated 
on the requested cadaver of a man who had been hanged in the year of our Lord, 1 5 1 7, 
in the esteemed city of Strassburg, in the presence of a number of learned and experi- 
enced physicians, surgeons, and practitioners. It was artistically explained by the 
experienced and scholarly doctor of medicine, Wendehnus Hock von Brackenaw, 
and immediately reproduced in drawing in every shape and color, and true declaration, 
as you will find it in the following figures." 


This figure is the illuminated bloodletting manikin, which, in accordance 
with its double purpose, is inserted between chapter 12, the last chapter 
of the anatomy and chapter 13 : von alien Adern so zu schlagen sind. It is 
repeated, by the way, without illumination on page 54b. Since Wächt- 
lin's plate B, and not this smaller copy, illustrated Hock's anatomy, 
it seems that Schott decided later to insert this larger and better plate 
in the Feldtbuch. In the edition of the Feldthuch of Strassburg, 1528, 4°, 
we again find the bloodletting manikin, but the quoted passage is changed 
and evidently mentions all three plates {A , the skeleton, B, the viscera- 
manikin, and the bloodletting manikin). Here the last passage of the 
anatomy (page 16) is as follows: 

Vnnd dieweil der augenschyn ein grosszer behilff ist findest du in nachgonder, 
vnd zwo vorgonden figuren eygentilich aller sychtlichen, jinneren vnd vsszeren 
glyderen, beynen, vnnd äderen gewisszliche anzöig, so zu Straszburg warlich con- 
trafact vnnd deutlich verzeychnet ist ab eim todten, vnnd darzu erbettenen mann 
mit dem sträng gericht. Anno Christi. M. D. XVII. 

"And since seeing is a great aid, you will find in the following and the two pre- 
ceding figures true pictures of almost all the visible internal and external organs, 
bones, and blood vessels, as faithfully reproduced in Strassburg and distinctly drawn 
from a dead man, who had been hanged, and had been asked for for this purpose in 
the year of our Lord, 151 7," 

and is followed by the bloodletting manikin not illuminated. This 
figure then, is the following, the skeleton and the viscera-manikin, the 
plates A and B are the two preceding figures. It is, therefore, incor- 
rect to assume that all three plates are by Gersdorff, and it remains 
doubtful whether all the pictures contained in the Feldtbuch were drawn 
by Wächtlin, as has been asserted. 

Copperplate: Skeleton. 

A copper engraving by Giovanni Battista Franco, called il Simoleo, 
seventeen inches high, twelve inches vdde, representing a profile view 
of a human skeleton down to the knees, looking to the left, and extending 
half-way into the border, showing at the top a skull and on the right side, 
bones of the extremities. Giovanni Battista Franco was born at Udine 
in 1498 or 1510 and died in 1561 or 1580. There is also another plate 
drawn by him, in the form of a frieze, representing on one plate various 
skulls etched by Niccola Nelli. On the left at the bottom, we read: 
B. F. V. JN. NN. ex 1563; which means: Baptista Franco Vdinensis 
invenit Niccola Nelli excudit. (Bartsch: Peint. grav. XVI, pp. 141, 155.) 

Fourteen copperplates: Muscle-manikin. 

Fourteen copperplates in quarto, containing artistic anatomy and 
designed, drawn, and engraved by Giulio Bonasone, who lived at Bologna 


from 1530 to 1580. Each plate represents a muscle-manikin, the last 
one (the 14th) representing a skeleton with its left side still covered 
with flesh. The representation of the muscles, on the whole, is good, 
that of the skeleton is poor. The positions are varying, always pic- 
turesque, and always Hfehke. Some of the figures are holding in their 
hands a staff or a rope, others the flayed skin. The background of all 
the plates without exception is crosshatched with horizontal strokes, 
some of the plates, have a monogram containing the initials, JVB. 
Bartsch describes thirteen of these plates {Peint. grav. XV, 167, no. 329- 
41), the fourteenth, marked No. 14, which remained unknown to him, 
is described by Rudolph Weigel {Kunstkatalog, no. 18708, letter O.); 
only I, 2, 4, 5, 9, 12, 14 had been seen by Choulant. 

Eight copperplates: Skeletons and Muscle-manikins. 

Eight (or ten) copperplates of anatomic contents (skeletons, muscle- 
manikins, and similar subjects) with the signature of Ph. Galle fecit et 
excudit; probably they were used later in Instructions et fondemens de 
Men pourtraire pour les peintres, etc. Antwerp, 1589, fol. by this artist 
and copper engraver (Weigel Kunstkatalog, no. 18708, letter N.). Galle 
was born in 1537 and died in 1612.] 

1 68 


Drawings in Red Chalk Made by Jan van Kalkar for the Vesalian Treatise 


Andreas Vesalius was born in Brussels in 1513, or 1514, and came 
from a family of physicians of Wesel in the Duchy of Cleves; the family 
name, originally being Wittings, was changed later to Wesele or Wessale, 
after the name of this city. He was educated at Lou vain, studied medi- 
cine at Montpellier and Paris, and then returned to Louvain, where he 
began to teach anatomy. [Johann Guintherus Andernacensis and Jacob 
Sylvius (Johann Winther of Andernach and Jacques Dubois) are to be 
mentioned particularly as his teachers. Both became later his most 
ardent opponents.] About 1535 he was in France as army surgeon of 
Charles V, later going to Italy for his studies, where in 1537 he became 
professor of anatomy in Padua, teaching also in Bologna and Pisa. In 
1543, he was called to the court of Charles V, and soon to his army at 
Geldern. Later he returned to Italy, visited Brussels and Basel after- 
ward, and spent some time in Madrid at the court of Philip II as his 
physician in ordinary. Later, he set out on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, 
but while on the island of Cyprus he received a call to Padua to occupy 
the chair of Fallopius. On the way he was shipwrecked and died on the 
Isle of Zante, October 15, 1564. [In 1847, the city of Brussels erected 
a bronze statue by Joseph Geefs to the memory of Vesalius.] 

The chief task of his life was to revolutionize the teaching of the 
anatomy of the human body and to overthrow the then prevailing 
teachings of Galen, who had based his work only upon animal dissec- 
tion. Vesalius, in this way, became the founder of modern anatomy, 
and, as everywhere in this field, he was active also as a reformer of pic- 
torial anatomic representation. He supervised with the greatest care 
the artists who were working from his dissections and whom he had 
probably chosen with equal discrimination. Repeatedly he complains 
of the trouble they had caused him. His illustrations are executed most 
truthfully, with skill and taste, chiefly from dissections of strong youth- 
ful bodies, in free bold drawings, and are printed from clear and forceful 
wood engravings. The bones and muscles are reproduced most beauti- 
fully and with supreme power, and with greater anatomic exactitude 
than heretofore. The viscera, blood vessels, and nerves are less correctly 
interpreted, but then it is true that form was of less use here to the 
artist and that anatomic research was still too little developed. 



As designer of the Vesalian illustrations both the famous painter 
Titian, Tiziano Vecelli, and Christoforo Coriolano have been named, 
but either possibility is, without even mentioning other conditions, 
highly improbable for chronological reasons. Titian was more than 
sixty years old at the time when Vesalius' first plates appeared, and was 
much sought after and renowned, while Coriolano was still living in 
1600, and published his earliest work in 1568. 

With more correctness, the Vesalian drawings have been ascribed 
to a pupil of Titian, Jan Stephan Kalkar (died 1546), whose paintings 
were often difficult to distinguish from those of his master. To justify 
this assumption we find on the Vesalian plates, published in 1538, 
sumptibus Joannis Stephani Calcarensis. Moreover, Vesalius himself 
says in a dedicatory letter to this edition: 

Ulis tabellis alias adjunximus, quibus meum o-k« Actov nuper in studiosorum 
gratiam constructum Joannes Stephanus, insignis nostri saeculi pictor, tribus partibus 
appositissime expressit. 

"To those pictures I have added others with which my skeleton, recently articu- 
lated for the gratification of the studious has been most appropriately illustrated 
in three parts by John Stephanus, a distinguished painter of our time." 

Furthermore, Vesalius at the conclusion of the Epistola docens venam 
axillarem, etc. (p. 66), speaking of his future works, says: 

Si corporum dabitur opportunitas et suam operam Joannes Stephanus, insignis 
nostrae aetatis pictor, non denegaverit, etc. 

"If John Stephanus, the distinguished painter of our age, shall be given the 
opportunity of studying bodies along his own lines, he shall not be found wanting,' ' 

that is to say, he names again the same artist. Further indications have 
not been found. Probably the artist also engraved the pictures on wood, 
since the treatment throughout is ingenious and highly artistic. 

[High Councilor of the Treasury Sotzmann, of Berlin, lately expressed 
the opinion that Giuseppe Porta, alias Salviati, a native of Garfagnana 
in Modena might have drawn (perhaps also cut) the woodcut title in 
Vesalius' two principal works, representing the dissection of a female 
cadaver before a large assembly; cf. Serapeum, 1850, p. 69. Oslander, 
on the other hand, believes that Oporinus, himself, designed the sketch 
for the title and asserts that he found on the seventh myologic plate, 
at the bottom among the plants a ''D.," being the monogram of the 
woodcutter, but I have not been able to find that. (Oslander : Lehrbuch 
der Efitbindungskunst I, 113.)] 

The dimensions of the height in the largest or principal plates by 
Vesalius are as follows: 


1. The first six plates of 1538 by Bernard Vitalis: Sixteen inches, 
three lines, in the old French measure, or four hundred and thirty-six 
millimeters, new French measure. 

2. In the books De corporis humani fahrica of 1543 and 1555: Twelve 
inches, three to nine lines, old French measure, or three hundred and 
twenty-nine to three hundred and forty-three millimeters. 

3. In the Epitome of 1543, the measurements peculiar to this book are: 
Fifteen inches, six lines to sixteen inches, three lines, in old French 
measure, or four hundred and fifteen to four hundred and thirty-six 

The two large folded sheets with illustrations of the nerves, veins, 
and arteries as they appear in the De corporis humani fahrica and the 
Epitome measure sixteen inches or four hundred and thirty-one milli- 
meters in height. 

As to the figures which were published in Venice in 1538, there is no 
doubt that they were engraved in Italy, but it is equally certain of the 
illustrations which we find in the books De corporis humani fahrica, and the 
Epitome. These, too, were engraved in Italy, for Vesalius, in 1542, sent 
the woodplates for both works, through the Milanese mercantile house 
Danoni, from Padua to Basel to the printer Oporinus. Inclosed with 
this shipment was the manuscript of these works and proofsheets 
of all the illustrations, evidently carefully executed under the eyes of 
the artist. This proof was recommended to Oporinus as a model. All 
this becomes apparent from a letter dated Venetiis, nono Calendas 
Septemhres (i.e., August, 1542), which VesaHus wrote from Padua to 
Oporinus in Basel, and which Oporinus printed as a preface to the two 
editions of the books De corporis humani fahrica of 1543 and 1555: 

Joanni Opwrino graecarum literarum apud Basilienses professori, amico charis- 
simo suo. Accipies brevi simul cum his Uteris per Mediolanenses mercatores Danonos 
tabulas ad meos de Humani corporis fahrica libros, et eorundem Epitomen sculptas . 
Utinam tarn integre ac tuto Basileam perferantur, atque sedulo cum sculptore et 
Nicolao Stopio, hie Bombergorum negociorum fidelissimo curatore, in humaniori- 
busque studiis apprime versato iuvene, eas compK)sui: ne aliqua ex parte atterantur, 
aliudve incommodum ipsis vectura inferat. Inter tabularum seriem exemplar 
frustatim reposuimus, simul cum impresso singularum figurarum typo, cui quo 
quaeque loco reponenda veniat asscripsi: ne forte illarum ordo ac disp>ositio tibi 
tuisve operis negocium facesseret, figuraeque non ordinatim imprimerentur, etc. 
.... Praecipuum studium in tabularum impressione erit impendendum, quod non 
vulgariter ac scholastice, velutque simplicibus duntaxat lineis sint expressae: nusquam 
picturae ratione (si interdum locum quo res delineatae suffulcirentur, excipias) 
neglecta. Et quanquam hie iudicio valeas, nihilque non de tua industria et sedulitate 
mihi f>ollicear, hoc unum percuperem, ut inter excudendum id exemplar quam 


proxime imitareris, quod a sculptore speciminis sui loco impressum, una cum ligneis 
formis reclusum invenies. Ita enim nullus character, quantumvis etiam in umbra 
reconditus, oculatum sedulumque lectorem latitabit, et quod in hac pictura longe 
est artificiosissimum, mihique spectatu perquam iucundum, linearum in quibusdam 
partibus crassities simul cum eleganti umbrarum obfuscatione apparebit. Verum 
non, est, quod haec tibi perscribam, quum in papyri laevitate soliditateque, ac in 
primis in vestrarum operarum diligentia positum sit, ut singula, quale nunc mittimus 
exemplar, nosque hie aliquot impressimus, ex tua Officina omnibus proponantur, 
multisque fiant communia. Dabo operam, ut non multo post ad vos proficiscar 
et si non toto impressionis tempore, saltem aliquandiu Basileae commorer, mecumque 
formulam decreti Senatus Veneti allaturus, quo cavetur, ne quis tabularum aliquam 
absque meo consensu imprimat, etc. 

"To John Oporinus, Professor of Greek literature at Basel, his very dear friend. 
You will receive in a short time together with this letter, through the merchants 
Danoni of Milan, the engraving (See Latin and also p. 269.) to go with my books On 
the Structure of the Human Body and the Epitome of these. I only wish they may 
reach Basel undamaged and in a condition of security commensurate in some degree 
to the pains I have been at in preparing them, a task in which I have been ably 
seconded by the engraver and by Nicholas Stopius, the trusted business agent of the 
Bomburgers in this town and a young man of no mean accomplishments along 
scholarly lines. I hope they will not be bruised in any way and that the journey 
may not cause them any sort or kind of damage. In among the series of engravings 
I have distributed the text by pages, together with proofs of each of the figures, 
adding directions to show where each belongs in the finished work, as a safeguard 
to prevent the order and distribution of these from causing any trouble to you or 

your workmen and the figures from being printed out of the proper order, etc 

Particular pains must be used in printing the engravings, since these are not made 
in the common and ordinary manner and as it were in outline only; neglect nowhere 
the matter of the picture (even if you do occasionally omit the text on which the 
illustrations are based). And although in this respect you are a most capable judge, 
and I have the most complete confidence in your industry and pains, I should par- 
ticularly desire this one thing, that in printing, you would follow as nearly as possible 
the printed copy sent by the engraver in place of his own draft and enclosed with the 
wood blocks. For this will insure that no character, however much in the back- 
ground, will escape the keen-sighted and attentive reader, and that that feature 
which is most artistic about these pictures and to my eye exceedingly attractive, I 
mean the thickness of the lines, together with the nice shading, will be clearly 
apparent. But there is no need for me to write you at length about these matters, 
since it depends upon the smoothness and firmness of the paper, and particularly 
upon the carefulness of your workmen, that after the pattern of this copy which 
we now send you and which we have several times printed here, each detail should 
be issued by your shop to the general public and become common property. I will 
do my best to make the trip to your city before very long and to remain at Basel, 
if not during the whole time that the work is in press, for some time at least. I will 
bring with me the text of the decree of the Senate of Venice forbidding anyone to 
print any one of these plates without my consent, etc." 


This is the text as it appears in the edition of 1543, parts of which 
appear changed in the reprint of 1555 in which Stopius, who assisted the 
artist in folding and the packing of the plates, is not mentioned any more 
as the manager of a mercantile house, but is rather praised for his human- 
istic learning. It is certainly not a new letter, for it still bears the same 
date and, moreover, the Epitome was not printed again in 1555. 
The works of Vesalius belonging to this group are the following: 
Six plates large fol. Imprimehat B{ernardinus) . Vitalis, Venetus, 
siimptihus Joannis Stephani Calcarensis. Prostant vero in qfficina 
D. Bernardi, A. 1538. 

These are of the utmost scarcity, since as fugitive sheets (fliegende 
Blätter) they were bound to get lost very soon. But that they were 
actually published becomes apparent from the fact that Vesalius, in a 
letter to Oporinus, prefixed to one of the books De corporis humani 
fabrica (Basil. 1543), already complains of plagiarisms^ committed in 
Augsburg, Cologne, Paris, Strassburg, Marburg, and Frankfort. Even 
as late as 1790, the physician, Antonio Fantuzzi, bequeathed a beautiful 
specimen to St. Mark's Library in Venice. These plates, the third of 
which bears the above-mentioned address, were dedicated to the imperial 
court physician, Narcisso Partenopeo Vertuneo, on the first of April, 
1538; see also Morelli in his book, to be reviewed later, pp. 232 ff., and 
also Fiorillo, Geschichte der zeichnenden Künste von ihrer Wiederauf- 
lebung, etc., II, 82. That there really existed six plates becomes evident 
from the letter mentioned; that the three skeletons in the book De 
corporis humani fabrica are identical with three of the six plates, appears 
to be proved by the passage quoted from the dedicatory letter (tribus 
partibus). To judge from reprints to be mentioned later, these plates 

^ Andreae Vesalii Tabulae analomicae, tres, fol. Vanderhaeghen {Bibliotheca hclgica 
lilt. V, 78) describes three plates which are, without title and place of publication, in the 
Grand-Ducal Library at Darmstadt. They are a reprint of plates i, 2, and 3 of the Tabulae 
analomicae, Venet. 1538. 

On the basis of the following sentence which occurs in the preface, Ipsum auiem corpus 
picltirae suis lincatnenlis ex elcgantissimo rcddidimus longe clcgantius ("the body itself and 
also the contours are reproduced in the most attractive manner"), Roth (pp. 122-24) believes 
that we have here the first three plates of the Cologne reprint, which as yet have not been 
seen by anyone. The above-quoted sentence must also occur in the Cologne reprint, even 
according to Vesalius himself. Vanderhaeghen is of the opinion, however, that these plates, 
according to the letter written to Oporinus by Vesalius in the Fabrica of 1543, constitute 
the Paris reprint. It is a fact that the Paris reprint consisted of three plates which represented 
the internal organs while the illustrations of the skeleton were missing, according to Vesalius, 
on account of the technical difficulties of the engraving. See De Feyfer, Janus, Amsterdam, 
XIX (1914), 442-43- 



showed the skeleton from the front, from the back, and from the side, 
one plate illustrated the liver and the spleen with the portal vein, and 
the genitals of both sexes; another one showed the liver with the venae 
cavae and its tributaries; while still another illustrated the heart and 
the aorta with its branches. A plate on the nerves appears not to have 
been among them, but Vesalius had one designed in a hand drawing, 

and this was published in Cologne in 1539 as a woodcut, but without 
his knowledge/ 

' In 1874, the plates were reprinted in facsimile by Sir William Sterling Maxwell, with 
the title-page: Tabulae anatomicae sex. Venetiis, stimptibus Joannis Stephani Calcarensis, 
1538, title-page, 61, 6 pi. eleph. fol. London, privately printed for Sir William Sterling 
Maxwell, 1874. 

The plates correspond with the description given by Choulant. A copy was presented 
to the Surgeon-General's Library by Sir Sterling Maxwell and has been described by the 
late Dr. Robert Fletcher in the Tr. Coll. Phys. Phil., 1909, 340-42. From the fact that these 



[The first six Vesalian plates of the year 1538 had, on account of 
their great rarity, not been seen by Choulant at the time of his writing 
the chapter on Vesalius. Their description was based on conclusions 
drawn from comparisons of various reports. Later he saw the originals 
and satisfied himself that the description given above is in every way 

perfectly correct. On the third plate representing a back view of the 
skeleton the following is printed on a small curved shield leaning against 
a felled tree trunk: Imprimebat Venetijs B. Vitalis Venetus sumptihus 

plates show the traditional five-lobed liver, and that the skeletons and visceral schemata 
therein are far inferior to those in the Fabrica, five years later, Sudhoff argues a sudden leap 
in Vesalius' power of seeing things correctly, which may have been due to the fact that he 
had seen some of Leonardo's drawings meanwhile and profited by his study of them. This 
assumption is based upon the existence of a set of four skeletal figures, possibly by Leonardo, 
in the Uffizi, hand drawings which Sudhoff describes in the München, med. Wockenschr., 
LVII (1910), 2210. 


Joannis Stephani Calcarensis. Prostrant verd in qfficina D. Bernardi, 
A . 1538. On the lower margin of this third plate it stated that 
the plates are protected through Privilegium granted by the Pope, the 
Emperor, and the Commonwealth of Venice, against piracy. The 
first two plates and the last three have no such printed notice. All 
contain woodcut figures and are printed on one side only. In the copy 
before me, they are illuminated in colors, on a yellow background. 
Plate I shows on the right the frontal view of an erect skeleton with the 
right arm bent at the elbow joint so that the forearm points upward; 
the left arm hanging down; at the top is the title Humani corporis ossa 
parte anter iori expressa; on the left of the plate explanations and Greek, 
Latin, Hebrew, and Arabic nomenclature are given. Plate 2 shows a 
side view of the skeleton, in the same position as the former; to the left 
is a similar explanation ; at the top the title : Lateralis crK^XeTov figurae 
designatio; on the lower margin of both these plates remarks are made 
about the number of bones in the entire body with the following distich: 
Adde guater denis his centum senaque hahehis Quam sis multiplici conditus 
esse, semel. Plate 3 shows a back view of the same skeleton. The 
skeleton is on the left side of the plate, the explanation on the right side; 
the title is: "2/ceXeroj' a tergo delineatum.''^ The feet of all three skele- 
tons are on grass-covered ground; the third plate has the above- 
mentioned tree trunk. On plate 4, only the lower two-thirds are given 
to the illustration, the upper one-third is devoted to text. The principal 
figure represents the liver with five lobes and the oblong spleen with the 
enlargement of the portal vein. Two smaller figures represent the 
genitals of both sexes with the abdominal blood vessels and the spermatic 
vessels ; with the male genitals are also given the liver (with two lobes) , 
the kidneys, and the urinary bladder; with the female genitals, the 
bottom of the uterus, curved and not divided into horns, the tubes leaving 
at the sides. A third very small figure represents the (urinary) bladder 
with the ureters, the seminal vesicle, and the vas deferens on both sides. 
The explanation of the larger illustration is given to the left of this, the 
smaller representations are without any explanation but have in place 
of it (as has the larger figure also) a title: Jecur sanguificationis officina, 
etc. Generationis organa, etc. Above- the illustrations is a long dedica- 
tion which is largely made up of complimentary expressions. 

Plate 5 represents, in a woodcut, taking up the full length of the 
plate, the distribution of both venae cavae in the body (i.e., the entire 
venous system), including the five-lobed liver, and the right kidney. 
Explanations are on both sides of the plate. The title is on the upper 


margin: Venae cavae, iecorariae, etc., descriptio, qua sanguis omnium 
partium nutrimentum per Universum corpus dißunditur. —I*\a.te 6 repre- 
sents in an equally large woodcut, with explanations at both sides of the 
plate, the distribution of the aorta in the body (i.e., the entire arterial 
system), besides the undissected heart, and the two kidneys. Both 
internal carotids are shown above entering the Galenic rete mirabile 
from which the two chorioid plexuses of the lateral ventricles start 
forward. On the side (in the explanation) this is designated as: Plexus 
recticularis ad cerebri basim, Rete mirabile, in quo vitalis Spiritus ad 
animalem praeparatur, while in the books of the De corporis humani 
fabrica (1543, pages 310, 621, 642; 1555, pages 501, 771, 796) this net- 
work is asserted to occur only in animals and to be wholly lacking in 
the human being. The title on the upper margin of the plate is as 
follows: Arteria magna, aoprrj, etc. ex sinistra cordis sinu oriens, et 
vitalem spiritum toti corpori deferens, naturalemque calorem per con- 
tractionem et dilatationem temperans. On the lower margin of the three 
last plates the number of principal branches of the portal vein is given 
as seven, those of the venae cavae as one hundred and sixty-eight, those 
of the aorta as one hundred and forty-seven. 

It thus follows from an inspection of these six original plates that 
they are indeed nothing else but fugitive sheets, as was stated on 
page 173; that as assumed before on page 173, no neurologic plate is 
among them ; that none of the illustrations have been inserted in De 
carp. hum. fabrica or in the Epitome; and that Vesalius, on the con- 
trary, corrected later much that was represented on them and chose 
for his drawings more beautiful and freer forms. It is also evident 
that the skeletons represented on these six plates are much more 
correct and more beautiful than those contained in Wechel's Osteotome, 
and that Meeker's reproductions are complete and fairly faithful copies. 
The artist of the three skeletons in Ryfl's Anatomy evidently had those 
represented in Vesalius' six plates or in Meeker's reproductions before 
him and copied them poorly.] 

Epistola docens venam axillarem dextri cubiti in dolore laterali secandam; 
et melancholicum succum ex venae portae ramis ad sedem pertinentibus 
pur gari, Basil., in officina Roberti Winter, mense Aprili, 1539, 4°, 68 pp.^ 

' Idem, Apud Cominum De Trinido Montisferraii. Anno, 1544, 8°, 66 pp. This a reprint 
of the preceding one. Haeser (II, 36) gives Palav. 1544, 8°. It is dedicated to Nicholas 
Florenati, physician to Charles V, and is dated, Palavij, ex aedibus filiorum Illustrissimi 
Comitis GabrieUs ab Ortembiirg. Calen. Januarij. Anno saint is M.D.XXXIX. 

According to Roth (p. 95) this letter was written in 1536 at Louvain, but was not pub- 
lished until 1539. It came about through a request of Nicholas Florenati who wanted to 


On page forty-one is a wood engraving illustrating crudely the 
veins of the breast. This has not been taken into the complete edition 
of the works of Vesalius, as prepared for publication by Boerhaave and 

De humani corporis fabrica libri Septem, Basil., ex officina Joannis 
Oporini, 1543, mense Junio, fol. max., 12 and 66 j pp. with 18 unnumbered 

On the title-page is a large woodcut: VesaHus standing beside a 
dissecting table upon which there lies a female body with the abdominal 
cavity opened; Vesalius' left hand with the forefinger raised, his right 
hand holding a pointer and resting upon the cadaver; at the head of 
the body a skeleton standing erect with a long staff in its right hand. 
Surrounding these is a large assembly of people of different classes. On 
the left, in the window, stands a nude man clinging to a column, while 
at the bottom, on the right, we see a living dog brought in. Above, 
upon the architecture and to the left, we find Johann Oporinus' mono- 
gram $; in the center the three weasels (Vesalius' coat-of-arms) upon a 
shield the margin of which shows three buttons. At the bottom the 
picture is finished with a curved and decorated shield, upon which 
the privilege (Privilegium) is printed. The title-page is followed by the 
dedication to Charles V, dated Patavii, Calendis Augusti, 1542, and 
Vesalius' letter to Oporinus, dated Venetiis, nono Calendas Septembres, 
from which I have already quoted a few passages ; others I shall mention 
later. After that, at the end of the introductory remarks, a bust of 
Vesalius, showing Vesalius as he demonstrates the muscles of the arm of 
a female cadaver. On the edge of the table these words are engraved : 
An. A et., XXVIII. M.D.XLI I. Ocyus, iucunde et tuto. Partly printed 
between the text, partly printed on separate pages, there now follow the 
proper wood engravings illustrating the anatomy. On page 237 (cor- 
rectly, page 235), we find all the instruments for dissecting brought 
together in one illustration. Among the anatomic figures there should 
be: three entire skeletons (pages 163-65), fourteen illustrations of the 
entire muscle-manikin (pages 170-208), two pictures of the veins and 
arteries (pages 268 and 295), and two larger folded sheets (pages 313, 353). 

know Vesalius' stand with regard to phlebotomy in pleuritis, a burning question in those 
days. Besides this he states, at the end, his relations to Jan van Calcar. Both editions 
contain a wood engraving, venae thoracem nutrientes. De Feyfer, loc. cit., 448, 2. 

' Dc humani corporis fabrica, lib., VII, ad Carolutn Quinhim Imperatorem, Lugduni, apud 
loan. Tornaesium, 1552, 16°; Part I, 981 and 74 pp.; Part II, 833 and 76 pp. A pocket 
edition of the Fabrica, 1543, in two parts, mutilated here and there. The illustrations are 
omitted except on pages 130, 131, and 132 of Part I. De Feyfer, loc. cit., 454, 2. 




On account of the date of the dedication, this edition is sometimes 
said to have been pubHshed in 1542, which, however, is incorrect. See 
also Weigel, no. 3513. 

Suorum de humani corporis fahrica librorum epitome. Colophon; 
Basil, ex officina Joannis Oporini, Anno 1543, mense Junio; large fol. 
14 leaves.^ 

This work is very rare and is incomplete in most of the existing edi- 
tions, because it never was intended to be bound together, but rather 
for use in separate sheets, as appears from the concluding paragraph on 
sheet M. It should, therefore, also be included in the group of fugitive 
sheets (fliegende Blätter). The twelve first sheets bear the signature 
A-M and are printed on both sides. The two last sheets, following 
the concluding paragraph, are without signature and are printed on one 
side only. All the individual parts are intended to be cut out, and are 
to be pasted together into two whole figures. Elaborate directions for 
this procedure are given. These last two sheets, therefore, are most 
frequently given. The Epitome appeared in the same month and year, 
but probably after the principal work, as appears from the text of the 
dedication : 

Quae quoad fieri licet succincte ac minus operose ea exprimat, quae sept em 
huius argumenti libris diffuse complexus sum, quorum haec Epitome semita quaedam 
aut appendix etiam iure habebitur, capita quae illis demonstrantur acervatim com- 
prehendens, etc. 

"This, in so far as it may be done, is to express briefly and with less effort those 
matters which I have discussed at length in the seven books of this treatise. The 
Epitome of these will be rightly regarded as a sort of short cut or appendix, including 
in a single chapter those matters which are explained in the previous books." 

In the larger work the Epitome is not mentioned. The title-page is 
made from the same plate as that in the edition of the principal work 
of 1543, and so are also Vesalius' picture on page 11 (G), the skeleton, 
page 17 (K), the nerves, page 21 (M), and the chief figure as well as 
several smaller figures among the sheets without signature. On the 
other hand, we do not find in the principal work the five myologic plates 
(pages 12-16, G, H, I), and the nude figures of a man and a woman 

'The following editions of the Epitome, 1543, contain no illustrations: 

a) Parisiis, apud Andream Wechelum, sub Pegaso, in vico Bellovaco, 1560, 8°, 142 pp., 
dedicated to Philip II, and taken from Geminus. In addition has, Externarum humani 
corporis sedium partiumve citra dissectionem occurrennum appellationes; 

b) Witenbergae, typus Zachariae Lehmani, 1582, 8°, 108 pp., probably a reprint of the 
text of the London edition of 1545; 

c) Witenbergae, impensis Bechtoldi Raben, lypus M. Georgij Mulleri, 1603, 8, no pp., 
a reprint of the above. De Feyfer, loc. cit., 456, 7; 457, 9; 457, 10. 


(pages i8, 19, K, L), the latter especially well drawn and beautifully 
executed. These seven plates have been added in the Epitome. The 
dedication to Crown Prince Philip (later King Philip II of Spain) is 
signed Patavii idibus Augusti 1542, and this sometimes led to the incor- 
rect assumption that the Epitome appeared in 1542. [The Epitome is 
indeed mentioned in a passage of the principal work {De corp. hum. fahr. 
II. VII.), that is in the dedication, where in both editions, we read: 

quemadmodum in Epitome praestiti: quam veluti horum libronim semitam ac in 
illis demonstratorum indicem praeparavi, 

"as I have shown in the Epitome: which I have prepared as a short cut to these 
books and an index of the matters shown therein." 

This also confirms the statement that the Epitome came out later than 
the principal work, and that at the pubhcation of the latter he had the 
former only in preparation. The same facts are brought out in a letter 
which Vesalius wrote to Oporinus on August 24, 1542 (p. 171). The 
wood blocks for the principal work were shipped, together with those 
for the Epitome, from Padua to Basel, which indicates that the latter 
had not yet been published. And here, too, the principal work is 
mentioned before the Epitome] In the Epitome the myologic figures 
are presented rather according to their innermost positions, and on one 
side of the body different positions are shown than on the other side. 
The figures are set on shorter bases which do not occupy the whole width 
of the sheet. Weigel, no. 16375. 

The text of the Epitome and a commentary are contained in Andreae 
Vesalii Epitome anatomica, cui accessere notae ac commentaria P. Paaw, 
Lugd. Batav. 1616, 4", 224 pp. The illustrations are missing, and in 
their place we find 13 small well-engraved copperplates. 

[An edition similar to Paaw's with commentary by Nicolaus Fontanus, 
but with the dedication and the myologic figures omitted and many 
inferior reprints from the principal work added, was pubHshed in 
Amstelod., apud Joann. Jansonium 1642, fol. It seems, however, that 
the copperplates had already been used, particularly for a German 

De humani corporis fabrica libri septem, Basil., per Joannem Oporinum. 
Colophon: Basileae, ex officina Joannis Oporini. Anno 1555, mense 
Aitgusto, large fol., 12 and 824 pp. with 23 unnumbered leaves. 

The second edition of the principal work prepared for publication 
.by Vesalius himself, slightly elaborated in the text and provided with a 

' Idem. Amstelreodami, apud Henric-Laurent., 1633, 4°, a reprint of the edition of 


few new smaller woodcuts, pages 17, 18, 79, 121, 196, 560, 588, and 674. 
The remaining plates are taken from the wood engravings used in the 
edition of 1543. Thus, we find Lib. II. musculor. tab. Ill on page 218 
to have the same crack in the lower left-hand corner as in the former 
edition on page 178. On the other hand, the title-page is an absolutely 
new woodcut. The designer had the original plate in mind, but has 
repeatedly taken liberties. The skeleton holds a scythe, the man at 
the left near the window is clothed, at the lower right-hand corner we 
see two animals brought in. Oporinus' monogram is missing and the 
coat-of-arms with the weasels shows on its margin ten buttons. The 
lower shield with the Privilege is a board intended for vivisections. 
Vesalius' face is turned more to the front, his right sleeve fits tightly, 
the genitals of the cadaver are covered by the parts of the bladder turned 
down and aside. Otherwise we find the same arrangement of the figures. 
The anatomic illustrations of the Epitome, which are missing in the edi- 
tion of the principal work of 1543, are not found here either. The 
impression of the woodcuts is often clearer and more beautiful than in 
the previous edition; some of the figures have been somewhat improved 
upon in the cutting and in the lettering. The presswork is more splendid ; 
the fancy initials throughout are larger and more beautiful and are also 
adorned with drawings different from those of the first edition. This 
second edition therefore has, especially for practical purposes, advan- 
tages over the first on account of additions in the text and in the illustra- 
tions and particularly on account of its more splendid makeup. At 
the end we find errata, alphabetical index, colophon and the printer's 
device. See Weigel, no. 4017. This second edition appeared later in 
smaller size: 

De humani corporis fabrica libri septem, Venetiis, apud Franciscum 
Franciscium Senensem et Johannem Criegher Cermanum, 1568, small fol. 
12, 510 and 45 pp. 

The woodcut title-page and the bust of Vesalius are missing. The 
remaining woodcuts are of smaller size, and are executed most carefully 
though less clearly, but very neatly, by Johann Criegher (Krüger) of 
Pommern, who is mentioned on the title-page. See Weigel, no. 6809. 

This edition was reprinted from the same plates and republished at 

Venet., apud Joan. Anton, et Jac. de Franciscis. s.a. fol.; 8, 510 and 

45 PP- 

Under a special title is inserted: Universa antiquorum anatome^ 
ex Rufo Ephesio tribus tabellis (tables, not figures) explicata per Fabium 
Paulinum, Venet. 1604, fol. 


This copy of Vesalius' work corresponds page by page with the edition 
of 1568, but is actually a new edition. 

Among the complete editions of Vesalius' works which appeared with 
and without illustrations, the following is distinguished by its beauty 
and careful preparation: 

Andreae Vesalii Opera omnia anatomica et chirurgica, cura Hermanni 
Boerhaave et Bernhardi Siegfried Albini, Tom. I. II. Lugd. Batav., 
a pud. Joann. du Vivie et Joann. et Hermann. Verbeek, 1725, large fol. 

In this edition, the woodcuts of the principal work and of the Epitome 
are very beautifully copied and engraved on copper in the original size 
by Jan Wandelaer. The title-page in copper is engraved after the 
edition of 1543. Oporinus' monogram, however, is omitted and the 
architecture is slightly changed. 

The remaining wood engravings are copied entirely, with all the 
additions, from the edition of 1555. All the wood engravings of the 
Epitome are re-engraved, without exception. Vesalius' Epistola docens 
venam axillarem, etc., is omitted, also the Vesalian plates of 1538; on 
the other hand, it contains De radice chynae, Cabr. Fallopii observationes 
anatomicae (against Vesalius) and Vesalii anatomicarum G. Fallopii 
observationum examen (a rejoinder) , and the posthumous Chirurgia magna 
in Vesalius' own handwriting which contains a number of small illus- 

[Besides this edition by Albinus, there should be mentioned still 
another special edition on osteology: Andreae Vesalii Tabulae ossium 
humanorum. Denuo edidit, earumque explicationem adauxit Eduardus 
Sandifort, Lugd. Batav., ap. S. et J. Luchtmans, P. van der Fyk et D. 
Vijgh, 1782, fol., with 3 and 30 pages of text and 27 copperplates by 
Jan Wanderlaer; cf. Weigel: Kunstkatalog, no. 18246.] 

The University of Louvain is in possession of a magnificent parch- 
ment copy,' alleged to be the dedication copy, of Vesalius' Anatomy, 
which contains colored figures, and among them some which consist 
of several parts arranged one above the other, and pasted together, so 
as to be turned over consecutively. (Ebert: Bibliogr. Lexikon, no. 23537 ; 
Burggraeve: Etudes, p. 75.) These latter figures cannot be other than 
those of a male and a female body put together from the last two pages 
of the Epitome, and cut out according to Vesalius' own instruction. 

' This copy was burnt when the University Library of Louvain was destroyed in 
August, 1914. The British Museum in London has a similar copy. Choulant's statement 
is correct that it was the Suorutn de hutnani corporis fabrica librorum epitome, 1543, and not 
the Tabulae anatomicae, Venetiis, 1538, as is sometimes stated. 


The original wood engravings of Vesalius' work were used for the 
illustrations in the following works : 

Von des menschen corpers Anatomey , ein kurtzer aber vast nützer Ausszug, 
auss D. Andree Vesalij von Brüssel bücheren, von ihm selbs in Latein 
beschriben, vnnd durch D. Albanum Torinum verdolmetscht. Colophon: 
Gedruckt zu Basel, bey Johann Her pst, genannt Oporino, g. August 1543. 
large fol., 19 leaves. Namely, title-page, Sign. A-P, P and 2 leaves 
without signature. 

A very rare German edition of the Epitome, compiled by Alban 
(Zum Thor., or Thorer, of Winterthur) (b. 1489-d. February 23, 1550), 
professor of medicine at Basel, designed, as was the Latin Epitome, for 
use in separate sheets. It contains the woodcut title, representing the 
public dissection of 1543, Vesalius' bust, besides eleven sheets of anatomic 
illustrations: The skeleton, the plate of the nerves, five myologic plates, 
the two nude figures and the two unsigned sheets, intended to be cut up; 
in addition to these illustrations, which the Latin edition of the Epitome 
contains, some smaller cuts from the larger work of Vesalius have been 
added to some of the plates or inserted in the text. These latter are 
not contained in the Latin edition. On the title-page below is also 
to be found a preface : Dern gutwilligen läser. Diese kurtze anzeygung der 
Anatomey, etc. Sheet A contains the German translation of Vesalius' 
dedication to Philip, Padua, August 13, 1542, and also a German dedica- 
tion to Christoph, duke of Wirtenberg and Teck, signed Albanus zum 
Thor, Basel, August 5, 1543; Sheet G has on its back the first myologic 
plate; the skeleton and the two nude figures are on Sheets N and O. 
The illustrations in this German edition of the Epitome, which is even 
rarer than the Latin, are equal in beauty. The copy spoken of in 
Weigel's Kunstkatolog, no. 14144, is now in the large private collection 
of the King of Saxony. 

Andreae Vesalii Bruxellensis — Zergliederung Dess Menschlichen 
Carpers. Auf Mahlerey und Bildhauerkunst gericht. Die Figuren 
von Titian gezeichnet. Augspur g, gedruckt und verlegt durch Andreas 
Maschenbaur, 1706, fol.; 16 leaves. 

On the title-page we find the five skulls from the principal book, at 
the end five other illustrations pertaining to the skull, besides these, 
three skeletons, and four muscle-manikins from the same book, also 
four other muscle-manikins, and the two nude figures from the 
Epitome. A second edition by Maschenbaur was published under a 
similar, but more elaborate title, in Augspurg, 1723, folio, fourteen 


The plates are the same; the five complete skulls, however, are not 
on the title-page, but at the end of the book; of the five other figures 
pertaining to the skull, two are omitted. All the illustrations here are 
markedly duller than in the Latin and German original editions. It 
has been mentioned before that Titian did not draw the figures. See 
Weigel, no. 14145. 

Heinr. Palmaz Leveling: Anatomische Erklärung der Original-Figuren 
von Andreas Vesal, samt einer Anwendung der Winslowischen Zergliede- 
rungslehre in 7 Büchern, Ingolstadt, hei A. Attenkhouer, 1783, fol., 28 
and 328 pp. 

The chief physician (Protomedicus) von Woltter had acquired, prob- 
ably from Maschenbaur's legacy in Augsburg, all the original woodcuts 
from VesaKus' anatomic works. However, the eighth muscle plate 
was replaced by an inferior copy, showing the objects reversed from left 
to right; twelve smaller drawings, the blocks of which had been lost, 
were re-engraved, and fairly well done by a Munich artist for the use 
of thi^ edition. Vesalius' bust was not among the collection and is, 
therefore, missing in this edition. Moreover, the work contains the 
older woodcut title of 1543 and all the woodcuts of the edition of the 
chief work of 1555; from the Epitome only the illustrations of the two 
nude figures are taken. The illustrations are rather dull, being made 
on paper altogether too coarse. This work was prepared by Leveling 
at Woltter's request; the edition comprised fifteen hundred copies. 
See Weigel, no. 4918. 

It seems that soon after the publication of Vesalius' first plates of 
1538 several similar anatomic illustrations (earlier imitations of those 
plates) appeared with which Vesalius was little satisfied. Even in the 
first edition of his chief work of 1543 he complains in a letter to Oporinus, 
written probably in 1542, and which is dated Venetiis, nono Calendas 
Septembres, of these imitations which were made in Augsburg, Cologne, 
Paris, Strassburg, Marburg, and Frankfort: 

Nam quid principum decreta apud bibliopolas, et in omnibus angulis nunc 
densissime satos typographos valeant, abunde in meis Anatomicis tabulis ante annos 
tres Venetijs primum impressis, et postmodum misere passim depravatis, maiori- 
busque interim titulis exornatis, est animadvert ere. Augustae enim, mea ad Nar- 
cissum Vertunum — subducta epistola, nescio quis rabula Germanice est praefatus 
et — me coegisse in sex tabulas falso asserit, quae Galenus pluribus quam 30 libris 
diffuse complexus est — praeterquam quod Venetam sculpturam perverse istic sunt 
imitati. Hoc Augustano sculptore longe rudior imperitiorque extitit, qui Coloniae 
iisdem tabulis manum admovit — quum tamen (eius figurae) et picturam valde cor- 
ruperint et nervorum delineationem panun feliciter imitatam adiecerint, quam 


ego — uni atque alteri amico, qui id tantisper dum ipse earn ederem a me expetebant, 
ruditer delineaveram. Parisiis tres priores eleganter expresserunt, aliis interim 

propter sculpturae, uti coniicio, difficultatem omissis Argentinensis ille — 

de studiis pessime est meritus, quod tabulas, quae nunquam satis magnae studiosis 
proponi poterunt, tarn foede contraxerit et turpissime pictas ac praeter omnem 
rationem circumscriptas cum Augustani versione tanquam suas emiserit. Huius 
gloriae is invidere visus est, qui undecunque citra delectum compilatis ex aliorum 
libris imaginibus, Marpurgi et Francofordiae eius generis libros adhuc emittere 
pergit, etc. 

"For what effect the decrees of rulers have among the booksellers and among 
printers who are now thickly planted in every corner, one may observe to perfection 
in the case of my books of anatomy, which were printed for the first time at Venice 
three years ago and afterward wretchedly garbled in all quarters, and in the meantime 
equipped with more pretentious titles. For at Augsburg, having purloined my 
letter to Narcissus Vertunus, some unknown hack wrote a preface in German, claim- 
ing falsely that I have squeezed into six books all that Galen had diffusely treated 
in more than thirty books — not to mention the botching of the Venetian engravings 
there. Another workman, far more unskilled and ignorant than the engraver at 
Augsburg set his hand to these same engravings at Cologne — though his figures com- 
pletely spoiled the pictures (in my book) and included, besides, an outline of the nerves 
deplorably copied, which I had roughly sketched to one or two friends who requested 
me for it during the time pending pubUcation by myself. At Paris they printed the 
three first plates in exquisite fashion, omitting in the meantime the others, because 

of the difficulty of the engraving, as I conjecture The fellow at Strassburg 

played a scurvy trick on scholars in that he so shame fuUy cramped the engravings 
which could not have been too large for the best results to scholars, and issued them 
as his own, wretchedly reproduced, and reduced in size out of all reason, with the 
text of the Augsburg version. His glory was begrudged him apparently by that 
other who, indiscriminately, looting from every quarter, pictures from the books of 
others, insists upon issuing books of this sort at Marburg and Frankfort," etc. 

Dry ander might be one of the latter and of the two last-named 
printing places, the printing establishment of Egenolph is probably 
referred to; the Strassburg publisher is most likely Ryff; the one from 
Augsburg perhaps Necker; the one from Cologne, Macrolios or some 
other unnamed person; the Paris copies, possibly by Wechel, are not 
known to me. It is certain that immediately after the publications of 
Vesalius' first six plates and before the appearance of Vesalius' chief 
work and of the Epitome (that is to say, between 1538 and 1543), several 
imitations were published. To these belong the following: 

Aegidius Macrolios: Cerebrum animalis facuUatis Jons et principium, 
sensum voluntarium per nervös communicans ah se et dorsali medulla 
enatos universo corpori. s.l. et a. (Cologne, 1539), fol. 

A sheet, printed on one side only, represents the brain in its natural 
size, the upper part is cut open horizontally in such a manner that the 


two lateral ventricles become visible; beneath the brain are the cranial 
nerves, also the tongue and a piece of the palate; among the nerves the 
vagus, with its branches in the thoracic and abdominal cavities. Every- 
thing is drawn in a bold and free manner, the nerves are unnaturally 
enlarged, some of the words and the letters are cut in wood, other words 
are printed; the entire woodcut in the copy before me is colored red. 
The Latin explanation is printed in italics on the left side; a German 
explanation is not given. On the right side we read: 

Aegidius Macrolios Medicinae apud Agrippinam Coloniam professor Anatomices 
studiosis. Andreas Vesalius, quo nemo post Galenum in anatome diligentius et 
uerius versatus est, tabulis aliquot superiore Anno editis maximam commoditatem 
studiosis, quibus non datur avroij/ia^ copia, creavit. Sed ut animus hominis docti 
ociosus esse nequit, ita singularis industria, ab eodem istam quoque tabulam, quae 
nervorum syzygiam septenariam, sensuum scilicet instrumenta et loca, ob oculos 
euidentissime ponit, elegantissime expressit. Earn nos dudum nacti, quanquam 
depictam tantummodo, uerum adeo concinne, ut arbitrer authorem in omnium 
manibus illam esse optauisse, typographis tradidimus ne soli nos, quod plerique per 
inuidiam faciunt, thesauro tali frueremur. Cur enim non thesaurum appellem quod 
ingeniosam naturae machinam exprimit et docet ? Nee priores sex tabulae, quae 
uenarum, arteriarum et sceleti imagines dant, quicquam habent tam ingeniosum, quod 
cum prima ista (Sic enim nuncupare libet, quod prima hominis, et ueluti principia 
depingat) sit comparandum. Valete. 

"Aegidius Macrolius, Professor of Medicine at Cologne, to students of anatomy. 
Andreas Vesalius, than whom none since Galen has been a more conscientious and 
genuine student of anatomy, by several books published last year, has conferred an 
inestimable benefit upon scholars (who were hampered by lack of material). But, 
just as the mind of the scholar cannot be idle, in the same way unparalleled industry 
on the part of the same man has reproduced with the greatest nicety a work which 
sets forth with the most absolute clearness the sevenfold syzygy of the nerves, that 
is to say, the instruments and seat of all the senses. We came possessed of this 
sometime ago, merely in sketch form, but so neatly done that I beheve the author 
desired it to be in the hands of all, and we have accordingly handed it over to the 
printers that we may not, as many, actuated by envy do, gloat over such a treasure 
in private. For why should I not call that a treasure which reproduces and explains 
the ingenious machine of nature? And the six previous books, which give pictures 
of the veins, the arteries and the skeleton, contain nothing sufficiently ingenious to 
deserve comparison with this chef-d'oeuvre, (for I like to call it that since it repre- 
sents the chief and, as it were, the principal parts of man). Farewell." 

This shows that the sheet must have been pubHshed in 1539, that 
the publisher, Macrolios, must have had only VesaKus' hand drawing 
or a copy of it in his possession, which he had engraved and reprinted 
with explanations, and, furthermore, that this plate was not among the 
first six VesaUan plates which presented only the systems of the veins 
and arteries and the skeleton. With such an assumption agrees what 


Vesalius himself says of this Cologne imitation in the foregoing letter 
to Oporinus, i.e., that in Cologne they added to the other six plates a 
Nervorum delineaiio, which he had rather hastily designed and had shown 
to a few friends. This again would indicate that the other six plates 

must also have been copied (see also page 189), and this figure of the brain 
added to them. The name "Macrolios" was not known to Vesalius; 
the latter seems not to have seen the very rare sheet above described, but 
merely a copy of it. But that the sheet by Macrolios is actually one 
of Vesalius' illustrations becomes irrefutable from the fact that, in the 
fourth book of the chief work, on page 319, of the edition of 1543, and 


on page 512, of the edition of 1555, we find a figure which evidently is 
an elaborated and improved redrawing of Macrolios' figure. [The 
plate by Macrolios is mentioned nowhere, and the description and repro- 
duction were prepared from a copy, at that time in Choulant's posses- 
sion, of the undoubtedly very rare originals.] 

Jobst de Necker: Em gar künstlich allen Leib- und Wundärzten 
nützliches Werk in 6 Figuren mit Innhalt aller Blut- Schlag- und Flechs- 
adern samt den Gebeineti des ganzen Leibes. Augsburg, 1539, fol., 6 

The work of the Augsburg wood engraver, Jobst, or Jost de Necker, 
de Negker, Denecker, Dennecker, Donnecker, Dannecker, of Augsburg, 
is mentioned by Haller (I, 180), and according to its title dealt with 
veins, arteries, and nerves; it is by all means the truest and best copy 
of Vesalius' first six plates. Among those plates, however, there were 
no illustrations of the nerves. Since such are expressly mentioned on the 
title of Necker's book, Flechsadern, it may be that even here MacroHos' 
sheet was inclosed. This again would contradict the fact that only 
six figures are indicated and that Vesalius first mentions this sheet in 
connection with the Cologne copy. But perhaps his Augustanus is 
not Necker, but another person not named. It is also probable, and 
this is particularly plausible, that Macrolios' sheet was actually added 
as a seventh plate. 

Ein gar künstlichs, allen Leyb vnd Wundärtzten, auch andrer künsten 
Liebhabern, hochnützlichs Werk in sechs Figur gebracht, mit jnhalt aller 
blutschlag vnd Flachssadern, sampt den gebaynen des gantzen Leybs, etc. 
s.l. et a. (Cologne) fol., 6 leaves, each printed on one side only. 

The fijst sheet contains the above title, then a preface in which is 

Also hat Stephanus Intemplaeus in sechs Figur gebracht, was Galenus in sechs 
gantzen, subtilen, auch hochnützlichen büchern gehandlet hat. Und yetzund ist 
durch Andream Wessalium in sechs künstliche un nützlich Figur mit herlichem 
verstand zusamen getragen, was durch den Galenum wol in dreissig, oder noch mer 
büchern lang und vil geschriben ist, welches künstlich werck durch Andream Wes- 
salium Lateinisch beschriben. Darnach auss verlegen und anrichten des künstreichen 
Malers Joannis Stephani durch den Bernardum Vitalem ein Venediger mit fleyss in 
den Druck gebracht ist worden. 

"So has Stephanus Intemplaeus brought into six figures what Galen treated in 
six entire, clever, and most useful books. And now has been brought together by 
Andreas Vesalius, in six artistic and useful figures, and with wonderful understanding, 
what Galen required thirty or more long and elaborate volumes to discuss; which 
work is explained in Latin by Andreas Vesalius and was prepared by the artistic 
painter Johannis Stephanus and carefully printed by the Venetian Bernardus Vitalis." 


Below the preface a rather large engraving, showing the liver and 
the spleen, with the portal vein and its branches, and also three smaller 
engravings, showing the genitals of the two sexes. The second sheet 
contains a large woodcut: The liver and the two venae cavae, with their 
roots. The third sheet shows on an equally large woodcut, heart and 
kidneys, and the aorta with its branches. Three other sheets show the 
skeleton viewed from the front, the back, and the side. On all the sheets 
the explanations are given, on the right in German, on the left in Latin, 
the latter in italics. The engravings are effective, and those of the skele- 
tons are particularly deserving of praise. The anatomy, however, is still 
very pre-Vesalian, the liver being shown with five or six lobes, the heart 
as situated directly in the center, the rete mirabile is reproduced after 
the manner of Galen; the uterus is now shown without horns. It is 
quite possible that Vesalius, in 1538, still drew in that manner, or that 
the copyist improved upon his manner according to a preconceived 
idea. The skeletons are colored gray, the landscape background on 
which they are placed is illuminated in the copy that lies before me, 
just as the figures of the viscera show colored illuminations. According 
to the title, we should find in this work veins, arteries, and ^' Flechsadern." 
The latter should be the nerves which, however, we would not find on 
the plates if Macrolios' sheet had not been inclosed as a seventh plate. 
With this, indeed, the indicated number of six plates does not cor- 
respond, yet VesaHus expressly mentions that the Cologne reprint 
contains the plate of the nerves. Necker's name is not mentioned 
anywhere, which leads one to assume that this edition is only a copy 
of his work.^ The faulty title seems also to point toward this possi- 
bility. Of another edition of this work I have only one sheet, the skeleton 
seen from the front; the woodcut is not the same, yet the drawing is, 
even in the accessories ; obviously, this plate was copied by a still better 
artist directly from VesaHus' engraving. It is on the whole freer and 
more artistic and in its details truer to nature. There is no illumination, 
and the plate might be older than the afore-mentioned edition. It is 
very probable that it belongs to the original work by Necker. Explana- 
tions are also given, on the right in German, on the left in Latin, the 
latter, however, not in italics, but in Roman letters; the Latin text is 
absolutely the same. 

Des allerfür trefflichsten, höchsten vnnd adelichsten gschöppffls aller 
Creaturen — Das ist, des menschen — war haftige beschreibung oder Anatomi 

'Roth (pp. 122-23) considers this edition an Augsburg copy after the Augsburg 




— erstmals inn Teutsche sprach verfasset — Durch M. Gualtherum Her- 
menium Ryf, Argentinum, Medicum. 1541. Colophon: Strassburg, bey 
Balthassar Beck, fol., 6 and 73 leaves; Gothic type. 

This contains, including repetitions, twenty-five anatomic plates in 
woodcuts; of these, about ten are taken from Dryander {anat. capit. 
1537), but redrawn and enlarged; the other fifteen contain entire bodies; 
among them the skeleton from the front, from the back, and from the 
side, in very poor proportions and drawn with a rather inferior under- 
standing of anatomy. The above-mentioned three skeletons obviously 
served as models; sitting figures with open thoracic and abdominal 
cavities and a crude representation of the viscera, two muscle-manikins, 
two reproductions of the blood vessels of the whole body, one plate 
representing anatomic instruments, fifteen smaller figures from Eucharius 
Röslin, showing the positions of the fetus, and finally a schematic repro- 
duction of the eye. One should not presume from the bad drawings 
that Vesalius' reproductions served as a basis for the anatomic plates; 
yet the above-quoted words of Vesalius seem to refer to this work. 
Other illustrations of this work are based on Berengarian reproductions. 
Ryff was not an anatomist, had no fixed habitation, made his livelihood 
through the compiUng of medical treatises for the various branches of 
medical science without having much knowledge of it himself. Alto- 
gether, he was a shameless plagiarist.^ 

From these earliest imitations of Vesalian figures we must dis- 
tinguish those later imitations which were published after the appearance 
of the chief work (i.e., after 1543), and which are, in some cases, actually 
announced as editions and reproductions of Vesalius' works. Among 
these are to be mentioned : 

Compendiosa totius anatomies delineaiio, aere exarata: per Thomam 
Geminum, Londini, in officina Joanni Herfordie, 1545, mense Octobri, 
large fol., i copperplate title-page, 44 printed leaves and 40 anatomic 
copperplates; in all 85 unnumbered leaves. 

The illustration of Vesalius' public dissection and his bust are missing; 
the copper title-page here given is composed of a multitude of allegorical 
figures in separate panels, with the coat-of-arms of England in the center. 
From the Epitome only the two nude figures and the one sheet designed 
to be cut apart are taken. All the rest is from the chief work. The 
copper engravings are neatly and carefully executed but by no means 
equal the beauty of the Vesalian woodcuts nor the exactness of their 

^ Idem, Anatomia omnium corporis partium descriptio, Paris, 1543. 
Idem, Description anatomique de toutes les parties du corps humain, Paris, 1545, Haller, I, 
189. According to Roth, p. 122, this edition does not exist. 


drawings. Gemini, of Leeds, who calls himself here Geminus Lysiensis,^ 
was himself an engraver, and also a printer; he probably made the title- 
page. It is supposed that the copper engravings in this work, done in 
the manner of Hogenberghe, were the first to appear in England, but 
nothing in the work points to this fact.^ In the dedication to Henry VIII, 
Gemini merely calls this work: Hanc anatomen, primam meam foeturam. 
The text contains only the description and therefore is rather abbre- 
viated. The work is of exceptional rarity; see Weigel, Kunstkatalog, 
no. 4920. But there are three editions. The first one of the year 
1545, dedicated to Henry VIII; the second in English, translation by 
Nicholas Udall, dedicated to Edward VI in 1552, and the third one, 
dedicated to Elizabeth in 1559. 

[The first edition of Thomas Geminus : Compendiosa totius anatomiae 
delineatio, Lond. 1545, fol., of which a description is here given, has the 
coat-of-arms of Henry VIII, probably arranged at his request and 
expense, and was dedicated to him. The second edition, with the 
English translation by Nicholas Udall, appeared in 1553 with a dedica- 
tion to Edward VI, printed by N. Hyll. The third edition of 1559 has, 
in place of the removed Royal Arms, the portrait of Queen Elizabeth 
(the earliest after her accession), and is dedicated to her. This third 
edition^ is said to contain a large woodcut, with the monogram R. S. 

' Thomas Gemini, Geminie, or Geminus Thomas (fl. 1540-60), was evidently a foreigner 
living in England, probably an Italian. Nothing is known of his life or antecedents. 

' Contrary to Choulant's statement this is one of the earliest books containing copper- 
plate engravings produced in England, having apparently been preceded only by the plates 
to Reynald's Byrthe of Menkynde in 1540, which have sometimes been also attributed to 
Gemini. A peculiarity of this book is that each folio was printed separately; evidently 
the press was too small to print a whole sheet on it. (Lowndes, II, 873.) The plates are 
supposed to have been some of the first rotary presswork done in England. 

^ This edition Gemini printed himself, having set up a press in Blackfriars. According 
to Sayle, Gemini was assisted in the publishing of this book by Nicholas Udall and Richard 
Eden. The same plates as were used in the first and second editions are here used again, 
with the addition of the large folding woodcut, which is sometimes met with separately, and 
which was incorporated by Gemini in his own work. Choulant did not see this work per- 
sonally and his statement that the plate was only added, and perhaps only in one copy of the 
edition, is an error. W. M. Voynich, the London bookseller, in his ninth list of books pub- 
lished November, 1902, 962, *t333S, describes a remarkable copy of this third edition: 

Gemini (Thomas) translated by N. Udall and others. Compendiosa/ totius Anatomie delineatio,/ aert/ 

exarata: per Thomam Geminum./ Londini. i5sg. Sign. BI, col. i: (B) Ycause .At the end: C Imprinted 

at London within the black fryars: by Thomas Gemini./ Anno Salutis. 155Q. Mense Septemb. Folio. Gothic 
character with Italian passages. 511. incl. engraved title + 57 unnumK. 11 -j- 2 folding woodcuts signed R.S., 
376X361 mm. (one of them with moveable pieces), + i folding copperplate engraving, 324X338 mm., + 3q 
full-page copperplate engravings; sign. (511., A*, B', C-I», K'); 62-64-68 lines. Woodcut initials. 

This copy contains a duplicate of the large woodcut corporis humani partium. 

.... delinatio and .... anatomes inlerioriim mulieris partium .... (two titles to one 
block), arranged with additional woodcut moveable pieces, representing the anatomy of the 
thoracic and abdominal cavities. This woodcut is not in the British Museum copy but is 
otherwise identical with it, with which it has been compared. 


and the graver beneath it, and the title Interiorum corporis humani 
partium viva delineatio. It represents the anatomy of the thoracic and 
abdominal cavities with moveable pieces. This plate was probably 
only added, and perhaps only in one copy of the edition, for Geminus' 
work does not contain any other woodcuts. One might identify it with 
the fugitive plate published by Gourmont and Mathoniere in Paris: 
Anatomie tres vtile, etc. par Maistre Andre Vesali, since that plate 
has the same monogram and the same Latin title, with the English 
inscription : Knowe thy self. The block must have been cut in England 
and later have been brought to France where it was given a French 
title. But the plate with its obsolete anatomy can be attributed neither 
to Vesalius nor to Geminus; cf. John Jackson and William A. Chatto: 
Treatise on Wood-engraving, London, 1839, 8°, p. 503.] 

The same plates were used again in : 

Les portraicts anatomiques de toutes les parties du corps humain — 
par Jacques Grevin de Clermont en Beauuoisis, medecin ä Paris, Paris, 
chez Andre Wechel, 1569, large fol., 8 and 106 pp., 40 copperplates. 

This work therefore contains the same number of illustrations as 
Gemini's book; the plates, however, have already suffered a great 
deal. An earlier Latin edition of these plates appeared in Paris [apud 
Andream Wechelum], 1564, fol., under the title: Anatomiae totius aeri 
inscripta delineation Grevin died in 1570. Weigel's Kunstkatalog 
no. 4921. 

Anatomia Deudsch. Ein kurtzer Auszug der beschreibung aller glider 
menschlichs Leybs aus den buchern des — Andr. Vesalij — sonderlich 
wundärtzten Deutscher nation zu nutz ins deutsch gebracht. Gedruckt zu 
Nürnberg bey Jul. Paul. Fabricio, mense Augusto 1551, large fol. 

Gemini's forty copper engravings are copied and are provided with 
German descriptions; below the dedication, Jacob Bauman signs him-- 
self as the editor. The same work appeared later under the following 

Anatomia Das ist Ein kurtze klare beschreybung von der vsstheilung 
vnnd zerschneidung aller glider des Menschlichen Lybs, uss den Biicheren 
dess — Andr. Vesalij — widerumb von nuwem durch— -Jacob Buwmann 
Wundart^t zu Zürych in Truck verfertiget. (Zürich) 1575; large fol. 

' a) Copies of this edition, not seen by Choulant, are in the libraries of Göttingen, Halle, 
Bologna, München, Stuttgart, Dresden Royal Library, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, and 
Breslau. Another edition with changed date, is in the University Library of Göttingen and 
the Royal Library at Stockholm. 

b) Lutetiae Parisiorum apud Andream Wechelum, 1565. De Feyfer, loc. cit., 460, 18; 
461, 19. 


This contains eighty printed pages and forty copper engravings 
taken from the plates of the former edition; some copies are colored; 
the editor is most likely the same Bauman, mentioned above. 

Anatomia — Andr. Vesalii — in qua tola humani corporis fabrica 
iconihus elegantissimis iuxta genuinam Auctoris delineationem aeri 
incisis lectori ob oculos ponitur etc, Amstelodami, excudebat Joannes 
Janssonius, 1617, fol. 

This contains the same forty plates, taken from the plates used in 
Bauman's work; to the German inscriptions Latin ones are added. 
The copper title-page has two skeletons as shield-bearers, below the 
dissection and anatomic demonstration.^ 

Beschreibung und Anzeigung Mannes und Weibes innerlicher Glieder 
in zwölf Kupfer-Figuren verfasst und gezogen aus der Anatomie Andr. 
Vesalii, 1559, fol, 

As appears from the title, this cannot contain Gemini's illustrations 
at all or, if any, only a part of them.^ 

{Rogers de Piles et) Franqois Tortebat: Abrege d* anatomic accommode 
aux arts de peinture et de sculpture, Paris (1667), 1668, fol. 

This is the earliest work on anatomy intended for the use of artists. 
It contains twelve plates engraved by Tortebat ranging in size from 
fifteen Parisian inches, three lines, to sixteen inches, two Unes, in height, 
and from seven inches, eight lines, to nine inches, three lines, in width. 
There are three skeletons, seven myologic plates (three from the principal 
work and four from the Epitome), and the two nude figures. According 
to the Privilege and to a signature on the fourth plate, the work cannot 

' An edition with Vesalius' portrait and the 40 plates from Bauman's Anatomia, was 
published under the title : Suorum de humani corporis fabrica librorum epitome: opus perin- 
signe, nunc primum in Germania renata, hacque forma quam emendatissime editum, anno 1600, 
fol., and on the last page Coloniae Agrippinae, typis Stephani Hemmerden, anno 1601. 

Another edition dedicated to Frederik-Hendrik, September 10, 1642: De humani corporis 
fabrica epitome; cum annotationibus Nicolai Fontani, Amstelodami, apud loanncm lans- 
sonium, 1642, fol. The portrait of Vesalius and the 40 plates were taken from the foregoing 
edition but the cliches were retouched and a few of the inscriptions omitted. The title-page 
contains an anatomic lesson given by Vesalius before an audience of four persons. De Feyfer, 
op. cit., 463, 23; 464, 25. 

* According to the title, this edition is the predecessor of Clement Baudin's edition 
published at Lyons in 1560: 

c) Description et Demonstration des membres interieurs de I' komme et de lafemme, en douze 
Tables, tirecs au naturel, selon la vraye Anatomie de Andri Wesal, Lyons, Clement Baudin, 
1560, 4°. Contains twelve copperplate engravings with explanations, copied from the London 
edition of 1545; some reversed with abridged description after Vesalius. 

b) Idem, Lyon, Clement Baudin, 1567. This edition corresponds completely with the 
preceding one. De Feyfer, loc. cit., 468, 38, 39. 


have appeared before i668.^ The edition, Paris, chez Jean Mariette, 
1733» foL, has only ten copper engravings. The two nude figures from 
the Epitome are missing. Contrasted with the VesaHan figures, the 
engravings in this edition are reversed. The same is true in all respects 
of a French edition with ten copper engravings made by Petit, after the 
methods of chalk engravings, drawn by P. F. Leclere, Paris, chez Jean., 
without date, fob; on the last plate is inscribed: An 7, which would 
mean 1798 or 1799. 

[The Abrege (Tanatomie mentioned here was written by Roger de 
Piles (b. Clamency, Nivernois, 1635-d. Paris, 1709) under the pseudonym 
Franqois Tortebat, as he himself states in his Cours de peinture par 
principes, Paris, 1708, 8°, page 153; (in German: Einleitung in die 
Malerei nach Grundsätzen, Leipzig, 1760, 8°, page 121); Haller: Bihl. 
anat. I, 184. With regard to the work itself on artistic anatomy see 
Robert-Dumesnil : Peintre-graveur Franqais, III, 221. and Weigel: 
Kunstkatalog no. 18258.] 

Reduced reprints of this work are likewise contained in the following 
book with twelve engravings: 

Samuel Theodor Cericke: Kurtze Verfassung der Anatomie, me 
Selbige zu der Malerey und Bildhauerey erfordert wird- — erstlich ans Licht 
gegeben von Franc. Tortebat — nun aber in diese bequeme Form gebracht. 
Berlin, h. Rüdiger, 1706, fol. 

The engraved copies by Lorenz Beger are eleven and one-half and 
thirteen and three-quarter inches in height. It is to be regretted that 
they are copied from Tortebat and not directly from Vesalius. They 
are inferior both in drawing and engraving and are reversed throughout. 

Notomia di Titiano, dedicata all' illustr. Sign. Franc. Ghisilieri, 
Senatore di Bologna, per Domenico Bonavera. Also published under the 
title: Liber anatomicus, Titianus invenit et delineavit, Dominicus de 
Bonavera sculpsit. s.l. et a. fol. 

This work is without any text and must have been published soon 
after De Piles' book. The engraver and editor, Domenico Maria 
Bonavera or Bonaveri, was born in Bologna about 1640, and was a 
pupil of Canuti. The eighteen illustrations are the well-known VesaHan 
plates which, at that time, were still attributed to Titian. HaUer, II, 740. 

' Idem, Paris, chez Charles Antoine Jombert, 1765, with modified text. 
-, Paris, chez Barrois I'aisne, s.a. 

Pirated editions: 

Abrege d'analomie accomode aiix arts, chez J. B. Chepy, Paris, 1760, fol., abridged reprint 
after Tortebat with newly engraved plates; the figures measure 26 cm.; 

Charles Antoine Jombert: Methode pour ap prendre le dessin, Paris, chez L. Cellot, 1784; 
the figures measure 23 cm. 


Jacopo {Giacopo) Moro: Anatomia ridotta ad uso de' pittori e scuUori. 
Vinegia, 1679, fol. 

This contains nineteen outline plates after Vesalius, edited by- 
Giuseppe Montani, with explanations. Added is a guide for the study 
of fresco painting. See Cicognara: Catal., I, 59. 

Andr. Vesalii: Tabulae ossium humanorum. Denuo edidit earumque 
explicationem adauxit Eduardus Sandifort, Lugd. Bat., ap. Luchtmans, 
van der Eyk et Vijgh, 1782, fol., 8 and 52 pp. and 24 copperplates. 

These twenty-four copperplates were made from those which were 
employed for the Boerhaave-Albinus edition of Vesalius' work, as far 
as osteology is concerned. The order is changed, however. The text 
contains only the explanation of the plates. 

[In the volume of Anatomic Miscellanies, which belonged to the 
Viennese ophthalmologist and professor Joseph Barth, and which was 
in the possession of the publisher, are contained the following: The 
first six plates from Vesalius Epitome of 1530, three sheets which 
must be counted among the fugitive leaves, a sheet from the Cologne 
reproductions of VesaHan plates, and a copper engraving representing 
two standing muscle-manikins, poor in anatomy and drawing, done 
in Italy about 1550 and based probably on a drawing by Baccio 
Bandinelli: As this book did not come into Choulant's hands until 
after this chapter was written, what is deemed essential is presented 

Information concerning VesaHus' life and works, besides that in the 
preface to the Boerhaave-Albinus complete edition, is given in the fol- 

Ad. Burggraeve: Etudes sur Andre Vesale, precedees d'une notice 
historique sur sa vie et ses ecrits. Gand, chez C. Annoot-Braeckman, 1841. 
large 8°, 33 and 439 pp.; with the bust picture of Vesalius after the 
well-known woodcut in copper by Ch. Onghena and a facsimile in 
Vesalius' handwriting on a large inserted sheet (a medical certificate): 
a comprehensive and splendid work. 

Notizia d'opere di disegno nella prima meta del secolo XVI. esistenti 
in Padova Cremona Milano Pavia Bergamo Crema e Venezia. Scritta 
da un Anonimo di quel tempo. Puhblicata e illustrata da D. Jacopo 
Morelli. Bassano, 1800, 8°, p. 232. 

[Ad. Burggraeve' s Rtudes sur Andre Vesale has nothing pertaining to 
the bibliography of Vesalius' works and illustrations, although it is 
highly valuable on account of its many abstracts from Vesalius' writings 
and a few biographic notes drawn from Spanish sources.] 


The beautiful painting by E. Hamman, of which A. Mouilleron and 
Schubert made a lithograph (Weigel, no. 17676), portrays Vesalius in his 

[In addition to the plagiarists given by Choulant, the following 
authors used Vesalius' illustrations and writings for their own works : 

John Banester {Banister) : The historie of man, sucked from the sappe 
of the most approued anathomistes in this present age, compiled in most 
compendious fourme, and now published in English, for the utilitie of all 
godly chirurgians, within this realme, London, J. Daye, 1578, 4**, 112 ff. 
Contains poor illustrations, taken from Vesalius. 

Johann van Beverwijck {Beverovicius) : Heelkonste ofte derde deel van 
de geneeskonste, Amsterdam, Jan Jacobsz Schipper, 1660. Besides the 
illustrations from Vesalius, a muscle-manikin by Valverde, but reversed, 
and four plates from Harvey. 

Johannes Bockelius: Anatome sive descriptio partium corporis humani 
ut ea in Academia Julia quae est Helstadii singulis annis publice perlegi 
ac administrari solely Helmstadii, 1585, 8°. 

Idem. 1588, 8°. A compilation from Vesalius. 

Bartholomaeus Cabrolius: Ontleedingh des menschelijcken lichaems. 
Eertijds in H latijn beschreiben. Nu verduytscht en met bijvoechselen als 
oock figuren verryckt door V{opiscus) F{prtunatus) P{lemp), Amsterdam, 
1633, fol. 

Idem. 1648, fol. Illustrations from Vesalius and Paaw; Paaw's 
copperplates were used. 

Helkiah Crooke: MIKP0K02M0rPA«^IA, a description of the body 
of man, together with the controversies and figures thereto belonging, col- 
lected and translated out of the best authors of anatomy. London, W. 
Jaggard, 1616, fol, 1,000 pp.; the illustrations are from Vesalius, while 
the text is from Bauhinus, Casserius, Paaw, and Laurentius. 

Idem, London, 1631, fol., 1,012 pp., contains a portrait of Crooke. 

James Douglas: Nine anatomical figures, representing the external 
parts, muscles, and bones of the human body. The outlines taken from the 
figures of Vesalius and Bidloo, under the direction of James Douglas, 
London, W. G. Douglas, 1748, fol.. 

From a remark in Douglas, Bibliograph, anatom. specimen, 171 5, 
another edition is supposed to have been published in 1715. According 
to Roth this work must be exceedingly rare. He gives the date between 
the years 1706 and 1723. It is not given in Haller. De Feyfer is of 
the opinion that no such edition exists. 


Willem Goeree: Natuurlijk en schilderkonslig ontwerp der mensch- 
kunde, Amsterdam, 1683, 8°. 

Idem, Amsterdam, 1730, 8°; copper engravings after Vesalius, 
Choulant Graph, incunah., 153. 

Bernardino Montana: Libro de la anathomia del hombre, nuevamente 
compuesto por el doctor Bernardino Montana de Monserrate, impreso en 
Valladolid en casa de S. Martinez ano de 1551, fol.; the three muscle- 
manikins, the arteries, veins, and nerves, two torsi with thoracic and 
abdominal organs, uterus, brain, and cranial nerves, the front views of 
the skeleton, are all taken from VesaUus and done in poor woodcuts. 
Montana, pp. CXXIXa-CXXXIVb. 

Daniel Moeglingus: De humano corpore, Tubingae, 1591, fol.; com- 
pilation from Vesalius. 

Giuseppe Montani: Anatomia ridotta alV uso di pittori e scultori, 
consecrata alV ill. ed exc. signore il signor Gio. Andrea Rociborsko, conte 
di Morstin, Venegia, G. T. Valvasense, 1679, fol. 

Franciscus Sanchez: Summa anatomica, in qua breviter omnium 
corporis partium situs, numerus, substantia, usus et figura continetur, 
ex Galeno et A. Vesalio collecta. Additae sunt etiam adnotationes , quibus 
Columbi et Fallopii repugnantia cum Galeno et Vesalio continetur et inter 
se. Tolos, 1636, fol.; very poor copies after Vesalius. 

Haller, I, 180. 

Moehsen: Bildn., pp. 80, 149. 

Roth (Moritz): Andreas Vesalius Bruxellensis, 1892, VIII, 500 pp., 30 pi., 8°, 
Berlin, G. Reimer.] 


Bartolommeo Eustachi, of Sanseverino in the province of Ancona, 
was actively interested in anatomy, even while physician to the Duke 
of Urbino. He, later, went to Rome with the Cardinal Guilio della 
Rovere and there became lecturer on anatomy at the Studio della 
Sapienza, a position which he resigned voluntarily on account of declin- 
ing age. The illness of the above-named cardinal summoned Eustachius 
to Fossombrone {Forum Sempronii), but he died on the journey thither 
in August, 1574. 

Having a great attachment for Galenic anatomy and defending it 
most vigorously against newer investigations, particularly those of 
Vesalian anatomy, Eustachius, more than any other anatomist of his 
time, enriched his science by exact investigations, which he extended 
to almost all parts of the human body. Moreover, he utilized animal 
dissections for pathological research and is said to have been the first 
anatomist to introduce postmortem examinations in Roman hospitals. 

His illustrations are dry and hard and show little artistic treatment. 
As modes of anatomic representation, they are exact and instructive 
and all are copper engravings. Instead of printing letters on the figures, 
which he everywhere avoids, Eustachius introduced graduated margins 
(similar to the margins of maps) which made possible the finding of any 
parts and their names by means of a ruler. Some of the editions even 
furnished the ruler. 

The illustrations were probably drawn by Eustachius himself and 
his relative and assistant. Pier Matteo Pini of Urbino, and were engraved 
by Giulio de' Musi of Rome. Of the latter, however, only architectural 
prints are known, apart from these engravings; this may account for 
the fact that the engravings are Hfeless and stiff and not at all adequate 
representations of living parts. Our authority is the preface to Gaetano 
PetrioK's Discorso anatomico osia universal commento nelle tavole del B. 
Eustachio. Roma, 1742, fol., where we read, tuUe le parti, che il corpo 
umani compongono, in ^7 rami grandi descrisse per mano delV insigne 
Guilio de Musis Romano, etc. The plates .themselves possess no mark 
of the artist. 

Only eight prints in octavo were pubHshed during Eustachius' life- 
time. Seven of them pertain to the study of the kidneys, of the azygos 


vein, and of the auditory organ. The eighth plate deals with the veins 
of the arms and the heart. The original can be found in 

Bartholomaei Eustachii: Opuscula anatomica. Venet., Vincent. 
LucMnus cxcudebat, 1564, 4°. 

Poorer copies of the engravings may be seen in the following editions 
of these Opuscula. Lugd. Bat. 1707, 8", and Delphis, 1726, 8°. 

Eustachius died without issue and bequeathed to his relative, the 
above-mentioned Pini, thirty-eight copperplates which had been com- 
pleted as early as 1552 {de renibus praej. et cap. 16). They were not 
printed, however, because Eustachius, overtaken by death, had been 
unable to publish his work De dissensionibus ac controversiis anatomicis 
for which the prints had been intended. In the eighteenth century the 
papal physician Lancisi found the plates with the heirs of Pini, the 
family Rossi (de Rubeis), and published them with his own commentaries 
in 1 7 14. Eustachius' own comments had not been found and have not 
yet been recovered. To these thirty-eight plates were added the eight 
plates in octavo mentioned before. One of the folio-plates found by 
Lancisi was engraved on both sides, thus bringing the number of Eus- 
tachius' original engravings up to forty-seven. These forty-seven plates 
deal with almost all parts of the body and were particularly intended 
to correct disputed views of the anatomists of Eustachius' time. When 
Eustachius in his preface to the Opusc. anat., says that he had prepared 
forty-six copper engravings for the above-named work, he either counted 
in the eight octavo plates which appeared in the Opusc. or, less likely, 
eight of the larger plates were lost. The following editions are known: 

Romae, 1^14, fol., ex officina Francisci Gonzagae, 44 and 127 pp. and 
47 copperplates. 

This was edited by Giovanni Maria Lancisi, under the title : Tabulae 
anatomicae Bartholomaei Eustachii, quas e tenebris tandem vindicatas 
.... praefatione, notisque illustravit ac publici juris fecit Jo. Maria 
Lancisius. Besides several letters of other anatomists, Eustachius' own 
elucidation accompanies the first eight plates, while another is given by 
Lancisi for the thirty-nine other plates. The impressions are taken 
from the old original plates. A vignette on the title-page represents a 
dissection. The picture is drawn by Pier Leone Ghezzi and shows a 
skeleton standing upright on the right-hand side of the illustration. 
The dissector stands to the left of the cadaver, demonstrating with his 
right hand and leaning on the dissecting table with his left hand. The 
picture is not engraved by Ghezzi and bears only this subscription: 
Eques Petrus Leo Ghezzius Inu. et delin. 


Amstelaedami, 1722^ fol., apud R. et G. Wetstenios, 44 and 127 pp. 
and 47 copperplates. 

The t3rpe is new. In the preface, Lancisi's dedication to the pope 
is omitted ; in its place is one to Boerhaave and Albinus and two criticisms 
by Lorenz Heister. The text agrees page for page with the former 
edition. The engravings of the illustrations are all copies. The vignette 
too is a copy but reversed. 

Romae, 1728, fol., sumptib. Laur. et Thomae Pagliarini, ex typographia 
Rochi Bernaho. Editid Romana altera, 28 and 90 pp. and 47 (anat.) 

This edition contains impressions from the original plates, reprints 
of the prefaces, and the text of Lancisi's edition. Ghezzi's original 
vignette is placed on the title-page. There is added in this edition one 
page in the text containing comments on Eustachius and one folio 
copperplate, representing a bust of Cardinal Annibale Albani, drawn 
by N. Ricciolini and engraved by C. Gregori. 

Lugd. Bat. 1744, fol., apud Jo. Arnold. Langerak et Joh. et Hermann 
Verbeek, e typographia Dammeana, 28 and 280 pp. and 47 double copper- 

In this edition, each of Eustachius' plates is supplemented by a 
separate outline plate of equal size on which the explanatory letters are 
engraved. The Eustachian plates in this edition, too, are newly engraved 
copies, different from those in the Amsterdam edition. The title is: 
Bernardi Siegfried Albini: Explicatio tabularum anatomicarum Barth. 
Eustachii. Accedit tabularum editio nova. The explanations of the plates 
are by Albinus. The text only was in the edition, Lugd. Bat. 1762, fol,, 

Venet., 176g, fol., cum praefatione et notis Jo. Mar. Lancisii, ace. 
epistolae Morgagni, etc., with copperplates. 

This edition seems to be the Roman edition without any changes. 
There are very valuable parchment copies still in existence. See Ebert 
no. 7 16 1. Another edition with copper engravings and commentary 
is by And. Maximinus, Romae, 178 j, fol. 

Amsterdam, 1798, fol., bij Elwe, with engraved copies of Albinus' 
plates and Dutch text. 

The text is by Andr. Bonn, a professor in Leyden. The plates are 
re-engraved, but do not compare with those in Albinus' edition, nor 
with those in the earlier Amsterdam edition. Likewise the outline 
engravings by Albinus are omitted, as well as the graduated margins 
which Albinus had preserved. The explanatory letters are placed 
directly on the engraved figures. 


Amsterdam, 1800, foL, bei Elwe und in Comm. bei Röder in Wesel; 
accompanying text in 8°. 

This is a translation of Bonn's edition, made by the Amsterdam 
physician J. C. Krauss under Bonn's supervision. The eight octavo 
plates are arranged in groups of four on one page. The engravings 
are those given by Bonn, and said to have been newly revised and 

The first editor of Eustachius' plates, Lancisi, had probably hurried 
more in pubUshing the edition of 17 14 than he intended. He, himself, 
later disapproved of it and authorized the surgeon Gaetano Petrioli of 
Rome, a vain, conceited individual, to revise it. So, at least Petrioli 
tells us, after the death of Lancisi (1720). Cardinal Caraffa made him 
a present of the original plates, which Lancisi had used. Petrioli wrote a 
number of commentaries, polemic treatises as supplements to Eustachius' 
plates, which, however, were Httle valued, or respected by the anatomist. 
The first one of these was 

Riflessioni anatomiche sulle note di Lancisi fatte sopra le tavole del eel. 
B. Eustachio, etc. Roma, 1740, fol., nella stamperia de Giov. Zempel. 

This contains a bust of Petrioli drawn by de Prenner and engraved 
by Nolli. The forty-seven plates by Eustachius are sometimes, not 
always, added to this work. Therefore an edition of Eustachius' plates, 
Rom. 1740, fol., is mentioned which is nothing more than this edition 
of the Riflessioni, in which we also find a copy of Lancisi's commentary 
besides Petrioli's very elaborate and often critical commentary. The 
best part of it is a short biography of Eustachius by Barnardo Gentili, 
which is based upon very reliable sources. Ghezzi's vignette is on the 
title-page of the book. It is engraved by himself although revised, and 
therefore bears the following signature: Eques Petrus Leo Ghezzius Inu. 
del. et scul. [Regarding the vignette by Leo Ghezzi see Bartsch: Feint, 
grav. XXI, 308, no. 33.] 

After he had pubHshed several similar works on Eustachius' plates, 
also a Corso anatomico or Universal commento on the subject, Petrioli 
published eight folio plates which, he had always asserted, were the 
first eight plates which had been missing from Eustachius' collection, 
and in place of which the octavo plates (kidneys etc.) had been published. 
Petrioli's eight folio plates were products of his own invention. They 
are in folio and were drawn by Giovanni Pesci and engraved by Bald. 
Gabuggiani. They have no anatomic value but the main figures are 
well drawn and very carefully engraved. These eight folio plates are 
contained in 


Anatomicae tabulae octo, quinquaginta figuris oniatae, quae inter 
Eustachianas desiderantur, opera et studio Cajetani Petrioli. Rom. 1748, 
fol., ex typographia Joann. Zempel, 
and also in 

Le otto tavole anatomiche con cinquanta figure in foglio delineate per 
compimento delV opera sublime et imperfetta del B. Euslachio, etc. Roma, 
1750. foL, nella stamperia di Anton, de* Rossi, 

Both these works have Ghezzi's vignette re-engraved and revised. 
The engraving of the eight plates by Petrioli was begun in 1 740 and each 
contain one main figure (a whole body) and several accessory figures. 
Altogether there are on these plates, principal and accessory, only forty- 
nine figures, not fifty. Each plate is signed: Orig. di Gaet. Petrioli. 
The thirty-nine Eustachian plates are often added to both these works 
of Petrioli. 

In Jean Jacques Manget's TJieatrum anatomicum, Genevae, 171 7, fol. 
we find reduced and partly incorrect copies of Eustachius' forty-seven 

The following passage from Roger's collection of prints (in the article 
on Pier Leone Ghezzi, I, 173): 

Our learned Ghezzi had besides a particular inclination to physics, anatomy and 
botany; in all which sciences he made great proficiency under the direction of the 
celebrated Giovanni Maria Lancisi, the Pope's chief physician. His knowledge in 
the parts of the human body he has shewn in the anatomical plates of Bartolommeus 
Eustachius, which were first published and illustrated by Lancisi, etc., 

led to the belief that Ghezzi (b. 1674-d. 1755) engraved the Eustachian 
plates in the Amsterdam edition. But the technique is quite different 
from that of Ghezzi. Roger evidently refers to the Lancisi edition of 
Eustachius' original plates, the figures of which it is chronologically 
impossible for Ghezzi to have engraved. There seems to have been 
some confusion with the foregoing vignette on the title-page of the 
Lancisi edition, which indeed was designed and drawn by Ghezzi, but 
not engraved by him. 

The Scotch physician George Martine (d. 1750) gave a good com- 
mentary to Eustachius' plates which was published after his death 
under the title: G. Martini in B. Eustachii tabulas anatomicas com- 
mentaria, Edinburgh, iyS5} ^- Its point of view is historical in the 

Haller: I, 223. 
Ebert, no. 7160-62 

Weigel, no. 8596. 

Bartsch: Peintr. grav. (Ghezzi) XXI, 308, No. si- 


Juan Valverde di Hamusco, a Spaniard from the kingdom of Leon, 
studied anatomy in Padua and Rome under Realdo Columbo and Bar- 
tolommeo Eustachi. He pubHshed a manual of anatomy in Spanish, 
without having done much dissecting. His book was translated into 
Itahan and Latin and parts of it into Dutch. Although he himself 
says that he merely copied Vesalian figures, we nevertheless find several 
figures which do not occur in Vesalius' works, e.g., a muscle-manikin 
holding his skin in his right hand and a dagger in his left; several repre- 
sentations of the abdominal muscles, of the omentum and the intestines; 
a standing pregnant woman with her abdomen cut open, and representa- 
tions of the principal veins and many others. Parts of the bodies are 
dressed in armor. The copies of Vesalian reproductions often show 
changes. The Spanish painter Caspar Becerra, born in Baeza in 1520 
and known as the maker of small anatomic plaster figures, has been 
mentioned as the artist who drew the illustrations. The Lorrainer 
Nicolas Beatrizet or Beautrizet, Niccolo Beatrici (born at Thionville), 
is supposed to be the engraver, several plates bearing the monogram 
N.B, for example, the fourth and fifth myologic plates and the bust of 
the author. The editions of this work are as follows: 

Roma, i^^6,fol., impressa por Antonio Salamanca y Antonio Lafrerij, 
En Roma. Text, 42 copperplates, and title-page engraving. 

On the engraving of the title-page we read : Historia de la composicion 
del cuorpo humano escrita por Joan de V aluerde de Hamusco. This is the 
first edition of the text and the copperplates. It is dedicated to the 
Cardinal Archbishop Juan de Toleto who seems to have been the patron 
of the work. The rich composition of the title-page is different from 
those of the later editions but is also engraved by Niccolo Beatrici. 
The engravings, it seems, were also sold without the text. 

Roma, 1560, foL, per Atiton. Salamanca et Anton. Lafrerj; colophon : 
Vinegia appresso Nicola Bevilacqua Trentino, // and ij4 leaves, including 
42 copperplates. 

This is an Italian translation made by Anton Tabo (not Sabo) and 
revised by the author. It is dedicated to King Philip of Spain. The 
title is: Anatomia del corpo humano composta per M. Giovan Valverde 
di Hamusco e da luy con multe figure di rame et eruditi discorsi in luce 



mandata. The title is a reversed copper engraving and a copy of the 
one which precedes the VesaHan plates, as published by Jansson {Amstel. 
1617). The forty- two anatomic copper engravings in folio are included 
in the number of pages given above. There are a few small woodcuts 
on the margins of the text. The plates which are not VesaHan are as 
follows: Lib. II. Tab. i, L. III. Tab. 1-3, 6, L. VI. Tab. i. They 
are, owing to the accessories and the position of the cadaver, ugly and 
repulsive. The other plates are copied on a reduced scale and some- 
times with added alterations, from the plates in VesaUus' principal work 
De corporis humani fabrica. The engraving is done very carefully and 
precisely, yet without giving to the different parts such natural appear- 
ances and Hfelike freshness as VesaHus was able to produce in his wood- 
cuts. [Another edition of Anton Tabo's ItaHan translation of Valverde 
was published Vinetia, 1586, fol., nella stamperia de Giunti, under the 
title: La anatomia del corpo umano. Nuov. risiampata e amplicata. 
It contains four new myologic plates. As regards this edition and the 
painter Beatrici see Bartsch: Peint. grav. XV, pp. 242, 263.] 

Antverpiae, 1566, fol., ex officina Christo phori Plantini, 153 and 
46 pp. including 42 copperplates. 

This is a Latin translation of Valverde's explanations of his plates. 
The other parts of the text are left out. The title is: Vivae imagines 
partium corporis humani aereis formis expressae. Appended is the text 
of Vesalius' Epitome, without the illustration and with a special signature, 
and also the text from Grevin's edition of VesaHan plates. Valverde's 
copperplates are all newly engraved, but less beautifully done. The 
same plates newly engraved with the same Latin text are again pub- 
Ushed in Antverp., ex officina Christophori Plantini, 1568, fol., and ibid. 
1579, fol., 16, Kal. Maii, 175 pages of text with 42 engravings.' A Dutch 
translation of the book appeared under the title: Anatomie, oft levende 
beeiden vande deelen des menschelicken lichaems: Met de verclaringhe van 
dien, in de Neder-duytsche spraecke. T' Antwerpen, by Christojfel Plantijn, 
1568, fol., 6 and igy pp. text with 42 engravings."^ 

Venetiis, 158g, fol., studio et industria Juntarum, 34 and ^40 pp. 
including 47 copperplates; the colophon bears the date 1588. 

This is a Latin translation of the complete text by Valverde, 
as it appeared in the ItaHan edition, under the title: Anatome 

'Another Latin edition issued by Plantin, but unknown to Choulant, was that of 1572. 

* A Vesalli en Valuer da Anatomie, Ofle Afbeeldinghe van de Deelen des menschelycken 
lichaems, en derselver Verklaringhe, t'Amstelredam, Cornells Danckertz, 1647. A reprint of 
the edition of 1568, by Plantin, with newly .engraved plates. 




corporis humani auciore Joanne Valverdo, Nunc primum ä Michaele 
Columho latine reddita, et Additis nouis aliquot tahulis exornata. Besides 
the title-page of the Italian edition, which is slightly elaborated 
in the Latin edition, there are given the forty-two original plates by 
Valverde and four myologic plates by an unknown artist and engraver. 
At the end of the prefaces is inserted on a whole page a bust of Valverde 
with the monogram of Niccolo Beatrici. The four newly added engrav- 
ings represent four muscle-manikins in different positions, all beautifully 
and forcefully engraved. A second edition of this Latin translation 
appeared Venetiis, 1607, fol., with new but revised engravings.^ 

Haller: I, 215. 
Weigel, no. 4919, 681 1. 

Stirling, William: Annals of the artists of Spain, London, 1848, 8°, I, 242 et seq. 
Cconcerninecerra) . 

^ Idem, Italian editions, (a) Vinctia, 1606, fol., 154 pp., (b) Vinetia, N, Pezzana, 1682. 
13 and 152 pp. 


Volcher Goiter, Goeiter, Koiter, Koyter, born at Groningen in 1534 
and died in 1576 or 1600. He was a pupil of Fallopius, later became city 
physician at Nuremburg and afterward a French army surgeon. His 
works are rare and important for the developmental history of the human 
fetus and the child, also for zootomy. There should be mentioned: 

De ossibiis et cartilaginihus corporis humani tabulae, Bonon., apud 
J oh. Rossium, 1566, fol. 

This work is only a tabular compilation without illustrations. In the 
copy examined by Ghoulant, five copper engravings, viz., the skeleton 
of an ape and the four plates with skeletons of other animals, which we 
shall have occasion to mention farther on, are added to the text without 
being referred to in the work itself. The author in this copy calls himself 

Externariim et internarum principalium humani corporis partium 
tabulae — autore Volchero Coiter Frisio Groeningensi, Noribergae, in 
officina Theodori Gerlatzeni, 1573, fol., 14 and 134 pp. 

This book is composed of separate treatises, in which only a few illus- 
trations (copper engravings) occur. There are two life-sized engravings 
of the base of the skull viewed from the upper and the lower surfaces 
and two engravings of skeletons copied after Vesalius, belonging to 
Tabulae ossium hum. cor p.; the skeleton and the skull of a child, on three 
charts belonging to De foetus humani et infantum ossibus; the skeleton 
of an ape belonging to Analogia ossium simiae. 

Lectiones Gabrielis Fallopii de partibus similaribus humani cor- 
poris — a Volchero Coiter — collectae. His accessere diversorum animalium 
sceletorum explicationes iconibus artificiosis et genuinis illustratae, Nori- 
bergae, in officina Theodorici Gerlachii, 1575, fol., 37 unnumbered leaves. 
This contains four plates of skeletons of mammals, amphibia (frog and 
turtle), and birds. 

All the illustrations are drawn by Goiter himself as indicated by the 
letters V. G. D. The engravings are neat and anatomically exact. 
The four plates last mentioned especially, are freely and truthfully 

[The Nuremburg edition of the Externarum et internarum principalium 
partium humani corporis tabulae had been published before the Noribergae 



in of. Theodori Cerlatzeni 1572, and was given the quoted new title in 
1573. The text is the same. The Tabulae de ossib. et cartilaginib., 
published in 1566, are here given again. In the Lectiones Cabrielis 
Fallopii, on tab. III. the figure of the monstrous fowl has the inscrip- 
tion: 15. G. P. D. 73 which stands for: Georg Palm, Doctor {med.) 1573. 
The Sceletorum explicationes are Goiter's own work. The illustrations 
of the animal skeletons are used again in Johann Andreas Schenck's 
German translation of Realdus Columbus' Anatomio, Frankfort, on 
the Mayn, 1609, fol. Cf. Weigel: Kunstkatalog, no. 18248, 49, 54.] 

Goiter bequeathed an anatomic statuette to the city of Nuremburg, 
which was placed in the public library. Of this Professor Johann 
Jacobus Baier of Altorf has said: 

Felicissime repraesentavit in ejdli quidem sed artificiossissima statua musculorum 
situm, venarum vias, ossium divortia, membrorum vinoila ita ad viventis naturam 
exprimente, ut artificem in ea omnem excussisse artem dixerint periti spectatores. 
(Adagia medicinalia, Franc, et Lips. 1718, 4°, p. 44.) 

"He has most faithfully represented in a small but scientifically constructed 
effigy, the origin and insertion of the muscles, the course of the veins, the articula- 
tions of the bones, and the ligaments of the limbs in so lifelike a manner that experts 
who have viewed it said that in this statue the artist has proved superior to art 

Haller: I, 234. 


Jan Wauters van Vieringen, Valterius Viringus, born in Louvain, was 
professor there and edited: 

Dat Epitome oft cort begryp der Anatomien Andr. Vesalii, uyt het 
latyn in Nederduudsch overghestelt, Brugghe, 1569, 4°.^ 

Tabula isagogica ossium corporis humani connexionem ac numerum 
complectens, olim Lovanii edita, nunc recognita et aucta. Duaci, ap. B. 
Bellertim, 1597, fol. pat. 

It is doubtful whether both works have illustrations since tabula 
may mean either an engraving or a tabulation. 

Broeckx: Essai sur Vhistoire de la midecine Beige, Gand, 1837, 8°, p. 319. 
Haller: I, 171, 280. 

' The work contains, besides a portrait of Jan Wauters (loan Valterius Viringius), an 
illustration of anatomic instruments after Vesalius. Haeser and Israels give 1560 in place 
of 1569. The work is rare. A copy is in the library of the University of Ghent. De Feyfer, 
loc. cit., 457. 


Guido Guidi, Vidus Vidius, was born in Florence. His mother 
Constance was the daughter of the painter Domenico del Ghirlandajo. 
In 1542, he was called to Paris by Francis I, and after 1548 again lived 
in Florence. He later became professor in Pisa, and died there on 
May 26, 1569, after he had taken holy orders. Most of his works were 
published long after his death, with the exception of his Chirurgia. 
Nevertheless he was highly respected by his contemporaries and espe- 
cially by Francis I and Cosimo I. He also enjoyed the esteem and 
friendship of the Florentine goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini with whom he 
lived in Paris. 

[The woodcuts in Vidi Vidii: Chirurgia, Paris, 1544, fol., show excel- 
lent workmanship and are very numerous. They may probably be 
attributed to Francois Jollat who was working in Paris from 1502 to 
1550; cf. Weigel: Kunstkatalog, no. 20855a. The work is in the library 
of the Surgical Medical Academy of Dresden.] Cellini has said of him 
{Vita, ed. Lips. 1833, 12°, II, 100, et seq.): 

Sebbene molto prima io mi dovevo ricordare della guadagnata amicizia del piu 
virtuoso, del piu amorevole e del piu domestico uomo dabbene, che mai io conoscesis 
al mondo; questo si fu Messer Guido Guidi, eccellente medico e Dottore, e nobüe 

cittadin fiorontino Capito il detto Messer Guido in Parigi, e avendolo comin- 

ciato a conoscere Io menai al mio castello (Piccol Nello, Petit-Nesle), e quivi gli detti 

una stanza libera da per se: cosi ci godemmo insieme parecchi anni Con il 

sopradetto Messer Guido godemmo I'amicizia tanti anni, quanto io la soprastetti, 
gloriandoci spesso insieme, che noi imparavano qualche virtu alle spese di quello 
cosi grande e maraviglioso Principe (Francis I), ognun di noi in nella sua professione. 
.... Aveva in questo mio castello un giuoco di palla . . . ., era in detto luogo 
alcune piccole istanzette, dove abitava diversa sorte d'uomini, infra i quali era uno 
stampatore, molto valente, di libri: questo teneva quasi tutta la sua bottega drento 
in nel mio castello, e fu quello che stampo quel primo bei libro di Medicina a Messer 

"Far back in my autobiography I ought to have recorded the friendship which 
I won with the most cultivated, the most affectionate, and the most companionable 
man of worth I ever knew in this world. He was Messer Guido Guidi, an able 

physician and doctor of medicine, and a nobleman of Florence Messer Guido 

came to Paris; and not long after making his acquaintance, I took him to my castle, 
and there assigned him his own suite of apartments. We enjoyed our lives together 

in that place for several years We enjoyed our mutual friendship during all 

the years I stayed in Paris, and often did we exult together on being able to advance 


in art and knowledge at the cost of that so great and admirable prince, our patron, 

each in his own branch of industry I had a tennis-court in my castle, from 

which I drew considerable profit. The building also contained some Uttle dwellings 
inhabited by different sorts of men, among whom was a printer of books of much 
excellence in his own trade. Nearly the whole of his premises lay inside the castle, 
and he was the man who printed Messer Guido's first fine book on medicine." (The 
Life of Benvenuto Cellini, translated by John Addington Symonds.) 

This book printed in Petit-Nesle, is the Chirurgia e graeco in latinum 
conversa, Vido Vidio Florentino interprete, Lutetiae Parisiorum, excudebat 
Petrus Galterius, 1544, pridie Cal. Maii,fol. 

The complete anatomic work which Guido left was also not pub- 
lished until long after his death, and when, at last, it appeared it hardly 
received the attention that it deserved, and is now rarely seen. It is 
known under the following title: 

Vidi Vidii: Florentini de anatome corporis humani libri VII. Nunc 
primum in lucem editi atque LXXVIII. tahulis in aes incisis illustrati 
et exornati. Francofurti, typis et sumptihus Wechelianorum apud Danielem 
et David. Aubrios et dementem Schleichium, 1626, fol., copper title-page, 
323 pp., including a plate representing the anatomist's armamentarium 
and 78 anatomic copperplates in folio. 

This work first appeared as the third volume of the Ars medicinalis, 
Venet. apud Juntas, 161 1, fol., a book edited by the younger Vidus 
Vidius and containing the collected works of our author. The plates 
are mostly new and original. They remind one more of Eustachius 
than of Vesalius. Neither the artist nor the engraver are mentioned 

Haller: I, 236. 


Jacques Guillemeau, born in Orleans, was royal body physician and 
died in 1612. He is better known in surgery and obstetrics than in 
anatomy. On the latter he published, 

Six tables anatomiques. Paris, chez Jean Charron, 1571, fol. 

Michel de St. Pierre, body surgeon of the duke of Lorraine, was a 
collaborator in this work. The plates represent (i) the bones, (2) the 
abdominal cavity, (3) the thoracic cavity, (4) the head, (5) the arteries, 
veins, and nerves, (6) the muscles. 

He also published 

Tables anatomiques avec les pourtraicts et declaration d'Iceulx, ensemble 
Vn denombrement de Cinq Cens Maladies diuerses. (Also with title: 
Anatomie universelle du corps humain en tables methodiques, etc.) Paris, 
chez Jean Charron, 1586, fol. Reprinted Paris, 1598, fol. 

On the copper-title we see the coat-of-arms of Henry III, and the 
four elements and temperaments. The title-page is followed by nine- 
teen anatomic copperplates in folio, most of which show representations 
after Vesalius and Valverde. The printed text throughout the book is 
given in tabular form.^ 

Haller: I, 258. 

^Idem, Dutch translation by C. Battum, Dordrecht, 1598, 1606, 1652, 1666. 



Costanzo VaroKo, born in Bologna in 1543, became professor of 
anatomy there and later papal physician. He died in Rome in 1575 
or 1578. He was the first to examine the brain from its base up, 
in contrast with previous dissections from the top down. He gave the 
name pons cerebelli to the pons which, indeed, even today is called the 
bridge of Varolius. Varolius' work is the following: 

De Nervis Opticis nonnullisque aliis praeter communem opinionem 
in Humano capite ohservatis. Ad Hieronymum Mercurialem, Patavii 
apud Paul, et Anton. Meiettos fratres, 1573, 8°, 8 and 32 leaves. 

It consists of a letter to Mercurialis, dated April i, 1572, his answer, 
and Varolius' reply to the latter. It was published without Varolius' 
knowledge, his approval being taken for granted. Appended are three 
woodcuts pertaining to the brain and drawn by Varolius himself. The 
engraving is somewhat crude, yet distinct and instructive. We find 
a few very small figures on the margin of the text. Varolius gives the 
following explanation of the illustration here appended. The left side 
of the brain is marked with numbers, the right side with letters. Some of 
the letters, however, were quite indistinct, even on the original woodcut. 

I. Origo nervis opticis communiter ascripta. 2. Origo nervorum, qui petunt 
musculos oculorum, secundum communem aliorum sententiam. j-y. Nervi omnes, 
quorum originem inquit Vesalius esse ex principio spinalis medullae. 8. Locus unde 
instrumenta olfactus ducunt suum principium iuxta communem opinionem. g. Prin- 
cipium spinalis medullae reliquis Anatomicis cognitum. 10. 11. Prominentia media 
cerebri. 12. ij. Confinia prominentiae anterioris et supremae cerebri cum media, 
quas prominentias crediderunt alii esse sibimet continuas in angulo formato inter 10, 
II. et 12. IJ., ubi revera sunt tantum contiguae, ut patet in dextra parte figurae. 
a. b. Tota portio nervorum opticorum caeteris Anatomicis ignota et ubi b. est reflexio 
praedicti nervi in posteriori parte spinalis medullae. c. d. Pars secundi partis 
nervorum, quam non observarunt alii, et d! primum ortum eiusdem nervi, e. f. 
Primus spinalis medullae ex cerebro ortus. Totum autem id, quod est inter e. f. et 
g. fuit reliquis dissectoribus occultum. h. Processus transversalis cerebri, qui 
dicitur Pons. i. Origo nervi auditus ex ponte cerebelli. k. I. Ductus instrument! 
olfactus latitans inter supremam et mediam cerebri prominentiam, et ubi k. ibi est 
prima eiusdem instrumenti origo. m. Media cerebri prominentia a reliquo cerebro 
dissecta. n. Principium posterioris prominentiae cerebri, unde dissecta fuit media. 
0. p. Cavitas ventriculi, quae reflectitur ad prominentiam mediam. q. r. s. Pars 
superioris prominentiae cerebri, cui media adhaeret contigua. /. Intercussatio, 
quam facit nervus opticus cum nervo musculos oculi petente. 



A second work by Varolius, a teleologic physiology of man, was pub- 
lished for the first time after his death: 

Anatomiae sive de resolutione corporis humani ad Caesarem Mediovil- 
lanum libri IV. Eiusdem Varolii et Ilieron. Mercurialis De nervis 

Opticis, etc. epistolae, Francojurti, apud J oh. Wechclum et Petr. Fischerum 
consortes, 1591, 8°, 8 and 184 pp. 

This contains no illustrations. But the former book is repubHshed 
as a part of this work with unchanged text and the woodcuts recarved 
in a somewhat different manner. The drawings are not exact but rather 
arbitrary reproductions of the original woodcuts. 

Haller: I, 241. 


Felix Plater was born in Basel in 1536, of a family whose original 
name was Platter from the house on the "Platte," a rock near the village 
Grenchen in the parish Visp in Valais. From 1560 he was professor of 
medicine in Basel, and as a scientist he was particularly interested in 
anatomy and practical medicine. He died in Basel on July 24, 1614. 
He published : 

De corporis humani structura et usu lihri III, tahulis methodice explicati, 
iconibus accurate illustrati. Basil., ex qfficina Frobeniana, per Ambrosium 
Frobenium, 1583, fol.; ibid., 1603, fol. 

The second edition was probably in no way different, except that it 
had a new title (apud Ludov. König). The dedication which serves as 
a preface is the old one of February i, 1503. The third book had a 
separate title: Liber tertius, corporis humani partium per icones deline- 
atarum explicatio, Basil., 1603, fol. and contains fifty etched copper- 
plates, with a page of text for each. The engravings are drawn in a 
free and spirited manner. The bones and the muscles are the best after 
the manner of the contemporaneous Swiss painters, Christoph Maurer 
and Tobias Stimmer. The etching was done perhaps by Abel Stimmer. 
In the book itself no suggestion as to the artist is made, nor can we find 
anything about the artist in the author's autobiography published by 
Fechter. The illustrations are chiefly after Vesalius. One plate is 
after Goiter, but none of Valverde's figures have been copied, inasmuch 
as the plate of the cutaneous veins (Plate 50), which shows at least 
some resemblance to one of Valverde's plates, represents the body in a 
different position. Haller thinks that some of the figures are the results 
of Plater's personal investigations. 

Thomas Platter und Felix Platter: Zwei Autobiographieen. Ein Beitrag zur 
Sittengeschichte des XVI. Jahrhunderts, herausgegeben von D. A. Fechter, Basel, 
1840, 8°. 

Waigel : no. 12865. 



Salomon Albert! was born in Naumburg on the Saale in 1540, and 
came to Nuremberg with his parents a few weeks after his birth. He 
was professor in Wittenberg and electoral body physician from 1592 
until his death in Dresden in 1600. He was recognized as an industrious 
anatomist and an independent investigator. He published: 

Historia plerarumque partium humani corporis, in usum tyronum 
edita. Vitebergae, 1583, 8°; ibid., 1585, 8°; enlarged, ibid., 1601, 8°; 
and unchanged from this edition, Viteb, 1602, 1630, 8°. 

The book contains about thirty most peculiar illustrations, large and 
small, in rather crude woodcuts. 

Moehsen: Beschreibung einer berlinischen Medaillensammlung. Part I, p. 25, 
in which a medal struck in his honor is reproduced and certain details of his life are 

Haller: I, 251. 



Juan de Arphe y Villafane, Darphe or Arfe, was the descendant of 
a German family of artists who came to Spain at the time of Juan's 
grandfather, Henrique Arfe. The family is particularly famous for 
artistic gold and silver-work. 

Juan was born in Leon in 1535 and received instruction in the graphic 
(and plastic) arts from his father Antonio. He studied anatomy in 
Salamanca and Toledo, at the former city under Cosme de Medina. 
In Toledo he attempted to establish the proportions of the human body, 
following in this the examples of Alonso Berreguette and Felipe de 
Vigarny (Fel. de Borgona). After his father's death he went to live in 
Valladolid. While in Valladolid he made artistic vessels (receptacles 
for the host, so-called custodiae or monstrances) of precious metals for 
the cathedrals in Avila, Sevilla, Burgos, and Valladolid, and the churches 
in Osma, and St. Martin in Madrid. He also engraved plates in wood 
and lead, was a sculptor and architect, and was appointed Ensayador 
(assayer) of the mint in Segovia. He later moved to Madrid and died 
there in the beginning of the seventeenth century. 

Juan also made literary attempts, but for our purposes only the follow- 
ing book has any importance : 

Varia conmensuracion para la escuUura y arquitectura. Sevilla, 1585, 
io\.— -Madrid, por Francisco Sanz, impressor del Reyno, a costa de la viuda 
de Bernardo Sierra, 1675, ^^l., with woodcuts, Madrid, 1795, fol.; is 
the 7 edition with re-engraved original plates and additions by Pedro 
Enguera. — Madrid, 1806. fol., corregida y aumentada por Josef Assensio 
y Torres, 2 Vols., completely revised, ed. 8, in which the eight-line 
stanzas are lacking. 

The work consists of four books, each one paged independently, 
at least in the older editions. The first book is on geometry and con- 
tains also a rather exhaustive treatise on gnomonics. The second book 
deals with the proportions of the human body. The third book treats 
of the quadrupeds and birds and contains a large number of illustrations 
of animals. The fourth book is on architecture. All four books contain 
a great many woodcuts which are either printed between the text or 
cover whole pages. A picture of the author at the age of fifty is in a 
medallion on the title-page. Besides the explanations in the text a 



great number of eight-line stanzas serve to express the scientific pre- 
cepts. For our purpose only the second book is important. This con- 
tains a large number of woodcuts representing outlines of the whole 
body or of single parts with the measurements. It is quite noticeable 
that the artist who made the drawings was familiar with Diirer's 

figures on proportion, yet the drawings are more truthful, more 
Hfelike, and cleverer. We also find completed and crosshatched drawings 
for osteology and myology. The latter are the better plates. Pages 24 
and 25 represent two skeletons, pages 37 and 38 two male figures; the 
former has the monogram R in the accessory drawing. This monogram 
does not occur anywhere else. The two female figures on page 39 are 


only outline drawings. Ten face lengths are indicated as composing 
the height of the body. Two stanzas specify the following requirements 
as essential for a beautiful female body: 

Frente espaciosa, y bien proporcionada, Ojos distantes, grandes, y rasgados, 
Nariz, que ni sea roma, ni afilada, Los labios no muy gruessos, ni apretados, Boca, 
que con descuido este cerrada, Los carrillos redondos, bien formados, Pechos, que 
disten, con pequena altura, Hazen una perfecta hermosura, Sean diez rostros de su 
cuerpo el cuento, Y muestre cames morvidas, y tiernas; Tenga suave, y blando el 
movimiento, Y con caderas anchas, gordas piernas: Sea redondo el brafo al naci- 
miento, Cuello liso, sin hoyos, ni cavernas, Pies, y manos pequenos, y carnosos, Que 
tales cuerpos son los muy hermosos. 

"Forehead lofty and well proportioned, eyes widely separated, large and piercing, 
nose neither Roman nor too pointed, lips not very thick nor tightly pressed, mouth 
scarcely closed, cheeks rounded and well formed, breasts not too prominent, and at 
the proper distance from each other, these make a perfect beauty. — There may be 
ten features in her body: it should display flesh tender and fresh; her movement 
should be smooth and even, and with wide hips and fat legs, arms rounded at the 
shoulder, neck smooth without hollows or wrinkles, feet and hands small and plump, 
such bodies are the most beautiful." 

Two male figures are treated in the same way on page 13, their height is 
also ten face lengths. The proportions of the child are given on page 40. 

Arphe belongs to those Spanish artists who spent much time on an 
earnest study of anatomy, as Alonso Berreguette (1480-1561) and 
Caspar Becerra (1520-70). See also article on Valverde. They were 
particularly interested in the study of the proportions of the human 
body and also made use of Albrecht Diirer's (1471-1528) work on 
proportions, of which there is said to exist a Portuguese translation, in 
manuscript, from the Italian. The author of this translation, Luiz da 
Costa (b. 1599), probably used an ItaHan edition of Diirer's work. 
Besides the men named above there were FeHpe de Borgona (Felipe de 
Vigarny) and the Neapolitan sculptor Pomponio Caurico who were 
equally interested along the same lines. The views of these men on the 
subject differed, and it seemed hardly possible for them to come to any 
agreement. This must have led Arphe to the writing of the following 
stanzas which we find among the historical notes of his book on propor- 
tions (Book II, page 2) : 

Despues vino ä alterarse esta medida, Porque ä Pomponio Gaurico, y Durero 
Les parecio que andava muy crecida, Y acortaron en ella un rostro entero: Pero 
duröle poco esta caida: Y luego si reduxo al ser primero Por Polavolo, Bacho y 
Rafael, Mantena, Donatelo y Micael. — Traspusose despues en esta tierra Por dos 
famosos deUa naturales. El uno Berruguete, otro Bezerra, Ambos en escultura prin- 
cipales: Con la opinion contraria hizieron guerra, Dando siempre ä entender que 
no eran tales Las partes y medida que aca usavan, Como la que traxeron y ensenavan. 


"Later this standard of beauty was altered, because Pomonio Gaurico and 
Dürer thought the height too great, and they shortened the stature by the length of 
an entire face, but this change lasted for a short time only and was abolished in favor 
of the original standard by PoUaiuolo, Baccio Baldini, Raphael, Mantegna, Donatello, 
and Michelangelo. Afterwards it was changed back by two famous naturalists, 
Berreguette and Bezerra, both noted in sculpture. With the contrary standard 
they waged war, giving all to understand that these standards were not the ones 
made use of or taught by them." 

In the text Bacho is explained to stand for Baccio Baldini and Micael 
for Buonnaroti; the other names require no explanation. 
See also: 

Bermudez (Juan Agustin Cean): Diccionario historico de los mas ilustres pro- 
fesores de las bellas artes en Espana, Madrid, 1800, 8°, pp. 59, 107, 130, etc. 

Fiorillo (Johann Dominik) : Geschichte der zeichnenden Künste von iher Wieder- 
auflehung bis auf die neuesten Zeiten, IV, 74, 106, 150. 

Stirling (William): Annais of the Artists of Spain, London, 1848, 8°, I, 392 et seq. 


Archangelo Piccolhomini, of Ferrara, wTote a manual of anatomy 
with illustrations imder the title: 

Anatomicae praelectiones explicantes mirificam corporis humani 
fabricam, Romae, ex typographia Barthol. Bonfadini, 1586, fol. 

He himself never did much dissecting, and his book contains only 
very poor and few truthful representations. We find woodcuts of the 
abdominal muscles and the heart printed in between the text on pages 68- 
71 and 207. Haller (I, 260) rightly calls them badly and arbitrarily 
done {ex arbitrio fictas) . 

In the article on Remmehn the Anatome Integra revisa. Veronae, 
1754, fol., will be spoken of which appeared over his name, but was the 
fraudulent work of a book-dealer. 


Andre du Laurens, Andreas Laurentius, of Aries, was professor in 
Montpellier in 1586. From 1600 he was royal physician at the court 
in Paris and died there in 1609. His activity as an anatomist was 
limited. He seems to have been too fond of court life. Nevertheless, 
his work 

Historia anatomica humani corporis et singularum eius partium, 
multis controversiis et observationibus novis illustrata, Paris, 1589, fol., 
went through several editions: Paris, 1600, fol.; Francofurti, apud 
Matth. Beckerum, impensis Theodorici de Bry viduae, s. a. fol. and oftener; 
Francof., 1602, 8°, without illustrations; Ludg., 1605, 8°, also without 
illustrations. It is also republished in the latter's Opera, Francof. (Paris), 
162^, fol. and in a French translation in the same author's (Euvres, 
traduittes par Theoph. Celee, Paris, 1621, fol. where a copper-title 
engraved by Charles de Malleri accompanies it. 

The illustrations are distributed over twenty-six folio copper-prints 
and are, in the main, copies from Vesalius, Coiter, Valverde, and others. 
They have no particular anatomic or artistic value. On the copper-title 
is a bust of Du Laurens; preceding the dedication is a bust of Henry IV 
of France. The anatomic plates were also published separately with 
an explanation in French:' Paris, 1741, ij8i,fol. 

Astruc: Memoir es pour servir ä V historic de la FaculiS de mSdecine de Montpellier, 
Paris, 1767, V, 247. 
Haller: I, 270. 

'This edition was published under the title: Anatomie universelle de toutes les parties du 
corps humain, representie en figures et exactement expliquee par . . . . , Paris, 17 31; 174S. 


Giulio Casserio, Casserius, of Piacenza, Julius Casserius Placentinus, 
was born in 1561 and died in 1616. He was a pupil of Fabricius ab 
Aquapendente, and, from 1604, his successor as professor of anatomy in 

Casserius rendered particular services to the science of the anatomy 
of the vocal and the auditory organs as well as to the anatomy of the 
other sense organs. The results of his studies are to a large extent based 
on zoötomic researches. 

De vocis auditusque organis historia anatomica—^ariis iconihus aere 
excusis illustrata, Ferrariae, (1601) large fol. excudehat Victorius Baldinus, 
sumptib. unitoriim Patavii, with 37 copperplates in folio. 

There are thirty-seven copperplates. The first one is the copper- 
title, the second one a bust of the duke Ranutio Farnese of Parma, and 
the third one a bust of Casserius himself. The other plates are anatomic 
representations, twenty-two dealing with the vocal organs, and twelve 
with the ear. Among them we find a great many zoötomic representa- 
tions. Plate 21 represents the vocal organs of the cicadas, the grass- 
hopper, and similar insects. The artists who made the drawings and 
did the engravings are not mentioned on the plates, but we are led to 
conclude from a passage in the Tr octal, de auris auditusque organo, lib. I. 
cap. I J, pag. jg that the painter and etcher Joseph Maurer, a German 
who lived in Casserius' house at Casserius' expense, did both the drawing 
and the engraving of the illustrations, for Casserius says in the cited 
passage : 

(Musculum hunc) ego anno 1593 mense Martio, die septimo — observavi, statim 
ab honorabili Viro Josepho Murero Germano Pictore, tunc tempo ris mihi pro 
pingendis figuris anatomicis cohabitanti, delineari in perpetuam memoriam curavi. 

"I observed this muscle in the year 1593, on the seventh of March, and imme- 
diately had it drawn for everlasting memory by that distinguished man Joseph 
Maurer, the German, artist, who was at that time living in my household for the 
purpose of painting anatomic illustrations." 

He has also been called Josias Maurer. Both the drawing and engraving 
are done with unusual care and are anatomically exact. The work 
consists of two treatises: the first (printed in 1601) on the vocal organs 
and the second (printed in i6cxd) on the auditory organs. The complete 



work, then, cannot have been pubHshed in 1600, but in 1601. The year 
of publication is not given on the title. 

Pentaestheseion hoc est de quinque sensibus liber, Venet., 1609, fol., 
apud Nicol. Misserinum, with 33 copperplates and a copper-title. — 
New edition: Nova anatomia continens accuratam organorum sensilium, 
tarn humanorum quam animalium brutorum et delinealionem et descrip- 
tionem, Franco/., 1622, small fol. impensis J oh. Treudel. 

In this work we find again the twelve plates pertaining to the ear. 
The remaining plates, which deal with the other four sense organs, are 
new. The original edition is said to have contained a copper-title and 
thirty- three plates, all from the hands of the artist who drew and engraved 
the plates of the preceding work. The second edition contains also a 
copper-title and thirty- three plates, but reduced and certainly executed 
by another artist. Some of them are even reversed and show much 
inferior workmanship. 

Casserius rendered to anatomic illustration even greater service than 
through these highly valuable investigations and scientific contributions 
which are of lasting value, by another work covering the whole field of 
human anatomy. He did not live to arrange for its pubHcation, and only 
a part of the illustrations that he had intended for this work, have been 
preserved to our day. He himself has said of this work: 

De totius humani corporis fabrica imagines in lucem dabo omnibus perfectas 
numeris et absolutas, quaeque fortasse caeteras omnes, quotquot hactenus prodiere, 
elegantia, perspicuitate, artificio denique ac studio superent universas (de voc. audit, 
org. praef.) 

"As regards the fabric of the human body, I will make public, pictures finished 
and complete in every part, which will, I venture to say, excel in nicety, clearness, and 
finally in workmanship and pains all that have hitherto been published." 

and later: 

Ita quoque propediem in tuum commodum et anatomici studii ornamentura 
Theatrum meum, quod affectum mihi est in manibus, opus omnium partium fabricam, 
actiones, usus continens cum magna observationum multarum, novarum opinionum 
et vivarum tabularum varietate edendum curabo (pentaesth. praef.). 

"Accordingly I will presently have pubHshed, for your benefit and the furthering 
of the study of anatomy, my Theater (birdseye view), which I have now on hand, a 
work containing the structure, actions, and uses of all the parts of the body, together 
with a wealth of observations and a great variety of new ideas and illustrations 
from Hfe." 

This book must therefore, have been begun about 1600 and the author 
must have been working at it sixteen years when he died. Casserius 
himself attached great value to this book and considered it his life-work. 


When Casserius died in 1616, Adrian van der Spieghel (Spigelius, 
born in Brussels in 1578) became his successor in the chair of anatomy 
at Padua. Spieghel died in 1625, and in his will he asked a German 
physician, Daniel Rindfleisch of Breslau (Bucretius), to pubHsh his 
posthumous work De humani corporis fabrica, a manuscript without any 
illustrations. [Daniel Bucretius received his doctor's degree in Padua, 
on June 22, 1626, entered the Dominican Order, under the name of 
Joannes a S. Thoma on April 25, 1629, and died as deacon, September 10, 
163 1, only thirty-one years old. He must, therefore, have been born 
about 1600. (Echard et Quetif: Scriptores ordinis praedicatorum 
recensiti, Tom. II, 2^0.)] Bucretius asked the heirs of Casserius for 
the plates which Casserius had had drawn and engraved for his Theatrum 
anatomicum intending to add these plates to Spigehus' work. He 
received seventy-eight plates, but one of them got spoiled or, as an uncon- 
firmed report has it, was purposely ruined by Bucretius because it did 
not come up to his standard. There therefore remained seventy-seven 
plates, to which Bucretius added twenty others, drawn and engraved by 
the same artists who made those of Casserius: Two plates representing 
front and back views of a male body; ten osteologic plates; one plate 
representing facial muscles; five plates from Vesalius representing parts 
of the vascular and nervous systems, and two plates pertaining to the 
air passages, to sight, and to hearing. The ninety-seven plates were 
published under the title: 

Julii Casserii Placentini Tabulae anatomicae LXXIIX, omnes novae 
nee antehac visae; Dan. Bucretius XX quae deerant supplevit et omnium 
explicationes addidit, Venet., 1627, fol., ap. Evangelistam Deuchinum; 
copper-title, 97 anatomical plates, each with a page of explanatory 

Copies of this work differ. In some we find besides the copper-title, 
a dedication by Bucretius to the city council of Breslau, dated February i, 
1627; and it has been asserted that in these copies the engravings have 
not been very carefully printed. Other copies have only the copper- 
title and in still others the copper title-page is also lacking. In these 
latter copies the paper used is better and the copper engravings are 
superior. The name of Odoardo Fialetti, as the artist, and the name of 
Francesco Valesio, as the engraver, are given on the copper-title. 

These plates were also published in the first edition of Spigelius' 
anatomy under the title : 

Adriani Spigelii De humani cor poris fabrica libri decern, Venet., 1627, 
fol., ap. Evang. Deuchinum. 


This edition contains the text of Spigelius' work and ninety-seven ana- 
tomic copperplates. Spigehus' son-in-law, the physician Liberalis Crema 
of Padua, had bought several other copperplates from Casserius' grand- 
son and when in 1626 he wished to publish a few selections from the 
posthumous works of his father-in-law, he chose nine appropriate 
plates and added them with his own explanations to these selections. 
The following is his publication: 

Adriani Spigelii De formato foetu liber singularis aeneis figuris exor- 
natus, epistolae duae anatomicae, tractatus de arthritide, opera posthuma, 
studio Liberalis Cremae Tarvisini edita, Patavii, apud Joh. Bapt. de 
Martinis et Livium Pasguatum, s. a. fol., 8 and 104 pp. and 9 copper- 
plates in folio. 

The dedication is dated April 26, 1626 {VI. kal. Maji). The plates 
belong to the treatise de formato foetu and deal with the pregnant uterus, 
placenta, and the child. They are among Casserius' most beautiful 
engravings. Four of them represent entire female figures with the 
abdomen cut open. At their feet we see decorative landscapes. The 
work was published at Crema's expense and is rare. Möhsen's state- 
ment {Bildnisse, page 97) that the edition contained ten copperplates and 
that Casserius was the author of the treatise de formato foetu, is incorrect. 

Up to the time when Joannes Antonides van der Linden (1609-64), 
then professor in Franeker, published Spigelius' complete works including 
a few smaller and older writings, eighty-sLx plates from Casserius ' legacy 
and twenty plates added by Bucretius had been published. 

Adriani Spigelii Opera, quae extant omnia. Ex recensione Joh. 
Antonidae van der Linden, Amsterdams, apud Joann. Blaeu, 1645. fol., 
2 vols., splendidly printed; 

In this work we find in addition to a copper-title and a bust of Spigelius 
very beautifully engraved by Jeremiah Falck, ninety-seven anatomic 
plates (i.e., seventy-seven from Casserius' legacy and twenty added by 
Bucretius), the nine prints belonging to the Tractat. de formato foetu, 
and a tenth one representing the hymen, which also came from Cas- 
serius' legacy and had been obtained through the assistance of Johannes 
Rhodius. There are altogether one hundred and seven anatomic plates 
dealing with subjects of Spigehus ' works. But there are besides these, 
ten more copperplates which do not belong to the Casserius series. 
Four of them belong to Caspar Aselli: De lactibus et lacteis venis, one 
to William Harvey: De motu cordis et sanguinis, three to Johannes 
Walaeus: De motu chyli, and two to Adrianus Spigelius: De lumbrico 
lato. All these treatises are also contained in this edition. 



This edition of Spigelius' works constitutes the most complete 
collection of original impressions of the eighty-seven plates from 
Casserius' legacy and the twenty added to them by Bucretius. These 
plates were drawn by Odoardo Fialetti (b. Bologna 1573-d. Venice 
1638), a pupil of Giovanni Battista Cremonini and of Jacomo Robusti, 
and were engraved by Francesco Valegio (Valesius). [Odoardo Fialetti 

was the author of a manual for the drawing of the human body, with 
proportional lines: // vero modo ed ordine per disegnar tutte Ic parti e 
membra del cor pa umano, Venez. appresso 7 Sa/leler, 1608, cf. Bartsch: 
Peintr. grav. XVII c. 296.] The names of both masters are given only 
on the copper- title of Bucretius' edition of 1627, which appears again 
in the 1645 ätiition of Spigelius' work, and nowhere else. Only the first 
two plates added by Bucretius (representing two nude figures), bear on 
the left-hand side the name of the engraver, Francesco Valesio, but not 


the name of the artist. But in Bucretius' preface (1627) both masters 
are expressly named as the artist and the engraver of all the plates: 

Ecce eosdem adhuc in vi vis rep>erio, qui ante plures annos in hoc ipso opere 
Placentino operam tulissent, Edoardum inquam Fialettum Bononiensem et Fran- 
ciscum Vallesium Venetum, ilium pictorum, hunc gryptarum suae tempestatis et 
in urbium regina Phoenices. 

"Mark you, I find still among the living the very same men who many years 
ago assisted Placentius in this self-same work, I refer to Edward Fialettus of Bologna 
and Francis Vallesius of Venice, veritable phoenixes, the one of the painters, the 
other of the sculptors of his time, in the queen of cities." 

Casserius' plates mark a new epoch in the history of anatomic repre- 
sentation, owing to the correctness of their anatomic drawing, their 
tasteful arrangement, and the beauty of their technical execution. And 
this all the more, since they cover the whole field of anatomy and have 
become the models for anatomic illustrations in copper, just as the 
Vesalian representations had been for anatomic woodcuts. The woodcut 
was now entirely abandoned. Its means of reproduction had proved 
insufhcient in view of the necessarily more minute representation required 
at this time. 

Under the title: Julii Casserii Placentini Tabulae anatomicae 
LXXIIX, etc. Franco/., impensis et caelo MaUhaei Meriani, 1632, 4°, 
there are published some re-engraved copies of the plates belonging to 
Spigelius ' work De humani corporis fabrica, all reduced to quarto size. 
Copies of the plates belonging to the treatise De formato foetu are not 
among them. These same copies were re-engraved again and were 
published with German text under the title: Julii Casserii Placentini 
und Danielis Bucretii Anatomische Tafeln, etc., mit bey gefügtem Unter- 
richt von der Frucht im Mutterleibe. Angeordnet und ausgefertigt von 
Simon Paulli, Frankfurt, b. C. H. Oehrling, 1683, 4°; and 171 2, 4°. In 
both editions, we find under a special title reduced copies of the nine 
plates belonging to De formato foetu. The tenth plate is lacking. There 
is still another edition under whose title we read : Nebst der Einführung 
der Anatomey-Kunst auf derer uhr alten königlichen Akademien Kopen- 
hagen, Frankfurt am Mayn, T. M. Götze, 1656, 4°. 

Poggiali (Cristoforo) : Memorie per la storia letteraria di Piacenza, Piacenza, 
1739, 4°, I, II, pp. 91 et seq. 
Moehsen: Bildn. p. 94. 
Haller: I, 289, 357. 


Caspar Bauhin, professor of anatomy and botany in Basel, was 
born in 1560 and died in 1624. Of his many writings only the following 
concern us : , 

Theatrum anatomicum novis figuris aeneis illustratum et in lucem 
emissum opera et sumptibus Theodori de Bry relictae viduae et filiorum 
Joann. Theod. et Joann. Israel de Bry, Franco/., 1605, 8°; ibid., 162 1, 4°. 

Vivae imagines partium corporis humani aeneis formis expressae et 
ex theatro anatomico C. Bauhini desumptae. Opera sumptibusque Jo. 
Theod. de Bry {Franco/.), 1620, 4°, with 140 copperplates; ibid., 1640. 

They contain reduced copies from VesaHus, Valverde, Eustachius, 
Coiter, and other anatomists, but have no particular artistic value. 
The merit of Bauhin's work consists rather in the compiling and revising 
of subject-matter already known. He did this in a scholarly fashion 
and with expert knowledge, and was thus able to produce a work that 
Was both welcome and useful to his time. 

Haller: I, 260. 

Weigel: no. 17774. 



A plate from a sketchbook edited by Peter Paul Rubens (b. Cologne 

1577, d. Antwerp 1640), after a traced copy of an example preserved in 

the museum in Amsterdam . 
The Royal Collection of 
Copper-Engravings atDres- 
den also possesses a number 
of prints from this sketch- 
book, among them the 
muscles of the arm, the 
hand, the foot, and several 
musclemen, most of them 
in extreme motion. Then 
there are prints without 
anatomy, representing the 
head, the face, the eye, 
the ear, the hands, and the 
feet. The organs repre- 
sented anatomically are not 
praiseworthy. The title is 
written on a stretched-out 
animal skin, beneath it a 
filled money bag. The title 
is : P. P. Ruhens delineavit. 
Antverp. ap.Alexandr. Voet. 
Paul. Pontius sculpsit. It 
contains twenty plates, 
among them eight ana- 
tomic ones. Cf. F. Basan: 
Catalogue des estampes 
gravees d'apres P. P. Rub- 
ens, Vans, 1767, 8°, p. 242; 
see also the Index to sketches 

of Rubens in the Lawrence Gallery edited by J. S. Woodburn, London, 

1835, 8°, p. 17, no. 55. 

[Theorie de la figure humaine, consideree dans ses principes, soil en repos 

ou en mouvement. Ouvrage trad, du latin, avec xliv planches gravees par 



Pierre Aveline, d' apres les desseins, etc. Paris, C.-A. Jombert, 1773. 
4% xi, 55 pp., 44 pL, port. 

The work is a translation of certain posthumous fragments of Rubens, 
the scaffolding for a more definitive treatise on the human figure. The 
text is sketchy and of trite elementary character. Two chapters, made 
up of alchemical and astrological reveries, similar to those found in 
Albrecht Dürer, Cardan and Lomazzo, have been omitted by the 
translator. The forty-four copperplates by Pierre Aveline, from pen 
and pencil drawings of Rubens, are the ordinary painter's preliminary 
studies of the external configuration of the body in various attitudes, 
with touches of the study of human proportion here and there. The 
first six plates represent human heads, resembling those of animals, 
after the manner of Leonardo's grotesques. Muscles in action are studied 
in plates xvi-xxiv. The series was evidently inspired by the studies of 
Leonardo and Dürer.] 


Johann Remmelin, a physician of Ulm, born in 1583, decided to 
reproduce the entire anatomy of the human body on three plates in such 
a manner that parts lying successively one under the other would be 
shown by means of pictures fastened one to the other like the pages of 
a book. These pages were pubHshed after his drawings, but without 
his knowledge, under the title : 

Catoptron microcosmicum (Ulm?) 1613, fol. 

This edition is wrongly ascribed to the Tyrolese Stephen Michael 
Spacher. Remmelin himself says that friends to whom he had shown the 
drawings and manuscript published the edition at their own expense 
and without his knowledge. He himself published a corrected edition 
of his work under the title: 

Johannis Remmelini Catoptrum microcosmicum, suis acre incisis 
visionibus splendens, cum historia et pinace, de novo prodit. Augustae 
Vindelicorum, 16 19, fol., typis Dauidis Francki, 

with an allegorical copper-title, on the back of which there is to be found 
a bust of Remmelin and three plates (Visiones) in folio. On the first of 
these are reproduced a male and a female body together with the trunk 
of a pregnant woman; on the second, the man; on the third, the woman; 
all presented anatomically, in the manner mentioned above. The 
remaining space of each plate is partly taken up with allegories. On 
the first plate we find at the left: /. R. inventor, L. K. sculptor, at the 
right: Stephan Michelspacher excudit. The initials stand for Johann 
Remmehn and Lucas Kilian, an industrious engraver of Augsburg 
(1579-1637). From the signature at the right it becomes evident how 
one might suppose Stephen Michael Spacher to be the pubHsher, since 
in the first edition this name probably stood alone on the plate. The 
anatomic value of the drawings is very slight and even, as a whole, they 
represent the clumsiest study of anatomy. Judging from the text, it also 
appears that the book was to serve physico- theological purposes, and was 
intended for laymen, for whom it contains altogether too much.* Never- 
theless the book must have won applause, for besides a few other Latin 
editions {Ulm., 1660, fol., sumpt. J oh. Gd'rlini with the same plates), trans- 
lations were also published. 



Kleiner Welt-Spiegel, Das ist: Abbildung Göttlicher Schöpfung am dess 
Menschen Leib . ... in die Teutsche Sprach übersetzet Durch M. Joh. 
Ludov. Remmelinum, med. stud, authoris filium. Gedrucht durch Joh. 
Schuttes, in Verlegung Joh. Görlin, Ulm, 1661, fol. 

This was edited by the son of Remmelin, who had died meanwhile. 
The plates are those of the Latin edition, but Remmelin's picture is 
missing. The text is translated into German. A reprint is supposed to 
have been published ntFrancof. 1660, but may have had only a new title. 

Phiax microcosmographicus, etc. Ontleding des Menshelyke Lichaems, 
etc. Uit liet Latyn in de Nederlandtse Tale overgeset en konstigh inH licht 
gebracht, door Justus Danckers, Amsterdam, voor Justus Danckerz, 1667, fol. 

Here the copper-title is absent as well as Remmelin's picture. The 
plates are copied and on the back of the title are added two anatomic 
figures and the principal veins after Valverde. The text is in Dutch.'' 

A survey of the microcosm or the anatomy of man and woman — corrected 
by Clopton Havers, London, 1702, fol. 

An English edition and probably with re-engraved plates, four of 
which are mentioned. The editor was a celebrated English anatomist, 
noted in other fields. [Discoverer of the Haversian canals.] 

The three principal plates of Remmelin's Catoptrum, and the many 
smaller pictures superimposed, totaled before they were cut out and pasted 
together, five copperplates. These original plates of Remmelin's seem 
to have fallen into the hands of a Veronese book-dealer who used them 
for speculation, asserting that he had obtained possession of the plates 
from the anatomist Piccolhomini, and published them as a posthumous 
work of Piccolhomini, purporting to be revised by Fantoni, under the 
following title: 

Archangeli Piccolomini Anatome integra, revisa, tabulis explanata 
et iconibus mirificam humani corporis fabricam, ad ipsum naturae arche- 
typum cxprimentibus, cum praefatione et emendatione Joann. Fantoni, 
Veronae, sumptib. Gabrielis Julii de Ferrariis, 1754, fol. 

In this work, the plates reveal themselves as the original ones of 
Remmelin through the names of /. R. inventor, L. K. sculptor, Stephan 
Michels pacher excudit, which were engraved upon the first of the plates. 
The anatomist Fantoni whose name is probably misused, like that of 
Piccolhomini, was born in Turin, 1675, ^^^ died there as a professor and 
royal body-physician in 1758. He should be distinguished from the 
Bolognese anatomist Fantoni who gave instructions in anatomy in the 
academy of the Caracci. 

'De Feyfer, op. cit., 491, 52, gives the following editions: 1615, 1619, .\usburg 1661; 
Ulm 1639; 1634, Amsterdam 1645; Frankfort 1660. 


This manner of anatomic illustration, however, was not tried here 
for the first time, as we have mentioned several attempts in our section 
on "Fugitive Sheets" {fliegende Blätter, p. 156). Vesalius himself has 
given some hints of the method in his Epitome; an arrangement of this kind 
is to be found in the Hbrary of Louvain. Several works published 
immediately after his have also the same idea (see the article on Vesalius, 
p. 169). Similar attempts can be found inLeonhard Thurneisser: Con- 
firmatio concer talionis. Berol. fol. 1567, and in Georg Bartisch: '04>ddK- 
jucoSouXeta, das ist, Äugendienst, Dresden, gedruckt durch Matthes Stocket, 
1583, fol., a rare book with many remarkable woodcuts/ Even in recent 
times, this kind of anatomic representation was used by the Enghshman 
Edward William Tuson, in his textbook on the muscles, Myopolypla- 
siasmus, and in his doctrine of the pregnant uterus, Enkymo plasma, 
which were also translated into German, Weimar, 1826-30. 

[Ludwig Christoph von Hellwig. (1663-17 21), an Erfurt professor, 
edited in German a newly revised edition of RemmeUn's Catoptrum, 
enlarged by a few figures from newer anatomists, under the title : Ludwig 
Christoph von Hellwig: Nosce te ipsum vel anatomicum vivum, oder kurtz- 
gefasstes und doch richtig gestelltes anatomisches Werk, etc. Franckfurt u. 
Leipzig {i'/2o), small folio, with four large poorly engraved copperplates 
drawn by Johann Heinrich Werner, The latter however is the second 
edition of the work, prepared by Hellwig's son, Theodor Andreas, who 
signs the preface under date of May 16, 1 720. The dedication was signed 
by his father on May 2 of the same year. Haller {Bihl. anal., II, 81) 
speaks also of a third edition published in Frankfort and Leipzig, about 
1745, and prepared by another son of Hellwig's, Johann Gottlieb.] 

Haller: I, 332. 

Moehsen: Bildn., p. 116; Leben Thurneissers zum Thurn, Berlin, 1783, 4°, p. 69. 

Lordat: Iconologie mSdicale, Montpellier, 1833, 8°, p. 84. 

^ Idem, Frankfort, 1584, fol.; idem, Nuremberg, 1686, 4°. 


Pietro Berrettini, Pietro da Cortona, a painter and architect, was 
born in Rome, in 1669. To him are attributed twenty-seven large 
anatomic plates, which were begun in 161 8 and were engraved by an 
artist whose initials, L. C, are given on Plates i and 4. The engraver, 
undoubtedly, is Luca Ciamberlano, a painter and copper engraver who 
worked in Urbino and Rome. But neither in Berrettini's biographies 
nor in those of Ciamberlano's is there any mention made of these plates. 
They were also unknown to Bartsch {Peintr. grav., Tom. XX). In the 
lower left-hand corner of the first plate is found, Petr. Berret. Corton. 
delin. In the copies of both editions that were in Choulant's possession 
the year (1618) had been erased. According to Moehsen, page 100, 
it is supposed to have been given, although Petraglia says in the preface 
to the second edition of 1788: Petrus enim Berrettini has easdem tabulas 
elaborare coepit anno 1618, ut ex prima tabula patet. ("For Petrus 
Berrettini began to work over these same books in the year 16 18, as 
appears from the first book.") Both the anatomist, Johann Vesling 
(1598-1649), and the surgeon, Gulielmo Riva (d. 1676, aet. 50), have 
been mentioned as the anatomists for whom these plates had been made, 
but Veshng was then too young and Riva was not yet born in 16 18, 
Later Hunter wrote in a letter to Haller {Bibl. anat., II, 702) that he 
possessed these plates under the title : Vente tavole anatomiche fatte da 
Pietro da Cortona net ospidale di S. Spirito in Roma ajutato dal celebre 
chirurgo Nicolas Lache. But, according to Petraglia's assurances, the 
latter name (Nicolas Lache) does not occur on the roll of the hospitals 
of San Spirito in Saxia, at Rome. Perhaps the name is Lärche. Lärche 
was a surgeon who is said to have studied anatomy in Rome with Nicolas 
Poussin. According to Hunter the chief object of these plates was to 
teach neurology {scopum primarium nervös esse), and all the rest was 
added by some person without judgment. Berrettini's plates seem 
indeed to prove the first part of this assumption in so far as the nerves 
are everywhere emphasized and their representations are made more 
prominent by means of crosshatching. This seems to be especially true 
of the first twenty plates. The other seven show an entirely different 
treatment, and it appears therefore that Hunter saw only the first twenty. 
And he must have seen them in the edition of 1741, with the extra figures 





engraved upon each plate by Petrioli to whom he probably refers as 
the person nullius iudicii, "of no judgment." The quoted Italian title 
was probably given only in handwriting on the cover of the copperplates. 

Moehsen, on the other hand, tries to prove that Joannes Maria 
Castellanus was the anatomist for whom Berrettini's plates were made. 
Plate 24 of Berrettini's work, representing the veins, is, according to 
Möhsen, contained in Castellanus' work on bloodletting arteries and 
veins: Phylactirion phlebotomiae el arteriotomiae cum figura admodum 
necessaria et utili venas et arterias totius corporis tarn antiquis quam 
nostri seculi chirurgis secari solitas ad vivum repraesentante, Argentorati, 
1628, 8°. ("A handbook of phlebotomy and arteriotomy with a picture 
very essential and useful showing in a lifehke manner the veins and 
arteries of the whole body that were usually cut by ancient physicians 
as well as those of our own time.") Castellanus is said to have prepared 
for publication a larger anatomic work in folio. But all this proves 
little, since there has always been some doubt as to whether Plates 21 
to 27 really belonged to Berrettini's series. They show a different 
treatment from the first twenty plates, while the drawing of Plate 24 
is especially poor as compared with all the rest. One might much rather 
be inclined to think that this plate was inserted among Berrettini's 
plates and was taken from the older work of Castellanus. From all 
this but little has been ascertained as to what anatomist the Berret- 
tini plates may be assigned. 

The copperplates of these prints were hidden for a long time. But 
nothing historic is said in the two editions about the place where they 
had been kept, or their previous possessor, or about the way they were 
found, or the fact that they really were done by Pietro da Cortona. 
This silence is particularly striking in the first edition of the loquacious 
and boastful Petrioli, whose acquaintance we have already made in the 
article on Eustachius (page 200). The plates were not kept in very good 
condition, as is clear from some of the prints. A previous owner of the 
plates, perhaps PetrioH himself, crowded the first nineteen plates with a 
number of anatomic accessories which he took from Vesalius, Casserius, 
and others, and which were done by a different artist and a different 
engraver. Petraglia had these figures erased. Therefore they can only 
be found in the first edition. Berrettini's figures are, in the main, 
representations of entire bodies in action or some active attitude, which 
always renders anatomic figures rather repulsive. The first nineteen 
plates deal chiefly with muscles, nerves, and bloodvessels. Plate 20 
represents in one figure the opened spinal column and in a great many 


smaller figures around it, the different vertebrae. These latter figures 
might be regarded as among those Petrioli added, although PetragHa 
left them on the plate. Plates 21-23 deal in many small figures, with 
the brain, the eye, and the ear. These figures differ somewhat from the 
other figures both in the drawing and the engraving. Plate 24 repre- 
sents the cutaneous veins and valves of the veins. Plate 25 represents 
the spinal column and the spinal cord taken out of it. Plate 26 shows 
three skeletons in VesaHus' style as far as the space on one plate per- 
mitted. Plate 27 represents a standing female figure with the abdominal 
cavity open. A side figure on the same plate shows the open uterus with 
the foetus. These figures are the only representations of a female body 
in the whole collection. Yet one would prefer to include this plate 
among the genuine Berrettinic plates rather than any of the six pre- 
ceding it. All the plates, by the way, were intended for physicians and 
not for artists. They are indeed of Httle use to the latter. The two 
editions of these plates are as follows: 

Tabulae anatomicae a eel. pictore Petro Berrettino Cortonensi delineatae 
et egregie aeri incisae nunc primum prodeunt et a Cajetano Petrioli Romano, 
Doctore, etc., notis illustratae. Impensis Fausti Amidei bibliopolae, 
Romae, 1741, ex typographia Antonii de Rubeis, fol., 4° and 84 pp. and 
27 copperplates in folio. 

This edition contains the nineteen plates with the accessory figures 
on the blank spaces, which are not Berrettini's work. It also contains 
Petrioli's commentary which has little anatomic value. The publisher 
says in a short preface : auctoris qui has tabulas confinxit nomen ignoratur 
("the name of the author who composed these books is unknown"), 
and does not mention Berrettini. On the title is a copper vignette 
representing, among other subjects, the transfusion of blood. 

Tabulae anatomicae ex archetypis egregii pictoris Petri Berrettini 
Cortonensis expressae et in aes incisae. Opus chirurgis et pictoribus 
apprime necessarium. Alteram hanc editionem recensuit, nothas iconas 
expunxit, perpetuas explicationes adjecit Franciscus PetragHa, philosophiae 
et medicinae professor, Romae, 1788, impensis Venantii Monaldini 
bibliopolae, excud. Johann. Zempel, fol., 16 and 104 pp., and 27 copper- 

In this edition, all the accessory figures on the first nineteen plates 
are erased, so that the original figures stand out better. The publisher's 
dedication is followed by an interesting preface of the editor and his new 
commentary on these plates. On page i, we recognize the vignette 
engraved by Pierleone Ghezzi which occurs in Petrioli's eight plates 


supplementary to Eustachius' plates. Here the inscription is not given. 
In the lower left-hand corner we read: Eques Petrus Leo Ghezzius Inu. 
del. et scul. (see pp. 201 et seq. The skeleton is in the left part of the 
picture. The lecturer is placed at the right of the cadaver. On the 
title-page there is another vignette also representing the opening of a 
cadaver, at the bottom, Giuseppe Pirovani inv. et dis., Antonio Fiori 
incise; on page ix of the preface is another, inferior vignette probably 
representing Polyphemus; below at the right: Vacca inv. et sculps. 
This edition, although it contains the later prints, is to be preferred to 
the first edition. It is said that there exist colored copies of this edition. 
The Göttingen Library possesses a manuscript with the pictures of 
GuiHelmo Riva, and thirty-two illustrations partly humorous, and 
partly pertaining to surgery and anatomy. These are followed by 
Berrettini's plates as they appeared in Petrioli's edition (Haller: Bibl. 
anat., I, 579). 

The anatomical theater of the hospital of Maria delta consolazione in 
Rome possesses the first of Berrettini's plates done in color and of more 
than Hfe size. The above-mentioned Riva attended anatomic studies 
in this hospital (Petragha's preface). 

Moehsen: Bildn. p. 99. 
Haller: I, 340, 579; II, 572. 
Ebert: no. 2028-29, 
Weigel: no. 17775. 


Gasparo Aselli was born in Cremona about 1581 and died in 1626. 
He was professor in Pa via and, on July 23, 1622, discovered the chylifer- 
ous vessels, which had not been observed since the days of Erasistratus. 
He died before he had been able to pubHsh the treatise dealing with his 
discovery. The Milanese physicians Alessandro Tadini and Senator 
Settala or Settalio published it after his death under the title: 

De Lactihus Siue lacteis vents Quarto Vasorum Mesaraicorum genere 
Nouo Inuento Gas parts Asellii Cremonensis Anatomici Ticinensis Dis- 
sertatio Qua Sententiae Anatomicae multae, uel per per am receptae conuel- 
luntur, uel parum perceptae illustrankir , Mediolani, apud Jo. Baptislam 
Bidellium, 1627, 4°, copper- title, 6 leaves of printed preHminaries, 79 pp. 
and 4 unnumbered leaves in quarto, with 4 polychrome woodcuts in 
foHo, and a copperplate in 4°, the portrait of the author. 

The woodcuts are treated in a very spirited manner and in colored 
chiaroscuro. On each plate four colors are used as follows: black for 
the background, the contours, and the crosshatching, and also for 
indicating the veins and for the letters engraved upon the figures; white, 
the color of the paper, for numbering the plates on the black background 
and for the chyliferous vessels in the figures; dark red for the arteries, 
for crosshatching, and for shadows en masse; light red for the surfaces of 
the intestines, the mesentery, and the liver. All the figures represent 
animal not human organs. This very rare work contains therefore the 
earliest anatomic illustrations in colored printing. [As regards his work 
containing woodcuts in color see Weigel: Kunstkatalog, no. 18405.] 
There is no engraver's mark on the woodcuts, nor is he in any way men- 
tioned in the book itself. The copper-title, as well as the portrait of the 
author in his forty-second year, bears the signature of (Caesar) Bassano 
as the engraver, and consequently must have been engraved in 1623. 
It is of superior execution and is surrounded by the following inscrip- 
tion: Caspar Asellius civis Cremonensis anatomicus Ticinensis anno 
aetatis XLII; and at the bottom Casparis haec fades — ilia fuit. One 
may therefore attribute these woodcuts either to this artist, who was 
also a wood engraver, or to Domenico Falcini with whom he worked and 
of whom we have other sheets from three wood blocks. A very beautiful 
copy of this extremely rare original edition, which was never duplicated 



by any of the later editions, is now in the possession of the Leipzig 
PauUner or University Library. It formerly belonged to Johann 
Zacharias Platner, later to Johann Benjamin Boehmer, Christian 
GottHeb Ludwig, and Johann Karl Gehler. AselH's book was again 
printed : 

Basil. 1628, 4°, typis Henric Petrinis, 12 and 67 pp., and 4 copper- 
plates in 4°. 

These copperplates are reduced copies of the woodcuts of the original 
edition and are engraved in reverse, and printed only in black. There 
are no woodcuts at all in this edition. A new impression was published 
without changes: 

Lugd. Bat. 1640, 4°, ex officma Johannis Maire, 8 preliminary leaves 
including 4 copperplates, 104 and 8 pp. 

These plates are re-engraved and are likewise reduced in size and 
printed in black. The first three are reversed as compared with the 
woodcuts, the fourth one is not reversed. The text and the prefaces 
are the same. There is some doubt about another edition: Lugd. 
1 641, 8°. Reduced copies of these engravings are also contained in 
Manget: Theatrum anatomicum. 

In the edition of Adrian Spieghel's works, Amsterdami, 1645, fol., 
Aselli's treatise is also printed. Here the copperplates are also printed 
black, but, are not reversed and not so small as in the Basel edition. 
On the other hand, they seem to show a rather arbitrary treatment of 
the chyliferous vessels. In both editions (1628 and 1645) the editors 
boast of having done the illustrations/örww elegantioribiis which probably 
refers to their choice of the copperprint in place of the woodcut. Haller 
says of them, and justly (icones) , fere corruperunt. 

Moehsen: Bildn., p. 138, Appendix, p. 9. 
Haller: I, 362. 
Ebert: no. 1276. 

KnoUe (Johann Friederich): Decas lihrorum anatomicorum variorum. Lips., 
1 761, 4°, p. 5 et seq. 


Jacob van der Gracht, a painter and etcher in The Hague, spent 
several years abroad. No pictures or copperprints credited to him are 
known. But the following work is ascribed to him: 

Anatomie der witerlijke deelen van het menschelijke ligchaam, ten 
dienste van Schilders, Beeldhouwers en Plaatsnijders door Jacob van der 
Gracht, Schilder, '5 Gravenhaag, 1634 (1660), fol. 

The copperplates were etched by the author himself. It is the earliest 
of all independent works written on the external parts of the body for 
the needs of graphic or plastic artists.' (Cf. p. 377.) 

[This work, which is very rare even in Holland, was a highly appre- 
ciated present to Choulant from Mr. Groshans, lecturer in Rotterdam. 
The copper-title is in folio and represents twelve persons standing around 
a model, two of them lecturing and demonstrating, the remainder lis- 
tening. At the bottom are two allegoric figures. Painting and Sculpture. 
The title is engraved on the pedestal as follows: Anatomie der wtterlicke 
deelen van het Menschelick Lichaem. Dienende am te verstaen ende 
volkomentlick wt te beeiden alle beroerlicheit des sehen Lichaems. Aenge- 
wesen door Jacob van der Gracht Schilder. Bequaem voor Schilders, Beelt- 
houwers, Plaet-snyders, als oock Chirurgiens. Wtgegeven door den Auteur, 
Jn s^Graven Hagae, Cum Privilegio, 1634. 

There are fifteen folio copperplates besides the copper-title, numbered 
II-XVI and representing muscles and bones after Vesahus. These fifteen 
folio plates are preceded by two others which are not numbered and 
represent upright skeletons after VesaUus and one reclining skeleton. 
The Dutch commentary is printed after Andre du Laurens, Bartholomaeus 
Cabrol, and Andreas Vesalius. The printing takes up even the space 
on the back of the copperplates. Counting the copper-title there are 
altogether eighteen plates, all etched by the author himself. Text and 
plates together take up thirty-three pages, with signature A-H follow- 
ing. Samuel van Hoagstraaten, in his Inleiding tot de Hooge Schoole 
der Schilderkonst (Rotterdam, 1678, 4°), reproaches Jacob van der Gracht 
for writing for surgeons rather than for painters : zelf van der Gracht leyt 
meerweegs voor heelmeesters als voor Schilders af (page 52).] 

Haller: I, 382. 

R. van Eijnden en A. van der Willigen: Geschiedenis der vaderlandsche Schilder- 
kunst. 3 Deelen, Haarlem, 1816. 8°, I, 221. 

' This edition is the first so-called anatomic atlas that was pubhshed for artists in Hol- 
land. Choulant believed it rare, but De Feyfer, op. cit., p. 473, says that this is incorrect. 



Johann Vesling was born at Minden in 1598 and died at Padua, 
August 30, 1649. He lived for some time in Egypt and Palestine and 
in 1632 became professor of anatomy at Padua and soon after director 
of the botanical gardens there. He later made a scientific journey to 
Candia and the Orient for the study of botany. As professor of anatomy, 
he wrote a good and much-used manual: 

Syntagma anatomicum. Patavii, 1641, 4°; Patavii, 1647, 4°> enlarged 
and provided with copperplates; later often edited with additions by 
Gerard Blaes, Blasius, thus Trajecti ad Rhen. 1696, 4°; translated into 
German by Ger. Blaes, Leiden, 1652, 4°; into Dutch by the same, 
Leiden, 166 1, 8°; into English by Nicholas Culpeper, London, 1653, fol. 

This manual contains twenty-four copperprints (in some editions 
less) of rather inferior quality and without any artistic value. They 
were intended for the commonest needs but are mostly original engravings 
and represent some organs of the human body more correctly than their 
predecessors. They were very popular at the time of their appearance 
and have been frequently re-engraved. 

Thesß same twenty-four copperprints were published with a simple 
commentary and without the other text under the title: 

Tavole anatomiche del Veslingio spiegate in Lingua Italiana, Padova, 
1709, fol., per la V{edova) Framhotti e Gio. Battista Conzatti, 28 pp. and 
24 copperplates. 

On these prints Giovanni Georgi is named as the artist or engraver. 
The elucidation of each print takes up an entire page. 

[The Latin edition of Vesling's Syntagma anatomicum, Trajecti 
ad Rhenum, 1696, 4°, bears the date, 1695, on the copper-title. It con- 
tains an Appendix ad anatomen Veslingianam recentiorum inventa varia 
proponens on pages 309-560, and eight pages of index. The Appendix 
comprises twenty-eight quarto copperplates, most of them taken from 
other anatomic works. Plates 9 and 13 are identical. Most of these, 
like Vesling's own plates, are incorrectly numbered. There are several 
other editions of the Syntagma, besides those mentioned here.] 

Haller: I, 391. 



Johann Georg Wirsung, Wirsueng, was Vesling's prosector in Padua. 
He was born in Augsburg and was assassinated on August 22, 1643. ^^ 
1642 he discovered the excretory duct of the pancreas in the human body 
which still bears his name. He made a life-size representation of the 
duct and published a copperprint of it with a short commentary, 

[Through a gift of Mr. Börner, auctioneer in Nuremberg, Choulant 
came into possession of this rare plate. Wirsung's illustration of the 

Wirsung's Pancreatic Duct 

pancreatic duct, 1642, is a small oblong folio. At the top of the title: 
Figura ductus cuiusdani cum multiplicihus suis ramulis nouiter in Pan- 
create a Jo. Georg. Wirsung / Phil, et Med. D. in diuersis corporihus 
humanis obseruati. Below this in the center of the plate, a figure of the 
pancreas with a small part of the duodenum to the left, dissected so as 
to show the anastomosis, one above the other, of the ductus choledochus 
and the ductus pancreaticus. A part of the former can also be seen 
outside of the duodenum. To the right is a part of the spleen with the 
dichotomous entering artery and emerging splenic vein; both are shown 
continued in the dissected pancreas, as is the ductus pancreaticus com- 
ing from the duodenum, with twenty-one roots entering the pancreas 
on both sides. Letters that are engraved upon the anatomic parts refer 



to a Latin explanation engraved upon the lower third of the copperplate; 
on the right side at the bottom: Paduae. 1642. This plate shows that 
the name is Wirsiing and that Wirsiing, originating in the Latinization, is 
wrong. A sketched copy of this plate is said to be in the University 
Library at Leipzig.] 

Two copies of this very rare print in folio were in the Bibliothek 
deutscher Nation at Padua, and, through Caldini, one of these came 
into Blumenbach's possession. 

Haller: I, 415. 
Blumenbach: p. 206. 


Thomas Bartholinus, born at Copenhagen, October 20, 16 16, was the 
son of the Danish anatomist Caspar Bartholinus senior and studied in 
Copenhagen. From 1637 on, he traveled through Holland, visited 
Paris and Montpellier, then Padua, where he remained three years, and 
after this Italy, Sicily, and Matta. In 1645, he received his doctor's 
degree at Basel. In Copenhagen, he first became professor of anatomy, 
which position he held until he retired in 166 1 to live on his country 
estate, Hagested. In 1670, Hagested, with his Hbrary and his manu- 
scripts, was destroyed by fire. He died on December 4, 1680. Having 
a broad education and a good knowledge of the Greek and Arabic 
languages, and being an ardent student of history and archaeology, 
he took an active part in the anatomic and physiologic labors and dis- 
coveries of his time, particularly in the discovery of the lymphatics. 
He was also actively interested in pathologic anatomy, and was extra- 
ordinarily productive as an author. In line with our present discussion 
belongs only his very much-used anatomic textbook, in reahty, a revision 
of his father's Institutiones anatomicae (published in Viteberg, 161 1, 8°), 
under the title: 

Caspari Bartholini Institutiones anatomicae auctae ab auctoris filio 
Thoma Bartholino, Lugd. Batav., apud Franc. Hackium, 1641, 8°. 

Besides this first edition there appeared three other original editions: 

Caspari Bartholini Institutiones anatomicae secundum locupletatae, 
Lugd. Batav., 1645, 8°. 

Thomae Bartholini Anatomia ex Caspari Bartholini parentis institu- 
iionibus, Lugd. Batav., 1651, 8°. 


Thomae Bartholini Anatomia ad circulationem Harvejanam et vasa 
lymphatica, quartum renovata, curante Gerardo Blasio, Lugd. Batav., 
1673, 8^ 

In a short time, many other editions were published in German, 
French, Italian, Dutch, and English. Among the ItaUan was one in 

Many illustrations have been added, differing in the various editions, 
but few of them original. Most of these are after VesaUus, Casserius, 
VesHng, Bauhin, Ruysch, and others; a great many are taken from 
monographs, such as Stensen, Regner de Graaf, Franciscus Sylvius, 
Folius, and from writings on the lymphatics, a branch of anatomic 
research to which the author's original works especially belong. 

The workmanship on the copper engravings is unequal, but for a 
compendium, is on the whole commendable. The illustrations of the 
brain by Sylvius appear for the first time in the edition of 1641 drawn by 
Sylvius himself and engraved by J. Voort-Kamp, whose name is given 
on three plates. 

Thomas Bartholinus wrote, in a small book of sixty-three pages, a his- 
tory and description of the Copenhagen anatomic theater, founded in 1644, 
during the reign of King Christian IV. It was pubhshed under the title: 

Donius anatomica Hafniensis brevissime descripta. Hafniae, Uteris 
Eenr. Gödiani, sump. Petri Haubold 1622, small 8° (appended to the 
latter Cista medica Hafniensis. Hafn. typis Math. Godichenii, impensis 
Petri Hauboldi, 1662, small 8°). 

This has for its frontispiece a view of the house which the anatomic 
theater occupied, and an interior view of the theater itself, both on one 
copperplate. Two woodcuts, printed in between the text, represent 
illustrations of the ticket (tessera) for admission to the anatomic theater 
and of the seal of the Medical Faculty of Copenhagen, which Christian III 
bestowed upon it in 1537. In the index to the author's own anatomic 
collection (page 62) are also mentioned: I cones plerarumque partium 
tarn interiorum quam exteriorum humani corporis, naturali magnitudine 
et forma secundum ductum sectionum Thorn. Bartholini a Carolo van 
M ander A pelle Regio vivis primum coloribus, deinde ab Alb. Haelwegh 
Regio glypte aeri inscisae, pro Anatome Augusta, necdum ultimam manum 
adeptae. The younger Karl van Mander, who is meant here, was a 
court painter at Copenhagen. The remarkable prints by the copper 
engraver, Albert Haelwegh, are also indexed in a separate catalogue by 
Sandvig. Karl Friederich von Rumohr also speaks of the plate men- 
tioned by Bartholinus, in his Geschichte der Kopenhagener Kupferstich- 


Sammlung, Leipzig, 1835, Prints of these plates are not known and no- 
where is mention made of any work that might contain them. Perhaps 
they were never pubHshed, as Haller mentions {Bihlioth. anatom., I, 404), 
or perhaps the fire which destroyed the country-house at Hagested near 
Copenhagen destroyed both the plates and the prints, Bartholinus' 
library being completely ruined by that fire. An inquiry regarding these 
plates made in Egger's Deutsches Kunstblatt, February, 1852 (No. 8, 
page 70), was unsuccessful. 

The expression Anatome Augusta in Bartholinus' words quoted above 
may indicate that they were made for the king's use, since Bartholinus 
boasts of the fact (p. 6) that King Frederick III more than once attended 
his anatomic demonstrations in the anatomic theater: demonstrationes 
nostras non semel dementi oculo inspexit ("has more than once looked on 
at our demonstrations indulgently"). Or one might, as Haller does, 
take them to indicate the edition of an anatomic work planned by the 
king which, however, is less probable.] 


Philipp Verheyen was born on April 23, 1648, in Verrebroeck, a village 
in Belgium, and at first devoted himself to agriculture, as his poor parents 
had done. In 1675 he went to the university in Louvain to study theol- 
ogy. The amputation of a foot, made necessary by illness, rendered 
him unfit for the clerical profession, and he took up the study of medicine 
at Louvain and Leyden. At the former university, in 1683, he obtained 
his doctor's degree. In 1689, he became professor of anatomy, and also 
professor of surgery, in 1693. He became known through successful 
researches and gained the reputation of an industrious anatomist. He 
died at Louvain on January 28, 17 10. His anatomic compendium 
Corporis humani anatomia replaced ÖarthoHnus' as the preferred text- 
book. Its numerous, though generally small and inferior copperprints 
were later inserted in Kulmus' plates. There are a great many editions 
of this compendium, which seems to indicate that its use has been wide- 

Distinction should be made between two editions, the second of 
which is greatly enlarged and improved. 

The first edition was published at Louvain, 1693, 4°, Lips., 1699, 
8°; ibid., 1705, 8°; ibid., 17 16, 8°. A German translation was published 
at Leipzig, 1704, 8°; Leipzig, 1705, 8°; 1714, 8°; Königsberg, 1739, 8°. 
It was translated into Dutch by A. D. Sassenus, under the title: Ontleed- 
kundige beschryvinge van het menschen ligham, Brussels, 171 1, 8°, some 
plates of which probably belong to the second edition. 

The second edition was published in two volumes, the first one bearing 
the title: Corporis humani anatomiae liber primus — editio secunda ab 
Author e recognita novis observationibus et inventis pluribusque Figuris 
auda, etc., while the second volume is entitled: Sup piemen turn anato- 
micum sive anatomiae corporis humani liber secundus, in quo partium 
solidarum Libra prima descriptarum Usus et Munia explicantur. Accedit 
descriptio Anatomica partium Foetui et recenter nato proptiarum. Item, 
Controversia de Foramine ovali inter Authorem et D. Mery. Opus variis 
figuris illustratum, Bruxellis, apud fratres t' Serstevens, 17 10, 4°. It is 
in two volumes of 400 and 436 pages respectively, not counting the 
prefaces, which contain a biography and a portrait of Verheyen. The 
first volume contains 40, the second volume 6 anatomic copperplates. 



This edition was reprinted in Bruxell. 1726, 4° in two volumes. The 
second volume of the edition, Supplementum analomicum, also appeared 
separately, Amstelod. 1731, 8°. Reprints of both volumes, somewhat 
enlarged, were published in Genev. 171 2, 4°; in Neapoli, 171 7, 4°; in 
Neapoli, 1734, 4°; Amstelod. ac Lips. 1731, 8°, apud R. et J. Wetstein 
et W. Smith, with newly engraved copperplates, in two volumes. 

See also Haller: Bibl. anat., I, 755; II, 769. C. Broeckx: Essai sur 
Vhistoire de la medecine Beige avant le XIX. siede. Gand, Bruxelles, et 
Mons, 1837, 8°, pp. 160, 315.] 

am£ bourdon 

Arne Bourdon was born in Cambrai in 1638, became a physician there, 
and died on December 21, 1706. He published: 

Nouvelles Tables Anatomiques Ou sont representees au naturel toutes 
les parties du Corps humain, toutes les nouvelles decouvertes, le cours de 
toutes les humeurs, etc. On y a joint un petit liure, qui en fait la descrip- 
tion et en explique clairement les Vsages avec ordre et en peu de mots. Le 
tout dessine et compose par Ame Bourdon Medecin. Elles se vendent en 
blanc et enluminees a Cambray chez VAuteur, a Paris chez Laurens D'houry, 
1678, large tallfoHo, 8 plates without text. 

These plates were mostly done with the etching needle and the 
burin, and are for the most part imitations of previous pictures. They 
are inconvenient for practical use and have no particular anatomic or 
artistic value. On the other hand, they are very rare. The first plate 
represents a front and back view of a male body and also bears the title 
given above. The second, consists of four front views of the trunk. 
The third, shows the abdominal viscera, and the fourth, the thoracic 
organs, the genitals, and the brain. The fifth and sixth plates are repre- 
sentations of the bones and the muscles, the seventh and eighth of the 
nerves and the blood vessels. All the plates are signed: Ame Bourdon 
delineavit, excudit C. P. {cum privilegio) Regis, Daniel le Bossu sculp. 

The text that belonged to these plates was later republished under 
the title: Nouvelle description du corps humain, Paris, 1683, 12°, and the 
plates were also added to this edition. After Bourdon's death they were 
published again: Paris et Cambray, 1707, fol., but probably under a 
new title. 

Moehsen: Bildn. p. 104, note. 

Haller: 1,658. 

Haller: in Boerhaave: Melhodus studii medici, I, 531. 

Ebert: no. 2866. 


Godfried Bidloo was born at Amsterdam on March 12, 1649, and 
died at Leyden in April, 17 13. From 1688, he was professor of anatomy 
at The Hague and, beginning with 1694, held the same position in 
Leyden. Later he was appointed body physician of William III, of 
England, and returned to Leyden after the latter's death in 1702. We 
possess a large work of his on the whole anatomy of the human body 
bearing the title: 

Godefridi Bidloo, medicinae doctoris et chirurgi, Anatomia humani 
corporis, centum et quinque tabulis per artificiosiss. G. de Lair esse ad vivum 
delineatis, demonstrata. Amstelodami, sumptih. viduae Joan, ä Someren, 
haeredum Joan, ä Dvk, Henrici et viduae Theodori Boom, 1685, large 
fol., 5 leaves of printed preliminaries, 107 copperplates, a page of text to 
each anatomic plate. 

Besides the one hundred and five anatomic plates the work contains 
an allegoric copper-title on which the following words are inscribed on 
a small shield: Godefridi Bidloo Medicinae Doctoris et Chirurgi anatomia 
humani corporis centum et quinque tabulis illustrata. Then comes a 
bust picture of Bidloo and the 105 plates, all in elephantine folio. The 
drawings are by Gerard de Lairesse (b. Liege 1640, d. Amsterdam 
171 1). The engravers are not mentioned anywhere, except that 
beneath Bidloo's bust is engraved: G. Lairesse pinx. A. Blooteling sculp. 
According to Haller the engravings were done by Van Gunst; see 
Herman Boerhaave: Methodus studii medici ed. Alb. ab Haller, I, 
531. Moehsen names the brothers Peter and Philip Van Gunst as the 
engravers. The first three anatomic plates are representations of the 
nude bodies of a man seen from the front, and of a woman seen from 
front and back. They all have a great many accessory designs in 
Lairesse's well-known style and are all spoiled by absolutely unnecessary 
letters engraved upon them. The drawing of the nude figures is entirely 
in French taste, reveahng more affected than natural beauty. The 
other anatomic figures are correct, as far as the artist was able to observe ^ 
but they show the lack of expert anatomic guidance. This is particu- 
larly true of the drawings of the muscles, and the characterization of the 
tissues is frequently incorrect. The engraving is most elegantly done 
and is artistically perfect. The exposition of the plates is too short to 





be instructive. The work was unsatisfactory to professional anatomists 
because of the high scientific standard of anatomy at that time, and was 
too expensive for the beginner. It was absolutely useless to the artist 
since the complete musculatures are missing, and the muscles were gen- 
erally misplaced. The two skeletons do not show natural proportions 
and are lacking in beauty. 

Ontleding des Menschelyken Lichaams, Amsterdam 1690, foL, is a 
Dutch translation of the text with impressions from the one hundred and 
five original plates. 

On account of the probably small sale of the work the publishers 
gave three hundred impressions of these plates to the English surgeon 
and anatomist, WiUiam Cowper (1666-1709). He later published these 
plates with a new text in English over his own name: 

William Cowper: The anatomy of humane bodies with figures drawn 
after the life by some of the best masters in Europe in 114 Copper-Plates, 
Oxford, 1697, large fol., 116 copperplates. 

The copper-title is that of the original edition except that the shield 
which contained the former title and Bidloo's name now bears Cowper's 
name and the changed title. Moehsen points out that this title was 
pasted on the shield. The second copperplate represents Cowper's 
picture painted by John Closterman (1656-17 13) and engraved in mez- 
zotint by John Smith (i 654-1 727). These plates are followed by the 
one hundred and five plates of Lairesse and finally nine plates of the 
same size, newly added by Cowper, which are drawn by Henry Cook 
and engraved by Michiel van der Gucht. Among them also are two 
well-executed plates, representing the front and back views of the entire 
musculature. On some of the plates of Lairesse, more letters were added 
which Cowper had put on in pen and ink. 

Bidloo resented this crude piece of plagiarism most bitterly and 
an exchange of polemic writings between him and Cowper followed.^ 
Afterward there appeared an English and later a Latin edition with 
impressions taken from the old plates. Both were published in Leyden 
by Johann Arnold Langerak. The English edition appeared in 1737, 
the Latin in 1739. The title of the latter is: 

Anatomia corporum humanorum 114 tabulis, singulari artificio, nee 
minori elegantia ab excellentissimis, qui in Europa sunt, artificibus ad 

'Notably Bidloo, Gulielmus Cowper, criminis literarii citatiis, Lugd. Bat., 1700, 4°, and 
Cowper, EiixaptcTTta in qua dotes plurimae et singulares Godefridi Bidloo, perita anatomica, 
prohitas, etc., celebrantur et ejusdem citationi humillime respondetur, Londini, 1701, 4°. 
Boerhaave, in his Methodus studii medici, Amsterdam, 1751, judged the plagiarism of little 
moment on account of the slender value of Bidloo's text {Tabulas certe habet optimas, descrip- 
tiones BIDLOIANAE nullius sunt momenti, cited by Bayle). 


vivum expressis, atque in aes incisis illustrata, amplius explicata mul- 
tisque novis anatomicis inventis, medicis, chirurgicisque observationibus 
aucta a Guil. Cowper. Acceduni, etc. Omnia nunc primum latinitate 
donata curante Guil. Dundass, Brittanno, M.D., Lugd. Bat., apud Jo. 
Am. Langerak, 1739, large fol., 115 copperplates. 

The original inscription in the shield on the copper-title is erased. 
In place of it we read : Anatomia Corporum Humanorum curante Guilielmo 
Cowper. The bust pictures of both Bidloo and Cowper are missing. On 
the anatomic plates of Lairesse a few more letters are engraved. No 
commentary on the history of the book is given. On the printed title 
there is a copper vignette. 

A later edition is also mentioned, viz., Ultrajecti 1750, fol., max., 
cur. Radulph Schomberg. 

The anatomic work with the Lairesse plates is not included in 
Cowper's Opera omnia amatomico-chirurgica, Lugd. Bat., 1715, 4°. 

[William Cowper is also the author of Myotomia reformata: or a new 
administration of all the muscles of the humane body, London, 1694, 8°. 
After his death a finer edition was published: Myotomia reformata or 
an anatomical treatise on the muscles of the human body, with an introduc- 
tion concerning muscular motion, London, 1724, fol, (Haller:! Bibl. anat., 
I, 768.)] 

Moehsen: Bildn., p. 104. 
Haller: I, 693, 768. 
Weigel: no. 17,777. 


Bernardino Genga, of Mandolfe in the duchy of Urbino, was pro- 
fessor of anatomy and surgery and physician in the hospital of San 
Spirito in Rome. The anatomic preparations in the following book for 
artists are his: 

Anatomia per uso et intelligenza del disegno ricercata fpon solo su gV 
OS si, e muscoli del corpo humano, ma dimo strata ancora su le statue antiche 
piu insigni di Roma. Delineata in piu tavole con tutte le figure in varie 
faccie, e vedute. Per istudio delta regia academia di Francia pittura e 
scultura, sotto la direzzione di Carlo Errard gia direttere di ess a in Roma. 
Preparata su i cadaveri dal dottor Bernardino Genga regio anatomico. 
Con le spiegazioni et indice del Signor Canonico Gio. Maria Lancisi. 
Opera utilissima ä pittori e scultori et ad ogni altro studioso delle nohili 
arti del disegno. Data in luce da Domenico de Rossi, herede di Gio. 
Jacomo de Rossi, nella sua stamperia in Roma alia Pace, il di XV. Set- 
tembre, 1691, Libro primo, large fol., 56 copperplates. 

The fifty-six copperplates are printed only on one side. On the 
engraved title the words Libro Prima seem to have been added later and 
are evidently meaningless since no Libro Secondo follows. There is 
also a dedication by Rossi addressed to Giovanni Tiracorda, medico 
primaria delV Archiospedale di S. Spirito e gia pontificio. This title is 
followed by an allegoric sheet with the emblems of Death and with the 
following inscription: Ingredimur cuncti dives cum paupere mixtus. 
Then follows the work itself. Of the plates with pictures nine pertain 
to osteology, and fourteen to myology; sixteen are representations of 
antique figures viewed from different sides, namely, the Farnese Hercules, 
the Laocoön (without his sons), the Gladiator, and the Borghese Faun. 
Of the plates with text seven pages are devoted to osteology, seven to 
myology, and one page to an Indici delle cose notabili. Thus the entire 
book consists of sixteen pages of text and forty pages of illustrations. 

Yet there are copies of this edition consisting of fifty-nine pages, 
viz., seventeen pages of text and forty- two pages of illustrations, since 
they contain in addition to the antique representations, the Venus de' 
Medici, the Youth PulHng a Thorn from His Foot, and the Amazon of 
the House of Cesi. These copies have on some of the plates the sig- 
nature F. Andriot sc. Romae, while in the ordinary copies the names 



of the artist or engraver do not appear anywhere. They were probably 
put on the market later than the ordinary copies, with the additions 
given above. An EngUsh edition, published in London in 1723, is also 

All the plates are excellent anatomically as well as artistically. The 
work is even today one of the most useful for the needs of plastic and 
graphic artists. The engraver is probably Francois Androit (Handeroit) , 
and the artist Charles Errard, director of the French Academy in Rome, 
who died there in 1689. The Papal physician Giovanni Maria Lancisi 
(b. October 26, 1654, d. January 21, 1720), to whom we owe the publica- 
tion of the Eustachian plates, wrote the explanations. 

Moehsen: Bildn., p. iii. 
HaUer: I, 623. 
Ebert: no. 8309. 
Weigel: no. 17,776. 


Carlo Cesio, painter and copper etcher, was born at Antrodoco in 
the Papal States on April 17, 1626, and died at Rieti on January 6, 
1686. He was a pupil of Pietro Berrettini of Cortona and lived in Rome. 
He maintained in his own house an academy for painters. He left a 
book of anatomic information for artists. At least such a book was 
published under his name after his death. 

Carlo Cesio: Anatomia dei pittori. Cognizione dei muscoli del corpo 
umano per il disegno. Roma, 1697, fol. 

It contains sixteen pages -of illustrations with explanations, viz., 
two skeletons and fourteen myologic plates, among them five complete 
muscle-manikins, which, however, are not without anatomic errors. 
Johann Daniel Preissler (born in Nuremberg in 1666, died there in 
1737 [?]) published these plates in a German edition at Nuremberg, 
1706, fol., with newly engraved plates by Hieronymus Böllmann, of 
which there are six editions. The fifth of them is the following: 

Vanatomia dei pittori del Signore Carlo Cesio, das ist: deutliche 
Anweisung und gründliche Vorstellung von der Anatomie der Mahler — 
zu mehrern Aufnahm der Mahler- und Zeichen-Kunst in das Teutsche 
getreulich übersetzet mitgetheilet von Joh. Daniel Preisslern — hei welchem 
sie auch zu findest. Fünfte Auflage. Nürnberg, 1759, fol. 16 copper- 
plates with German elucidations etched upon them. 

The preface is signed by Preissler, March 14, 1743. In it he says 
that the plates of Cesio were neatly and accurately engraved in copper 
with Hieron. Böllmann's assistance. His plates are lacking in anatomic 
accuracy and beauty. The illustrations, especially the bones, are too 
round and flat. These anatomic plates are also included in Preissler's 
book on the principles of drawing, but were omitted in the latest edition 
(Nuremberg, 1825, fol.). 

[The first German edition is: Vanatomia dei pittori del Signore 
Carlo Cesio. Das ist, Deutliche Anweisung und gründliche Vorstellung 
Von der Anatomie der Mahler — Zu mehrern Aufnahm der Edlen Mahler- 
und ZeichenKunst — In das Teutsche getreulich übersetzet Von Joh. Daniel 
Preisslern und in reine Kupfer-Stiche gebracht von Hieronymus Böllmann, 
Jn Nürnberg, mit Ihrer heederseits Verlag und Unkosten. Anno 1706. 
fol. It contains sixteen copperplates with explanations in German 



engraved upon the first eleven. There are four pages of printed prefaces 
(Weigel, no. 18,256, 57).] 

Another German translation of Cesio contains sixteen copperplates 
with explanations engraved on them. 

Eine herrliche Anweisung und wolgegründete Fürstellung von der 
Anatomie des gantzen Menschlichen Cor per s — denen recht Kunsterfahrnen 
Mahlern, Kunst-Zeichnern, Bildhauern — welche zuerst in Italiänischer 
Sprache herausgekommen von — Carlo Cesio, anjetzo aber — in der Teutschen 
Sprache herausgegeben und verleget von Jos. Frid. Leopold in Augspurg, 
1708, fol., 16 copperplates with legends engraved upon them. 

The dedication and the preface are signed by Leopold. In the lower 
left-hand corner of the first plate appears : Elias Baeck alias Heldenmuth 
sculp, ijoj; in the same corner on the fourth plate: Jos. Frid. Leopold 
excudit. Baeck died in 1747. Leopold, publisher and engraver, died 
in 1726. A book by Cesio on the principles of drawing was also published 
and appeared probably after his death. 

Carlo Cesio elementi del disegno, dati in luce dalle stampe originali di 
Matteo Gregorio Rossi. {Roma) In piazza Navona all' insegna delta 
stampa, 4°. 

Cicognara {catal.) referring to this book, refers to the figures as being 
di bellissima e larga maniera sullo stilo Caraccesco, "in the large and 
beautiful manner after the style of the Caracci." This, on the whole, is 
also true of all the other anatomic representations mentioned above. 
This drawing-book is exceedingly rare. 

Moehsen: Bildn., p. 103. 

Pascoli (Lione): Vite del pittori, etc. Roma, 1730-36, 4°, II, 163, et seq. 


Crisostomo Martinez, a painter and copper engraver, was born at 
Valencia about 1650, lived first in Valencia and later in Paris and in the 
Netherlands, and died there in 1691 or 1694. With the financial as- 
sistance of the city of Valencia, he essayed a book of anatomic instruc- 
tion for artists. It is said that twenty copperplates were completed 
for this book. These plates probably remained in Paris, but a few good 
prints were sent to Valencia. It is doubtful whether the entire work 
was completely published. [We know of two copperplates in patent 
foHo, numbered, but without date, and with engraved letters for refer- 
ence. Both are very rare plates (one, osteologic, the other myologic) 
and are fairly correct as to anatomy. They are carefully and cleverly 
drawn and lifelike, with full crosshatching in the manner of clever line 
engraving, some lines with the needle. 

1. The osteologic plate is 0.673 meters high and 0.523 meters wide 
and is divided into an upper and a lower half. The upper half repre- 
sents monumental architecture and a cloudy sky, and as principal 
figures, two larger upright skeletons and eleven smaller ones in various 
positions. On one skeleton parts of the upper and lower extremities only 
are represented, of another one only the head and the neck. Muscles 
and body outlines are indicated by fines, bones are entirely crosshatched. 
The lower half of the plate represents on a larger scale the various bones 
in their entirety, sawed through lengthwise so as to show the diploe and 
the cavities of the long bones. With the exception of a few metacarpal 
bones and phalanges the bones of the hand and foot are missing. A 
few parts of the skull, also a few vertebrae, and one rib are given. The 
bones are placed around a pedestal-like stone. This plate bears no 
signature, but has numbers and letters engraved upon it. 

2. The myologic plate is 0.685 rneters high and 0.515 meters wide 
and shows on the left side, three upright muscle-manikins, representing 
views from three different sides, with the bones sketched in. The 
musculatures are fully crosshatched. To the right is an outline repre- 
sentation of a child's skeleton. All figures are surrounded by many 
proportional circles and lines. At the bottom, in the architectural 
drawing, there is engraved an escutcheon with a compass, a ruler, and 
a scroll bearing a text from Ezekiel; to the right and left are geometric 





figures pertaining to the perspective. On the right side, above the lower 
field engraved in script: Chrysostomus Martinez Hispanus Inv. del. et 
sculpsit cum privil. Regis. The word Hispanus hai,s been subsequently 
inserted in its place above the fine.] 

To the copy of the myologic plate that Choulant had, was pasted at 
the bottom a printed explanation of the picture, or rather a brief anatomic 
course for artists, in French under the title: 

Nouvelles figures de proportions et d'anatomie du corps humain. 
Ouvrage non seulement utile aux Medecins et Chirurgiens, mais encore 
aux Peintres, Sculpteurs, Graveurs, Brodeurs et generalement a toutes les 
personnes sqavantes et curieuses de connoitre exactement la structure du 
Corps de VHomme, designees d'apres Nature et gravies par Chrysostome 
Martinez, Espagnol, Peintre Anatomiste, Paris, chez Vauteur. s.a. 

Both plates were republished together in Francofurti et Lipsiae, 
i6q2, fol., and later a description was published in French: Nouvelle 
exposition de deux grandes planches gravees et dessignees d'apres nature 
representants des figures Ires singulieres de Proportion et d' Anatomie, 
Paris, 1780, 12°, accompanied by both plates. Cf. Weigel: Kunstkatalog 
No. 20,416. Both original plates are in the library of the Medico- 
Chirurgical Academy in Dresden. 

Haller: I, 744; II, 768. 
Cicognara: Catal. 

Bermudez (Juan Agustin Cean) : Diccionario historico de los mas ilustres pro- 
fesores de las bellas artes en Espaüa, Madrid, 1800, 8°, III, 72. 

Stirling (William): Annals of the artists of Spain, London, 1848, 4°, III, 1068. 


Pierre Landry, a copper engraver in Paris, was born in 1677, and died 
at Nanterre in 1741, but opinions as to the latter differ. There should 
be mentioned here one large plate by him, composed of four sections, all 
done in heavy engraving. It represents, rather correctly as to anatomy, 
a life-sized human skeleton in a reclining position, with an ermine coat 
and several other emblems around. On a label are Latin verses : Hodie 
mihi eras tibi, etc. and under them Paris, chez Pierre Landry, without any 
date. On the other side of the skeleton, another label contains anatomic 
explanations of the bone. It is probable that his plate was originally 
an emblematic representation, and was only later, and perhaps in order 
to increase its sale, made over into an anatomic representation by adding 
these osteologic explanations. 


William Cheselden was born in 1688 at Burrow on the Hill, near 
Sowerby, in Leicestershire and died on April 10, 1752. As physician 
for several large hospitals in London and later chief surgeon in Chelsea 
he won distinction, especially in surgery. Of his anatomic works there 
should be mentioned: 

The anatomy of the human body, London, 17 13, 8"; 1722, 8* ; 1726, 
8°; 1732,8°; 1741,8°; 1778,8°. 

All of these editions contain very excellent copperplates differing, 
however, in number and content, for example, the edition of 1741 adds 
much from his osteologic work. The edition of 1778 contains forty 
copperplates engraved by Gerard Vandergucht (died in 1776 in London) 
some of which deal with subjects of a pathologic and surgical nature. 

[There is a translation -of his Anatomy of the human body, by August 
Ferdinand Wolff, with a preface by Johann Friederich Blumenbach, 
with forty copperplates engraved after Vandergucht by Riepenhausen, 
Göttingen, b. Dieterich, 1790, 8°, 20, 324, and 15 pages, 40 leaves of 
copperplates. Among the English editions the seventh should be men- 
tioned as particularly line. Lond. 1756, 8° (Blumenbach: Introd. in 
historiam med. litterariam, p. 319).] 

Osteographia or anatomy of the bones. London, 1733, large fol. 

This contains fifty-six splendid engravings which are said to have 
been drawn with the camera obscura.' They represent the bones in 
natural size, also animal skeletons and diseases of the bones, 

Haller: II, 84. 
Ebert: no. 4065. 

' The title-page represents Cheselden himself in the act of making a drawing under the 
camera obscura. This is one of the finest of English works containing anatomic illustrations. 



Giovanni Domenico Santorini was born at Venice, June 6, 1681, 
and died there, May 7, 1737. He was a pupil of Bellini and Delphini 
and from 1703 he was public instructor in anatomy and practicing 
physician. Later he became protomedicus and physician at the Speda- 
letto in Venice. Here he also lectured on obstetrics. 

He was one of the most exact and careful dissectors of his day. His 
name and influence would have been far greater if death had not called 
him away before the completion of his chief work which was not pubHshed 
until thirty-eight years after his demise, and then only in part. Many 
corrections and discoveries in the detailed anatomy of different organs 
of the human body go back to Santorini. Even today a facial muscle 
(risorius), a pair of cartilages (cornicula) of the larynx, the emissary 
veins of the skull, and a part of the superior and inferior turbinates 
of the ethmoid are named after Santorini. Formerly a few other organs, 
too, were named after him, and there are doubtless many more that 
might just as properly bear his name. Haller, in his notes to Hermann 
Boerhaave's Methodus studii medici, I, 541, characterizes Santorini's 
efforts in the following way: 

In his observationibus anatomicum indefessum, in difficillimis partibus extri- 
candis artificiossisimum et pene nimis perspicacem se gessit, si omnino hie aliquid 
nimii locum habet, cum multos musculos eius viri nemo recentiorum perinde distinctos 

"In these observations he showed himself an indefatigable anatomist, most 
skilful in extricating the most difficult parts, and almost too penetrating, if indeed, 
there is just ground for such a criticism in this, since many of the muscles (detected 
by) of this man have not been seen with equal distinctness by any of the more 
recent investigators." 

This is true of his first book, which will be discussed here, and was the only 
one which Haller had seen, but it is not less true of his later works. His 
investigations covered almost all parts of the body. Apparently he 
never intended to publish a systematic textbook. Of his works the 
following should be mentioned here: 

Ohservationes anatomicae. Venetiis, apud J oh. Bapt. Recurti, 1724, 
large 4°, 12 and 250 pp. and 3 copperplates in small fol. — Lugd. Batav., 
ap. Gysbertum Langerak, 1739, 4°, 12 and 256 pp. and 3 copperplates in 
small fol. 



The plates of the first edition are done by Marco Galli, the engrav- 
ings by Carlo Orsolini, at least, the second plate shows a signature in 
Latin to this effect. The engraver Orsolini was born at Venice, about 
1 7 10, and died there, about 1780. In the Leyden edition, which is a 
literal and complete reprint, the plates have been re-engraved in the same 
size by Nicolaus van der Meer and have probably also been drawn by 
the latter. They are signed N. v. d. Meer Fecit. The title vignette is 
also by him. The first plates represent a complete view of the facial 
muscles, the face seen from the front. The second and third plates 
show representations of the external ear and its muscles, the larynx 
and genitals of both sexes, among the latter a representation of a tubal 
pregnancy. The text treats of widely different organs of the human 
body. The book is dedicated to Czar Peter I and is, on account of the 
wealth of material it presents, even today of great value both for the 
history of anatomic discoveries, and to the professional anatomist. 
Haller, II, 24, expresses himself on this point, as follows: Subtilissimus 
incisorum in hoc exiguo lihro innumera nova inventa proposuit, "in this 
unique book, the most subtle of dissectors sets forth many new dis- 

Septemdecim tabulae quas nunc primum edit atque explicat Usque alias 
addit de structura mammarum et de tunica testis vaginali Michael Girardi 
in regia Parmensi universitate anatomes professor Primarius, etc. Farmae, 
ex regia typographia, 1775, fol. min., 43 and 218 pp. and 21 copperplates 
in small fol., with as many plates in outline. 

The first seventeen plates were by Santorini; two of the last four 
plates belonged to the anatomist Giovanni Battista Covoli (Cubolus) 
who was drowned, in 1768, in his youth. The other two belonged to 
the editor, Michael Girardi (born November 31, 1 731, at Limona on Lake 
Garda, died June 17, 1797, at Parma), a professor of anatomy in Parma, 
who wrote a commentary for Santorini's plates, thus carrying out Covoli's 
plans and using, in part, posthumous writings of both Santorini and 
CovoH. Santorini had been preparing a new, enlarged, and improved 
edition of his Observationes anatomicae with this addition to the title: 
quibus inventorum plurima, tabularum non modica accessio adjuncta est. 
For this edition the seventeen plates with their explanations had been 
planned. All the twenty-one prints of the work are done in a light crayon 
effect which, however, does not impair the anatomic clarity of the prints, 
but even brings out well the differences in the tissues. Each plate is 
accompanied by an outline plate which is marked with reference letters. 
The seventeen plates by Santorini have a ruled margin at the top and 


on the side, like the Eustachian plates, but have no signatures of the 
artists. They were drawn by Giovanni Battista Piazzetta (b. Venice 
1682, d. 1754), who made the coppers for Tasso's Gierusalemme liber- 
ata, Venez., 1745, fol. and was also the author of a book on drawing, 
engraved by Giovanni Marco Pitteri {Venez., 1760, oblong folio). A 
woman, Florentia Marcella, engraved Santorini's plates under Santorini's 
personal supervision. Covoli's two plates (Plates 18, 19) are without the 
ruled margins and are also without signatures. Girardi's two plates 
(Plates 20, 21) are also without ruled margins, but are signed both by 
the artist and engraver. The former was Ignazio Gasparotti, the latter 
Giuseppe Patrini (d. 1786). The work belongs to the best of its time 
(as Haller recognized, II, 715), not only as regards the dissections and 
illustrations, but also as to. the very elaborate commentary. The pictures 
deal with the facial muscles, the base of the brain and other parts of 
the brain, the organs of smell and hearing, the pharynx, the breasts, the 
heart, the diaphragm with the beginning of the thoracic duct, the 
stomach, the liver, the intestines, the pancreas, the ileocecal valve 
(Bauhin's valve), the bladder, the muscles of the perineum, and the 
genitals. Covoli's pictures represent the breasts, the tunics of the 
testicle and a six months' fetus. 

The remaining collected works of Santorini were published in Parma, 
1773, in 4°, with his portrait and his biography, and were edited by 
Michael Girardi. An Italian medical journal, Giornale di Medicina, 
1763-76, 13 volumes, which Pietro Orteschi edited in Venice, also con- 
tains a biography of Santorini, written by the physician Niccolo Pol- 
laroli, in Volume I, page 112. 

Haller: II, 23, 714. 
Ebert: no. 20322, 23. 


The article on Aselli, page 240, mentions anatomic representations 
in colored woodcuts. In the following will be given an account of colored 
copperplates done by means of several impressions, dealing with human 
anatomy, i.e., the works of Le Blon, Ladmiral, and Gautier d'Agoty. 


Jacob Christoph Le Blon (not Le Blond), was born at Frankfort on 
the Main, in 1670, and died at Paris, May, 1741. After a sojourn in 
Zürich, Paris, and Rome, he hved and worked as a miniature painter in 
Amsterdam where, in 1704, he made known his first attempts at colored 
mezzotinting. He used in this process three different impressions (blue, 
yellow, and red) for one picture and was thus able to produce the different 
color values without any black, by using only these three primary colors. 
He then went to The Hague and later to Paris and London in order to 
practice his art, which he had so far kept secret, with the aid of sub- 
scriptions. In London he had some success in this, but the venture 
finally failed, because of the little care devoted to the making of the 
plates, and on account of the inventor's extravagances. Thereupon 
Le Blon established a wall-paper factory in London, which soon failed 
also, so that in 1732 he was compelled to flee and return to The 
Hague, a poor man. Soon after he went to Paris. On November 12, 
1737, he obtained a privilege and on July 24, 1739, a twenty years' patent 
for colored copper printing, which however he enjoyed only a few years 
and with very little benefit. The following publication, dealing with 
Le Blon's process, contained one colored and two black copperprints: 
Uart d'imprimer les tableaux. Tratte d'apres les ecrits, les operations et 
les instructions verbales de J. C. Le Blon, Paris, 1756, 8°. 

Of anatomic plates which Le Blon produced by means of his inven- 
tion only one print in oblong folio is known. It represents the male 
sexual organs in natural size and is printed on blue paper (therefore, 
perhaps only two other impressions, yellow and red, were employed). 
It has an exposition in Latin and French and bears the date 1721, but 
is without the artist's name. This print bears the title: 

Preparation anatomique des parties de riiomme, servants a la genera- 
tion, faites sur les decouvertes les plus modernes, 1721. 

It is io| inches long and not quite 8 inches higli and is contained in a 

medical book which was published repeatedl)' and was translated into 

both Latin and French: William Cockburn: The symptoms, nature, cause 

and cure of gonorrhoea, London, 17 13, 8°, and later years. In Latin: 

Ludg. Bat. 1 7 1 7, 1 2° ; in French : Paris, 1 730, 1 2°. From this it was inserted 

into one of the later editions or translations as an anatomic e.xplanation of 

the seat of the disease. 



Le Blon had been given an order from St. Andre, the body physician 
of the King of England, to furnish an anatomy in twelve sheets, but this 
order was not carried out. There is doubt regarding another print with 
which he is credited, representing the female sexual organs. 

[With regard to Le Blon and his color copperplates, one should also 
consult Heinecken: Idee generale d'une collection complette d'estampes, 
Leipsic et Vienne, 1771, 8°, p. 210.] 


Jan Ladmiral (not 1' Admiral), was born in 1698, of a good family 
of Normandy, and died at Amsterdam in July, 1773. He and his 
younger brother Jacob were pupils and assistants of Le Blon during his 
sojourn in London. But it seems that Ladmiral published the invention 
as entirely new and as his own, without ever mentioning Le Blon. 
Ladmiral offered his services in the making of colored anatomic repre- 
sentations to the famous anatomist Albinus in Leyden. This anatomist 
put his invention to a test and even permitted him to use two posthumous 
drawings by Ruysch. In this way, six representations of this kind were 
produced which were later published under the joint title: Anatomische 
voorwerpen door Jan Ladmiral. They are, in order, as follows: 

Bernardi Siegfried Alhini Dissert, de arter iis et venis intestinorum 
hominis. Adjecta icon coloribus distincta. Leid. Batav. apud Theod. 
Haak; Amstelaedami, ap. Jacob. Graal et Henr. de Leth, 1736, 4°; 5 leaves 
text and i plate in oblong 8". 

The print is preceded by Albinus' preface and treatise. In the 
former he says : 

Accidit quippe, ut egregius et industrius artifex Joannes Ladmiral ad me acederet 
offerretque se ad icones vivis coloribus distinctas efficiendas, quadam picturae com- 
pendiariae specie. Qua in re ut quid posset, experirer, curavi parandam iconem 
quam huic Dissertation! addidi, etc. 

"It happened that that excellent and industrious painter John Ladmiral came 
to me and offered his services for making pictures colored after Ufe in a sort of short- 
hand kind of painting. To see what he could do in this line I have had a picture 
made which I have added to the dissertation." 

In the treatise itself, no reproach of the artist is found, as Moehsen asserts ; 

quite to the contrary, we read on page 6: ipsos ramos incredihili se 

flectere varietate, quam icone expressit artifex, verbis vix possem, "Words 

fail me to express the incredible variety of twisting of these branches, as 

the artist has rendered it in the plate." The picture represents a piece 

of the muscularis mucosae of the intestine in which the arteries are 

injected red, but the veins blue. The representations of the surface of 

the tunic as well as the injections, are very faithful and true to nature, 

even to the smallest detail. In the lower right-hand corner, in the green 

margin: /. Ladmiral Fecit, a signature which occurs also on all the other 

five plates to be mentioned. On all the plates explanatory letters are 




Bernhardt Siegfried Alhini Dissert, secunda. De sede el causa coloris 
Aethiopum et caeterorum hominum. Accedunt icones coloribus distinctae. 
Leid. Bat., apud Theod. Haak; Amstel., a pud Jac. Graal et Henr. de Leth, 
1737, 4°, 9 leaves text and i plate in oblong 8°. 

The very detailed treatise on the color of the human skin is followed 
by the explanations of the representations in which is said: 

Has idem ille Ladmiral, nee minore artificio, confecit, qui arteriarum et venarum 
intestini hominis, quam anno proxime superiore edidi. Is laudabili artis suae 
singularis specimina exhibendi studio incensus, non destitit me donee obtinuerit 
rogare ut opportunitatem darem, etc. 

"These were made, and with no less workmanship, by that same Ladmiral 
who made the illustrations of the veins and arteries of the intestines of a man, (a 
work) which I published last year. From a burning and praiseworthy desire to show 
specimens of his matchless skill, he did not cease to entreat me until he prevailed 
upon me to give him a chance, etc." 

The plate represents in three figures the skin and the nails of a negro 

Icon durae matris in concava superficie visae, ex capite foetus humani 
octo circiter ä conceptione mensium, desumtae, ad ohjectum artificiosissime 
praeparatum a CI. V. Fred. Ruyschio, delineata, et coloribus distincta 
typis impressa a Joanne Ladmiral. Amstelod., ap. Jac. Graal et Henr. 
de Leth; Ludg. Bat., ap. Theod. Haak, 1738, 4°, 2 leaves text and i plate 
in oblong 8°. 

The text contains only the explanations of the plate in Latin, French, 
and Dutch; all identical. In this explanation the plate is described: 
vivis coloribus non penicillo depicta sed inaudito et mirabili artificio typis 
impressa, "in the colors of life, not painted with a brush, but printed 
from plates with a wonderful and unheard of ingenuity," while the 
French expresses the same idea in this manner: imprime ä la Presse, au 
grand Etonnement d'un Chaqu^un. The Dutch explanation reads only: 
tot verwondering. It is obvious that this designation originated with 
Ladmiral himself, who styles himself the editor. This plate ranks among 
the most beautiful of the entire series, both as regards the natural appear- 
ance of the whole and as to the very fine injections of the vessels which, 
on this plate, are only arteries and are therefore colored only in red. 
Of this plate and of the following plate, prints on blue paper had been 
made previously but with only Latin and Dutch explanations and with- 
out the date. These prints are said to have been done with less care. 
Friederich Ruysch, an anatomist who was especially famous for his 
fine injections, was born at The Hague, on March 23, 1638, lived in 
Amsterdam as a professor of anatomy and died there on February 22, 


1731. His very rich anatomic collection was sold at Petersburg for 
30,000 florins, but he soon collected a second one. 

Icon durae matris in convexa superficie visae, ex capile, etc. — a Joanne 
l^admiral, Amstelod., etc. — 1738, 4°, 2 leaves text and i plate of the same 
size as the preceding. 

The title is the same as that of the preceding print, with exception 
of the beginning. The year, the place, and the publisher are also the 
same. The explanations are given in Latin, French, and Dutch and have 
a separate title: Explicatio figurae cranii, serra divisi, periostio tecti, 
vitae speciem repraesentantis . In the preface it is said that the print is 
artificio eodem elaborata, "wrought with the same artistry." This figure, 
too, is as faithful and as beautiful as the former. As regards an earlier 
impression of the plate the same is true as was said of the preceding. 

Icon membranae vasculosae ad infima acetahuli ossium innominatorum 
positae, ex puero desumtae, ad ohjectum artificio sis sime praeparatum ä 
CI. V. Fred. Ruyschio, delineata, et colorihus distincla typis impressa ä 
Joanne Ladmiral. Amstelod., etc. — 1738, 4°, 2 leaves text and i plate 
in oblong 8°; the same publishers. 

The explanations are in Latin, French, and Dutch; in these it is 
stated that the figure is colorihus iisdem, quibus methodo Ruyschiana 
praeparata superbit, typis impressa, "printed in the same colors which 
are the crowning feature of that prepared by the method of Ruysch." 
The figure is less beautiful and also less distinct and it is considered by 
some to be of an earlier date than the two representing the dura mater. 

Effigies penis humani, injectd cera praeparati exhibens inventa anatomica 
aliquot nova; et proprio colore typis impressa ä Joanne Ladmiral. Leid. 
Bat., ap. Cornelium Haak, Amstelaed., ap. Jac. Graal et Henr. de Leth, 
1 74 1, 4°, 3 leaves text and i plate in 4°. 

The text contains only the explanations in Latin, French, and Dutch. 
The picture is the largest of all the six, and of good workmanship. This 
print is said to be an imitation of Le Blon's on the same subject, men- 
tioned before, but is supposedly inferior to it as regards vividness of 
color, beauty, distinctness, and naturalness of the impression (see 
Moehsen, page 147). Nothing, however, is said in the text about Le Blon 
or Cockburn. The last four small publications all have a vignette on 
their title-pages representing a skeleton, with glass receptacles contain- 
ing preparations on a table in front of it and a genius behind it; all these 
are illuminated by a large sun. At the bottom on the left we read Jan 
Ladmiral inv. et fecit. The vignette is in black. The two works by 
Albinus have in place of the vignettes only a printer's mark. 


Jacques Fabian Gautier d'Agoty, a maker of colored prints, was born 
at Marseilles, about 171 7. He too was an assistant of Le'Blon and 
after Le Blon's death, he obtained the latter's privilege on August 31, 
1745. He died in 1786. He, also utterly disregarding Le Blon, claimed, 
like Ladmiral, to be the inventor or restorer of the colored copperprint, 
although he himself did nothing more than add a fourth black plate to 
the three colored plates used by Le Blon, and this addition, in the judg- 
ment of connoisseurs, did not improve his prints, as compared with the 
others. Since Gautier, in his own work, Chroagenesie ou generation des 
couleurs. II. Tomes. Paris, 1750, 1751, 8°, and in a second, more 
general work, Nouveau Systeme de Vunivers, attacked Newton's theory 
of colors, Goethe considered him important enough to devote to him an 
elaborate article in the historic part of his Farbenlehre. Here at the 
very beginning he is called "an active, quick, rather impulsive man, 
certainly gifted, but more than befittingly aggressive and sensational." 
His anatomic illustrations, while they may perhaps be fascinating to the 
layman, on account of their size and vivid execution, impress the critical 
observer with their arrogance and charlatanry and do not recommend 
themselves to the student of anatomy either for their faithfulness and 
reliability or for their technique. The latter is not suited for delicacy 
and exactitude but rather for large and massive representations. They 
are far inferior to Ladmiral's work, but they will always retain their 
value in the history of art and especially in the history of anatomic 
illustrations. They are as follows: 

Essai d'anatomie en tableaux imprimis, qui representent au naturel 
tous les muscles de la Face, de Col, de la Tete, de la Langue et du Larinx, 
d'apres les parties dissequees et preparees par L. Duverney, Maitre en 
Chirurgie a Paris, comprenant huit grandes planches dessinees, peintes, 
gravees et imprimees en couleur et grandeur naturelles par le Sieur Gautier, 
seul Privilegie du Roy dans le nouvel art, avec des tables, qui expliquent 
les planches, Paris, chez Gautier, 1745, large fol., 8 plates and text. 

Suite de VEssai d'anatomie en tableaux imprimes representans au 
naturel tous les Muscles du Pharinx, du Tronc et des Extremites superieures 
et inferieures, dapres les parties dissequees et preparees par M. Duverney, 
etc. comprenant douze grandes planches dessinees, peintes et gravees par 



le Sieur Gautier, seul Graveur privilegie du Roy dans le nouvel art, Paris, 
etc., 1745, large fol., 12 plates and text. 

Myologie complette en couleur et grandeur naturelle, composee de V Essai 
et de la Suite de l' Essai d'anatomie en tableaux imprimes. Ouvrage unique, 
utile et necessaire aux Etudians et amateurs de cette science. Paris, chez 
Gautier, Quillau pire etfils et Lamesle, 1746, large fol., 20 plates and text. 

The latter work is composed of the first two works. Of the three 
editions, this one is oftenest met with. It does not contain anything 
that has not already been given in the two other works, both as to the 
text and the plates. 

Anatomie de la Tete en tableaux imprimes, qui representent au naturel 
le Cerveau sous diferentes coupes, la distribution des Vaisseaux dans toutes 
les parties de la Tete, les organes des Sens et une partie de la Nevrologie; 
d'apres les pieces dissequees et preparees par M. Duverney, etc. en huit 
grandes planches, dessinees, peintes, gravees et imprimees en couleur et 
grandeur naturelle, par le Sieur Gautier, seul Privilegie du Roy pour cet 
ouvrage; avec des tables relatives aux figures. Paris, chez Gautier, Duverney 
et Quillau, 1748, large fol., 8 plates and text. 

Anatomie generale des Visceres en situation, de grandeur et couleur 
naturelle, avec V Angeologie et la Nevrologie de chaque partie du corps humain. 
{Paris 1752) fol. maj.; 24 large plates. 

From eighteen plates of this latter book, seven complete human 
figures can be put together, composed of either three or two plates each. 
The following four figures can be arranged from three plates each: a 
female body with vessels and muscles; a male body with the viscera, 
vessels, and muscles; a back view of a body with the nerves, muscles, 
and vessels; a skeleton with nerves and arteries. The following three 
figures can be put together by means of two plates each: a pregnant 
woman with the opened uterus; a male body with the muscles of face 
and arms, and the viscera; a skeleton with the mesentery, the diaphragm, 
and the vessels. The remaining six plates were not designed to be put 

Exposition anatomique de la structure du Corps humain; en vingt 
planches, ifnprimees avec leur couleur naturelle, pour sercir de supplement 
ä Celles qii'on a deja donnees au public. Selon le nouvel art, dont M. Gautier, 
pensionnaire du Roi, est inventeur. Par le meme auteur. 1759, Marseille, 
chez Vial; Paris, chez Le Roy; Amsterdam, chez Marc Michel Rev. De 
Vimprimerie d'Antoine Favet ä Marseille, large fol., 20 plates and text. 

Here, too, nine complete figures can be composed from every two 
plates, viz., a pregnant woman with abdomen and uterus cut open; 


the profile of a female body; a male body with the blood vessels; a 
male body with the thoracic and abdominal viscera; the back views 
of two musclemen; three skeletons with representations for the study 
of the viscera and of neurology. Two plates are unconnected. 

Anatomie des parties de la generation de r komme, et de la femme, 
representees avec leurs couleurs naturelles, selon le nouvel art, joints a 
VAngeologie de tout le corps humain, et ä ce qui concerne la grossesse et les 
accouchemens. Par M. Gautier Dagoty pere, Anatomiste pensionne du 
Roi. Paris, chez J. B. Brunei et Demonville, 1773, fol., 8 plates. 

These eight plates can be put together into four figures: a male 
body, a female body, a pregnant woman, and a woman in labor. None 
of these figures are 'life-sized. 

Exposition anatomique des maux veneriens sur les parties de Vhomme 
et de la femme, et les remedes les plus usites dans ces sortes de maladies. 
Par M. Gautier Dagoty, pere, Anatomiste pensionne du Roi. Paris, 
chez J. B. Brunei et Demonville, 1773, fol., 4 plates. 

Two plates represent the male genitals and two plates the female 
genitals aflflicted with the diseases mentioned. The work is of very 
little value. 

Exposition anatomique des organes de Sens,jointe ä la Nevrologie entiere 
du corps humain et conjectures sur Velectricite animate, avec des planches 
imprimees en couleurs naturelles, suivant le nouvel art. Par M. Dagoty pere, 
anatomiste pensionne du Roi. Paris, chez Demonville, ly^j, fol., 8 plates. 

Three of the plates are designed to be composed into a neurologic 
figure. The other five represent: a cross-section of the skull and the 
organs of vision, the organs of hearing, the brain, the base of the skull, 
tongue and nose. The size of the plates is not the same throughout. 

Exposition anatomique des organes des Sens, jointe, etc.— animate et 
le siege de Vame. Par M. Dagoty pere, anatomiste, pensionne du Roi. 
Paris, chez Demonville, 1775, fol. 9 plates. 

Only the first one of the plates of the preceding edition is missing here. 
In its place we find a double plate representing perpendicular sections of 
two skulls, which, indeed are merely copies of the upper part of Plate 19 
of the Exposition anatomique de la structure du corps humain, a representa- 
tion of two horizontal cross-sections of the brain. Up to page 45, the 
text is absolutely identical with that of the preceding edition. On 
page 45 an explanation of the last three plates follows the original text. 
The above-mentioned edition should be given preference over the one 
discussed here since the two newly added plates are very poor and 
cannot replace the one omitted from the first edition. 


Cours complet d'anatomie peint et grave en couleurs par Arnaud Eloi 
Gautier d'Agoty, fils, explique par Jadelot, Nancy, 1773, large fol. 

There is some doubt whether this work, begun by a son of Gautier, 
was ever finished. The statement, however, that the works on the sense 
organs discussed above were also edited by a son of Gautier is wrong. 
His father, who was then still Hving, is expressly named on the title-page 
as the sole author. 

There is still another colored print by Gautier in large square folio 
representing the genitals of the well-renowned hermaphrodite Michel 
Anne Drouart. The main figure is a Ufe-size representation of the 
abdomen from the umbilicus down to the middle of the upper part of 
the thigh. In the upper right-hand corner of the print a separate 
illustration of only the genitals is given, also in life-size. At the top of 
the print, toward the right, is engraved: Demontre par M. Mentrude 
(this should read Mertrud), at the bottom, to the left: Peint et grave par 
J. Gautier pensionnaire du Roy. 

Gautier edited three smaller prints in quarto representing the same 
hermaphrodite, whom Mertrud took for an actual hermaphrodite, while 
most of the other anatomists regarded him as a deformed man, and a few 
others took him to be a deformed woman. On one of these smaller 
prints the position of the main figure of the larger print is repeated, 
while the second one shows a front view of it. The plates are on page 50- 
52 of a journal edited by Gautier, which contained, among others, many 
color prints and also colored copper engravings. The title is: 

Observations sur Vhistoire naturelle, sur la physique et sur la peinture. 
Avec des planches imprimees en couleur. Paris, 1752-55, 4°, 6 volumes. 
Continued as: Ohseroations periodiques sur la physique, Vhistoire naturelle 
et les beaux arts ou journal des sciences et des arts par Toussaint, avec des 
planches en couleurs par Gautier fits, Paris, 1756, 1757, ^, 3 volumes. 

The copperplates published in this journal have been compiled and 
pubUshed under the following title: Collection de planches d'histoire 
naturelle en couleur par Gautier, Paris, 1 757, 4°, 3 volumes. In this journal 
Gautier deals with the art of colored printing, I, 138; concerning which 
cf. Drouart, I, 61. 

A colored print in folio after Gautier's method represents a child 
with the thoracic and abdominal cavities open. The order of the viscera 
is reversed from right to left. A short description is engraved upon the 
print and also the signature Sue delineavit et Sculp. This Sue can only 
refer to Jean Joseph Sue The Elder, who is generally called Sue de la 
Charite. He was born in 17 10 and died in 1792. He was a surgeon and 


anatomist, and an artist. He himself executed for anatomic demon- 
strations, a collection of one hundred and ninety-five drawings which his 
son, with the same Christian name and surname, increased to three 
hundred and sixty-four. The color prints are kept lighter in tone than 
Gautier's prints. 

In Peter Tarin's Adversaria anatomica de omnibus corporis humani 
partibus; Prima de cerebri nervorum — descriptionibus, Paris, 1750, 4°, 
there are colored copperplates by a certain Robert, a pupil of Le Blon, 
who printed by means of two colors, red and black, using only two plates. 

For color engravings and anatomic illustrations of this kind, see also 
the following works: 

Van Gool (Johann) : De nieuwe schouburg der nederlantsche kunstchilders, Graven- 
hage, 1750, 1751, 8°, I, 342-62. 

De Laborde (Leon): Histoire de la gravure en maniere noir. Paris, 1839, 8°, 
pp. 364-91- 

Goethe: Farbenlehre, historischer Theil; in his works, LIV, 160-71. 

Moehsen: Bildn. pp. 131-47. 

Haller: II, 307, 387, 781. 

Ebert: no. 8192-99. 

Weigel: no. 3521, 22, 4924, 6815-17, 17932-34. 

[In 1914, there were exhibited in Paris twelve unsigned painted panels which 
are attributed to Jacques Gautier d'Agoty. These panels, which measure approxi- 
mately 92 inches in height by 27 inches in width, are doubtless the origins of some 
of the series of twenty plates which appeared in d'Agoty's Myologie complelte en 
coideur et grandeur naturelle, published in 1746. The technique and beauty of treat- 
ment of certain portions of the twelve panels indicate the hand of the finished 
artist, and oppose the suggestion that they were executed by d'Agoty's son Arnaud 
as illustrations for the medical works composed by the latter. These panels were 
placed on sale and were purchased by Burroughs Wellcome & Company of London.] 

Three of Twelve Oil Painted Panels of Anatomical Subjects Attributed to d'Agoty 
Each of these measures 2.30 meters in height by 0.70 meter in breadth. The delicacy and beauty 

of the women's faces show them to be the work of a finished painter 
Wellcome Historical Medical Museum at London. 

The twelve panels are now in the 
(After reproductions in the London Lancet, Feb. 21, 1914) 


Edme Bouchardon, a sculptor and architect, was born at Chaumont, 
Bassigny, in 1698. He studied in Paris with Guilleaume Coustou The 
Younger and later for some time in Rome. After his return to Paris 
he became a member and a professor of the Academy of Paris. He died 
there in 1762. He was the author of: 

Uanatomie necessaire pour F usage du dessein. Paris, ches J. Fr. 
Chereau, 1741, fol. — Nouvelle edition, Paris, 1802, foL, title and 16 leaves. 

In it we find an allegoric copper-title with the preface engraved on 
the back, fourteen sheets of anatomic prints representing three skeletons, 
and eleven complete musclemen. In all, the drawing was done by 
Bouchardon, the engraving by Jacques Gabriel Huquier (b. Orleans, 
1695, d. Paris, 1772). The latter also prepared the first edition of the 
book. Neither from an anatomic nor from an artistic point of view are 
the illustrations praiseworthy. The muscles, especially, are repre- 
sented in that enervated, cadaverous condition which is the least suitable 
for the use of graphic or plastic artists. Everything indicates that 
unprofitable stage in artistic anatomy where Vesalian influence is weak 
or already extinguished, and where Albinian influence has not yet made 
itself felt. The drawing throughout is in the affected French style of 
the time. 

[Bouchardon's portrait was engraved by Jacques Firmin Beauvarlet 
as a Receptionshlatt after a painting by Frangois Hubert Drouais, Senior; 
cf. also J. Carnandet: Notice historique sur Edme Bouchardon, suivie de 
quelques lettres de ce statuaire publiees pour la premiere fois d'apres les 
originaux. Avec un portrait et un autographe, Paris, 1855, 8°, of which 
only fifty copies were made. Cf. Weigel: Kunstkatalog, no. 18259, 



Bernhard Siegfried Albinus was born at Frankfort on the Oder, 
February 24, 1697, and died at Leyden, September 9, 1770. He began 
his studies in Leyden and went to Paris in 17 18 to continue them. Later 
he received a call to Leyden to lecture on anatomy and surgery during 
Rau's last illness, and, in 1721, was appointed professor of these sciences, 
to which, anatomy in particular, he devoted himself exclusively for 
fifty years. 

He was the pioneer of a new epoch in human anatomy, an epoch 
during which all investigations, and especially those pertaining to osteol- 
ogy and myology, were carried out with the most perfect thoroughness 
and exactitude and with all the means then available. 

Anatomic representation, too, enters upon an epoch of high perfec- 
tion during which the mere outward appearance, superficial investiga- 
tions, or the mere copying of subjects observed prove insufficient. 
Artistic and faithful representations of the true form and connection of 
anatomic structures, discovered through repeated comparative studies, 
are now demanded. What demands Albinus made upon himself in 
this respect and how he exerted all his energies toward the conscientious 
preparation for publication of his anatomic illustrations, can best be 
learned from the preface to the first volume of his Annotationes academicae 
and from a controversy between himself and Pieter Camper over the 
making of his illustrations. His reply to Camper's criticism, given in 
detail in the eighth volume of the Annotationes academicae, is also an 
exact description of the processes used by him and by the artist in the 
production of his illustrations. A person familiar with the methods and 
needs of the graphic and plastic arts, could from these two writings 
and also from the prefaces to all his larger illustrated works, furnish 
a detailed and most instructive treatise on the methods of anatomic 
illustration. Here a few suggestions must suffice: 

Reddere non ad adspectum, qui mos est, sed ex mensura; reddere quod natura 
optima ostendit; reddere, non ut solent anatomici, sic solummodo sub adspectu 
pictoris ponendo, quod retexuerunt, sed ex aliis aliisque corporibus colligendo et in 
unum ad regulam componendo, sic ut Veritas exhibeatur, etc. Ego sic existimo, 
quod natura fabricata est, noscere volentibus exhibendum sine depravatione, per- 
spicue, remotis impedimentis et, quod fere caput rei sit, cum quodam judicio, inque 
tanta naturae varietate deligendam naturam optimam, etc. Satis non est, quamvis 



aliquid sit, corpus diligenter rimari, ejusque compositionem retexere, instar fabri 
dissolventis cum cura aedem: sed quemadmodum architectus structuram p>enitus 
cognoscit, sie perspecta constructio corporis habenda. Satis non est, quaerere, 
investigare, notare, cognoscere, proferre ut eruere potueris: sed perspecta delectaque 
redigenda exhibendaque definite et distincte, etc. Laudo artem, quae plenius 
exprimat, planeque et dilucide. Fatentur, qui intelligunt, difficilem esse naturae 
imitationem: quo minus negligas, quibus imiteris melius. Laudo magis, quae 
elegantius exprimat, etc. {Acad. annott., Lib. I, Praef., pp. 7, 11, 13, 14.) Neque 
icon ulla ex solo adspectu ducta est: omnes mensuratae sunt, aut ex intervallo 
infinito, architectorum more, quemadmodum pleraeque: aut ex intervallo quadraginta 
pedum per dioptras, quod infinito in his respondet, ut icones sceleti, in quibus deinde 
ut in fundamento musculi inscripti sunt, et ubi sceleti non sufiiciebant, musculi 
mensurati sunt ex intervallo infinito, ac deinde aliquantum in se adductiores 
(verkürzt) redditi, ut poscebat distantia a centro. Ossicula autem auditus mensus 
est artifex parvo optimoque circino, cujus extrema acutissima erant, etc. 
Elegique quantum potui positum, ubi adductionis ratio minima sit, elegi, ut, 
quum vitari adductio nequeat, occurrerem imperitis, quos plurimos esse scivi, 
etc. (Acad. annott., L. VIII., pp. 30, 50.) 

"To reproduce, not free hand (according to the view), as is customary, but from 
actual measure: to reproduce what the best in nature displays: to reproduce, not as 
the demonstrators of anatomy generally do, by merely placing before the eyes of 
the artist what they have uncovered, but by collecting (data) from one body after 
another, and making a composite according to rule so that the actual truth will be 
displayed, etc. I am of this opinion, that what Nature, the arch workman, which 
is generally the source of everything, has fashioned must be sifted with care and 
judgment, and that in the endless variety of Nature the best elements must be selected. 
Then it does not suffice, though this, to be sure, is something, to search the body and 
reveal its composition like a carpenter dismantling a house with care, but just 
as the architect knows the structure through and through; in the same way we must 
thoroughly acquaint ourselves with the construction of the body. It is not sufficient 
to search, ferret out, take notes, become familiar with things and publish what you 
have been able to unearth in your delvings, but you must first know your material 
thoroughly and then exercise selection in reducing it and displaying it in a definite 
and clear manner. I have commendation for that art which expresses nature fully. 
Those who know admit that it is no easy task to imitate nature : the less you neglect 
this, the better you will serve the interests of those for whom you imitate. I have 
more commendation for that art which reproduces with discrimination, etc. (Acad, 

"And not a single picture has been drawn free hand. All have been measured, 
brought down to scale, either from an indeterminate distance, as the architects do, 
a method which has been followed in most cases, or from a distance of forty feet 
through diopters which corresponds to an indeterminate distance in such cases, as 
for example, the pictures of the skeletons, upon which finally, as upon a ground 
plan, the muscles have been drawn in. Where the skeletons were not large enough 
the muscles have been measured from an indeterminate distance, and finally repro- 
duced, somewhat shortened as the distance from the center required. The tiny 
bones of the ear the artist measured with a very small and i)erfect compass, the 


points of which were particularly sharp. I have chosen, in so far as I was able, a 
position where the matter of shortening would be reduced to a minimum, in order 
that, since the shortening could not be altogether avoided, I might meet the needs 
of the inexj>erienced, who would, I knew, be many." 

He, by the way, expended twenty-four thousand florins of his own money 
on his illustrations. {Acad, annott., L. Ill, p. 73.) 

Albinus' figures were drawn and engraved by Jan Wandelaer (b. 
Amsterdam 1690, d. Leyden 1759) who was a pupil of Folkema, Guiljam 
van der Gouwen and Gerard de Lairesse. He had done some work 
for the anatomists Friederich Ruysch and Arent Cant and began to 
work for Albinus in 1723. Albinus fully appreciated this artist's merits. 

Is omnia et vere accurateque expressit et magna subtilitate artis. Expressit 
minima quaeque et, quod difficillimum est, ipsum, quantum forsan in hac arte, 
habitum. Eoque melius, quod idem pulchre et delineat et quod etiam majus est, 
imagines in aere ad res ipsas ducit. Has autem icones (ossium foetus) ad ipsa 
ossicula incidit. Qua propter non modo nihil ex imitatione deminutae sunt, ut 
deminui solent, quae ad delineatam formam inciduntur, sed longe etiam exquisitius 
imagines iis exprimuntur, quoniam delineare nemo potest, quae ad res ipsas talis 
artifex incidere, etc. Omniaque me duce expressit atque nihil nisi quod antea plane 
intellexisset, etc. (Preface to his Icon, oss.foet., p. 3.) 

"He has reproduced everything with truth and accuracy and with a marvelous 
refinement of skill. He has reproduced all the smallest details and what is most 
difficult, the very appearance, in so far as that art could. Still better is the fact that 
he draws beautifully and, what is even more important, draws the pictures on copper 
after the objects themselves. These pictures, moreover, of the bones of the embryo, 
he has cut after the little bones themselves. For this reason not only have the 
engravings not been reduced at all, as is the case with those that are cut after a pic- 
ture, but these pictures are far finer than those, since none can sketch as well as such 
an artist can cut with the objects themselves for his model. He has reproduced 
everything under my guidance and nothing that he had not first thoroughly under- 

But most instructive on this point is Albinus' preface to the large work, 
Tabulae sceleti, etc., where he points out the ingenious contrivances 
used in the drawing of the skeletons and the musclemen. Two nets, as 
large as the skeleton itself, and divided into squares, were placed in 
front of the skeleton in such a way that one stood very close to it, and 
the other, with squares ten times as small, about four Rhenish feet 
away from the first. The artist, from his observation of the whole, placed 
himself at a distance of forty feet from the object. In order to see such 
parts of the whole as could not be discerned accurately enough at such 
a distance, he could come up to them as closely as he chose and owing 
to the net with the larger squares, which stood immediately in front 
of the skeleton, he was enabled to draw such details in proper propor- 


tions to the whole. These contrivances, the details of which should be 
read in the passage cited above, had been suggested by 'sGravesande, 
professor of physics in Leyden. Albinus guided the artist in all his works : 

, Atque ita formandus a me ducendusque et plane regendus fuit, tanquam si ejus 
ministerio figuras ipse efficerem (Preface to Tabulae sceleli). Hoc scio, incredibilem 
operam a me insumtam, ut formarem duceremque, ad quam redire nolim nullo 
adducendus pretio, etc. Et si quis videat delineationes, praeter accuratam rerum 
definitionem neque umbras inveniat, neque quicquam cohaerens et absolutum; ut 
mirentur artifices, ad tarn imperfectas delineationes tabulas efficere potuisse et quidem 
absque corporibus hominum: mirentur magis absque delineatione absoluta transferre 
in aes sic statim potuisse {Acad, annott., L. VIII, p. 65). 

"And so he had to be trained and guided and practically directed by me as if 
I were myself making the pictures, using him as a tool. 

" I am aware that I took upon myself an incredible task of training and guidance, 
one that no amount of money would induce me to go back to. And if anyone should 
see the pictures, besides the accurate definition of things he would find no shadows 
and nothing coherent and complete, so that artists are astonished that he could have 
made the engravings after such unfinished pictures and that, too, without bodies: 
they would wonder more that without the finished picture he could work directly on 
the copper." 

On the other hand, Albinus praised the artist most highly everywhere 
and defended him, especially against Pieter Camper who was prejudiced 
against him: 

Cujus (sc. Wandelaarii) ego saepenumero miratus sum animum, patientiam, 
constantiam, qui alioquin acer, nunquam ab hyemali ilia contentione (anatomic 
drawing in winter) discessit, nisi hebes redditus tardusque et languidus, plerumque 
etiam corpore aeger {Acad, annott., L. I. Praef. p. 8). 

"I have often wondered at his spirit, his patience, and his resolution; he is more- 
over ardent and never without a certain impetuous eagerness of effort." 

With regard to the accessories to the first twelve plates of the Tabulae 
sceleti et muse, which Camper had criticized, Albinus points out that 
the artist himself suggested them to improve the figures and that he 
did not by any means choose them arbitrarily as Vesalius and Bidloo 
had done. 

Colore quodam circa figuras indigere se contendebat (Wandelaar) eumque 
colorem in res distinxit, quae parergon efficiant. Ob hanc praecipue caussam parerga 
adjecit, quae adeo non noceant figuris, ut eas potius juvent. Sic lumen figurarum 
se custoditurum contendebat: nam si spatium circum figuram interque partes earum 
album sit, lumen figurarum frangi. Sic eflecturum, ut nihil durum sit, etc. Parerga 
in tabulis sceleti leviora esse, quam in tabuUs musculorum, ut respondeant levitati 
sceleti, soliditati musculorum — leviora esse circum imagines, insigniora in locis 
distantioribus, ut res poscat {Acad, annott., L. VIII, p. 17). 

"He (Wandelaar) maintained that he required a certain color around the pic- 
tures and, to this end, he tinted the parts that make up the ornamental frame. It 


was for this reason particularly that he added the ornaments, which, far from harm- 
ing the pictures, are actually a help. He maintained that, in this way, he would pre- 
serve the proper light of the pictures, for if the space around the picture and between 
the parts should be white, the light of the pictures would suffer. He said that this 
means would insure that nothing would be harsh. The ornaments in the pictures 
of the skeleton are lighter than in the pictures of the muscles, corresponding to 
the lightness of the skeleton, the solidity of the muscles — they are lighter directly 
around the pictures and more conspicuous in the more distant places, as expediency 

That is why these figures, although composed of many separate parts, 
appear as a whole and seem to be stepping out of the picture, if you look 
at them through your hollow hand from a distance of three to five feet. 
This is especially true of the skeletons. With figures surrounded by 
blank spaces (as for instance Genga's, p. 254) the light is refracted and 
the shadows become harder so that the whole as such, and the details 
lack distinctness. (Ibid., p. 18.) 

Besides the works by Albinus which have been mentioned in the 
articles on Vesalius, Eustachius, and on the anatomic colored copper- 
print, mention should also be made of the following: 

Historia musculorum hominis. Leid. Batav., apud Theodor. Haak 
et Henr. Mulhovium, 1734, 4°, 696 pp., including 8 plates in 4°. 

The plates contained in this work were drawn and engraved by 
Wandelaer, as we learn from Albinus' preface. The plates themselves 
do not bear the name. They represent the hand of a man of particularly 
beautiful build, in life-size, with all the muscles, tendons, ligaments, and 
bones. There are four finished plates, each one accompanied by an 
outline-plate upon which the reference letters are engraved. Both the 
drawing and the engraving are done most excellently. The latter is 
slightly harder and colder than in the later works. The edition, Editio 
altera notis aucta, Franco/, et Lips., sumpt. Tob. Göbhardt, 1784, 4°, 
contains inferior reprints of these eight plates in the original size. 

I cones ossium foetus humani. Accedit osteogeniae brevis historia, 
Leid. Batav., apud J oh. et Herrn. Verbeek, 1737, 4°; 4 and 164 pp. and 
32 copperplates. 

These plates are also engraved by Wandelaer. The illustrations 
were engraved upon the plates directly from the preparations. The first 
bears the signature: /. Wandelaar omnes ad exemplaria in aes incidit. 
The other plates are not signed. There are altogether sixteen finished 
plates, containing a total of one hundred and sixty-three representations. 
Each one of these plates is supplemented by an identical outline-plate 
containing the same figures with letters engraved upon them. The 


different bones are reproduced with an unsurpassed fidelity and delicacy. 
The entire skeleton is missing. At the end of his preface, Albinus 
promises to see to it that only good prints are published and that the 
plates are not given away to anybody, to prevent the making of inferior 
prints for the sake of pecuniary gain. 

Tabulae sceleti et musculorum corporis humani. Lugd. Batav., ap. 
Jo. et Hermann. Verbeek, 1747, large foL, 6 and 41 printed leaves, 40 

All the plates are drawn and engraved by Wandelaer as the signature 
on each one of them indicates. The first three plates are finished repre- 
sentations of the skeleton and are each accompanied by an outline-plate 
of the same size. The following nine plates represent complete finished 
musclemen; each one is again given an additional outline-plate. The 
fourteen plates following these nine represent special muscles and parts 
of muscles. Each one of the very numerous figures on each plate is 
supplied with an outline-drawing unless the letters are engraved directly 
upon the finished figures. The skeleton plates are numbered 1-3 and 
are all double, the myologic plates are numbered 1-25 of which the first 
nine are double. This would give altogether twenty-eight plates with 
the first twelve double, or a total of forty copperplates. Ebert, no. 360, 
should be corrected accordingly. The first twelve plates, representing 
entire skeletons and musclemen, are provided with elaborate accessory 
work. The title contains a vignette by Wandelaer. This book is 
Albinus' principal work. 

Tabulae VII. uteri mulieris gravidae cum jam parturiret mortuae, 
Lugd. Bat., ap. J. et H. Verbeek, 1748, large fol., 7 copperplates. 

Tabularum uteri mulieris gravidae appendix T. I.; ibid.,i'j^i, large fol. 
I leaf; together 8 leaves with engraved explanations. 

These present on seven plates in life-size the uterus, far advanced 
in pregnancy, and the fetus, and on an eighth plate the fetus alone. 
They are both without any printed text. 

Tabulae ossium humanorum. Leidae, apud J. et H. Verbeek, 1753, 
large fol., 70 copperplates. 

Two of the seventy copperplates contain the title and the preface. 
The remaining plates are thirty-four finished coppers and the thirty- 
four corresponding outline-plates with letters and explanatory text. On 
the first plate is engraved: /. Wandelaar omnes in aes ad ossa ipsa 
incidit, 1727 et seq. This book is a continuation of the Tabulae sceleti 
and contains life-sized representations of all the different bones of the 
adult human being, done with the usual exactitude. 




Tabula vasis chyliferi cum vena azyga, arteriis intercostalibus aliisque 
vicinis partibus, Lugd. Bat., apud J. et H. Verbeek, 1757, large fol., 
I copperplate and i leaf of text. 

This is a life-sized representation of the thoracic duct in its entire 
course and consists of one main figure and three subordinate figures 
which were all directly drawn and engraved upon the plate by Wan- 
delaer. Besides the accompanying text, explanations may also be found 
in Acad, annott., L. IV, p. 38 et seq. 

Academicarum annotationum libri I-VIII. Leid., apud J. et H. 
Verbeek, 1754-68, 4°, 2 volumes with 37 copperplates. 

This is a miscellaneous treatise pertaining to anatomy, physiology, 
natural science, surgery, etc. On some of the plates, twenty-eight of 
which belong to the first and nine to the second volume, Wandelaer's 
name is given. 

Engraved copies of Albinus' plates can be found in Pierre Tarin's 
Osteographie, Paris, 1753, 4°, and his Myographie, Paris, 1753, 4°. Others 
representing three skeletons and three musclemen may be found in 
John Brisbane's Anatomy of painting, London, 1 769, fol. Imitations turn 
up in many of the later works on scientific and artistic anatomy. 

Jacob Houbraken and Johann Jacob Haid engraved a portrait of 
Albinus in copper, after a painting by the younger Karel de Moor. 
Original drawings done by Wandelaer for Albinus are in the possession 
of the Medico-Chirurgical Academy of Dresden. 

Van Gool Qohann): De nieuwe schouburg der nederlantsche kunsischUders, 
Gravenhage, 1750-51, 8°, II, 169-78. 
Moehsen: Bildn., p. 124. 
Haller: II, 126. 
Ebert: no. 359-65. 


Pieter Camper, physician, anatomist, and naturalist, was born at 
Leyden, May ii, 1722, and died at The Hague, April 7, 1789. Initiated 
into the domain of the graphic and plastic arts at an early age by the elder 
and the younger Karel de Moor, he studied medicine at the University 
of Leyden and obtained his doctor's degree in 1746. In 1748, while 
on a journey through England, France, Switzerland, and Germany, he 
was offered the professorship of anatomy and surgery at the University 
of Franecker. He took this position in 1750. In 1752, he was in London 
and here he made the drawings for several plates for SmeUie's Set of 
anatomical tables^ dealing with obstetrics. In 1755, he was appointed 
to the professorship of anatomy and surgery at the Athenaeum of Amster- 
dam; with this he combined the professorship of medicine in 1758. But 
very soon after, in 1761, he resigned from these positions and withdrew 
to his villa at Klein-Lankum near Franecker. In 1763, however, he 
became professor of anatomy, surgery, and botany at the University 
of Groningen, and these positions he held until 1773, when he retired 
to Hve in Franecker. In 1776 he was in Paris, in 1779 he traveled through 
a part of Germany, staying especially in Hamburg, Hanover, and 
Göttingen, and in 1780, in Berlin. In 1785 he made a second journey 
to England and in 1787 was again in Paris. Later, he lived in The 
Hague and, as a member of|the Council of States, was obhged to spend 
the remainder of his life there. 

We have from his pen a very large number of smaller articles on the 

most widely differing subjects of medical science, such as anatomy, 

surgery, obstetrics, medical jurisprudence, veterinary surgery, zootomy, 

and natural history. Among them are ten crowned prize essays. He 

made attempts also in various branches of the graphic and plastic arts. 

Very early he had done oil painting and had turned out a great many 

drawings in India ink and charcoal. Later he tried his skill also at 

pastel painting, etching, and mezzotint. At the age of fifty he took 

instruction from Ziesenis in sculpture and made a marble copy, after 

Quesnoi, of the head of a child. He also lectured on the graphic and 

plastic arts and on artistic anatomy at the Athenaeum in Amsterdam 

and is even said to have studied the theories of architecture, of which 

assertion proof is repeatedly given in his treatise on the beauty of form 

{Het Gedaanteschoon) . 



In particular he made many anatomic drawings which are, there- 
fore, often found in collections. They are all graceful and bold in design 
and, by sparing use of cross-strokes, are characteristically crosshatched. 
Especial attention has been paid to a careful differentiation of the 

Of his many writings, only the following concern us: 

Dissert, inauguralis de visu, Leiden, 1746, 4°. — Diss, inaug. altera de 
nonnuUis oculi parlibus, Leiden, 1746, 4°. 

The second of these writings, which has also been inserted in Haller's 
Disputatimies selectae, contains, among other illustrations, a fine repre- 
sentation of the canal of Petit at the equator of the lens capsule. 

Demonstrationum anatomico-pathologicarum liber primus, continens 
brachii humanifabricam et morbos. Amstelaedami, apud Joann. Schreuder 
et Petr. Mortier jun., 1760, large fol. ; 6 and 22 pp. and 3 copperplates. — ■ 
Liber secundus, continens pelvis humanae fabricam et morbos, Amstel., 
ap. eosdem, 1762, large fol., 6 and 24 pp. and 5 copperplates. 

This is Camper's larger work and is particularly valuable. Treat- 
ing, however, mainly of anatomic, pathologic, and surgical matters, it 
is of only partial interest to our discussion. These two books, which 
were not followed by any continuation, contain five finished coppers 
of which the first, the third, and the fourth are supplemented by a linear 
plate with references and letters. The fifth plate has a few outline 
figures besides the finished representations. All the representations 
were drawn by Camper himself and were engraved by Jacob van der 
Schley (born at Amsterdam in 171 5, died there in 1779). The repre- 
sentations are nearly life-size and were designed for the practical use 
of surgeons. A third book had been planned to contain a representation 
of the base of the brain and the origins of the nerves, but was never 

Epistola ad anatomicorum principem, magnum Albinum. Groningae 

1767, 4^ 

This is the letter which caused the rather bitter controversy which 
we had occasion to mention in the article on Albinus. Camper held the 
opinion, previously expressed in his preface to the above-mentioned 
work, that anatomic subjects should not be represented in perspective 
but architecturally, i.e., they should not be drawn as seen from one point 
of view, but as if the perpendicular visual axis struck each single part 
of the subject from the same distance. The plates by Vesalius, Eus- 
tachius, Cheselden, Albinus, and Haller, were all perspective representa- 
tions, in contrast with this view. 


Verhandeling over het naturlijk verschil der wezenstrekken in Menschen 
van onderscheidene Landaart en Ouderdom, over het Schoon in antijke beeiden 
en gesneedene Steenen, gevolgd door een voorstel van eene nieuwe manier 
om hoof den van allerlei] e menschen med zekerheid te tekenen. Na des 
Schrijvers Dood uitgegeven door zijnen zoon Adrian Gilles Camper, Utrecht, 
bij Wild en Altheer, 1791, 4°. — French by Denis Bernard Quatremere 
d'Isjonval, Utrecht, chez les memes, 1791, 4°. — German by Samuel 
Thomas Soemmerring, Berlin, Voss, 1792, 4°, with 10 copperplates. 

This work deals with the difference in the features of people of dif- 
ferent countries and of different ages, and with the beauty of classic 
sculptures and cameos. It contains also the suggestions of a new way 
of drawing to assure success in representing the heads of all kinds of 
people and was first planned by Pieter Camper in 1768. In 1772 he 
made certain additions and, in 1786, completed it, in the form in which 
his son published it. But the chapter on the characteristics and the 
character of classic statues, coins, and cameos is missing; and the mark- 
ings and explanations of the figures on the last nine plates had to be 
added by another person. This small publication, nevertheless, con- 
tains the most valuable investigations on the mathematical structure 
of the human head (on cephalometry) and, of all his writings, was most 
instrumental in making Camper's name famous, since Camper's so-called 
facial line, or, more correctly, facial angle, was described for the first 
time in this book. The book also contains ten copperplates, drawn by 
Camper and engraved by Reinier Vinkeles, all in outline without cross- 
hatching. The French translation contains copies from the original 
plates. The German translation has prints from plates faithfully 
re-engraved by Daniel Berger. In this latter translation are also several 
annotations by Soemmerring. Camper's preface on his studies of the 
graphic and plastic arts is very instructive. 

Redevoeringen over de wijze om de verscheidene hartstogten op onze 
wezens te verbeelden; over de verbaazende overeenkomst tusschen de vier- 
voetige dieren, de vogelen, de visschen en den mensch; en over het gedaante- 
schoon. Gehouden in de Teken- Academic te Amsterdam. Uitgegeven door 
zijnen zoon A. G. Camper, Utrecht, bij Wild en Altheer, 1792, 4°. — French^ 
Utrecht, 1792, 4°. — German by G. Schaz, Berlin, Voss, 1793, 4^*, with 11 

These lectures on the methods of representing the different passions 
in the human face; on the astounding similarity between quadrupeds, 
birds, fish, and man, and on the beauty of form, were given at the 


Academy of Graphic and Plastic Arts in Amsterdam, in 1774, 1778, and 
1782. Only incomplete fragments of the same, with a number of 
sketches, were found after Camper's death. From these fragments 
the text for this edition was compiled and was then provided with 
explanatory outline drawings. The original Dutch edition contains 
also a portrait of Camper by Reinier Vinkeles. These same lectures 
may also be found in French, supplemented by illustrations, in the third 
volume (pages 297-421) of the following work: 

Cßuvres de P. Camper, qui out pour ohjet Vhistoire naturelle, la Physi- 
ologie et Vanatomie comparee. Vols. I-III. Paris, chez H. J. Jansen, 
1803, 8°. — Planches pour les oeuvres de P. C, qui ont pour ohjet, etc. 
Paris, 1803, fol. 

The atlas contains an engraved portrait of Camper done in stipple 
by Barthelemy Roger and thirty-four copperplates in folio engraved by 
Euphrasie Picquenot, by Reinier Vinkeles, and by others whose names 
are not given. 

In the following collections none of Camper's works mentioned here- 
tofore is given. 

Peter Campers Sämmtliche kleinere Schriften die Arzney-Wund- 
arz7iey\unst und Naturgeschichte betreßend. Mit vielen neuen Zusätzen 
und Vermehrungen des Verfassers bereichert von J. F. M. Herbell; 
Vols. I-III, Leipzig. S. L. Crusius, 1784-90. 8° with copperplates. 

Petri Camperi Dissertationes decem, quihus ab illustribus Europae, 
praecipue Galliae, academiis palma adjudicata. Cum tahulis in aere 
expressis. {Edid. J. F. M. Herbell.) Vol. I, II, Lingae, sumtibus F. A. 
Jülicher, 1 798-1800. 8°. 

Two fine osteologic sheets (representing in several figures a diseased 
bone of a child, the skull seen from below, and the foot) drawn by Camper 
and engraved by Reinier Vinkeles, born in Amsterdam in 1741, may 
be found in J. F. Blumenbach's Geschichte und Beschreibung der Knochen, 
Göttingen, 1786, 8°, They were engraved in 1780. 

Eight years before his death. Camper himself edited a list of his 
writings published up to that time under the title : 

Historiae litterariae cultoribus S. P. D. Petrus Camper, Harlingen, 
1779, 4°, 8 pp. 

A biography of Camper was written by his son Adrian Gilles Camper 
in Dutch, an abstract of which may be found in the translation of the 
work on the passions prepared for publication by Schaz. A biography 
in French may be found in (Euvres qui ont pour ohjet, etc., Vol. I, which 


also has the two Eloges written by Vicq d'Azyr and Condorcet. An 
abstract of these biographies is given in 

Roeland van Eynden en Ad. van der Willigen: Geschiedenis der vater- 
landsche Schilderkunst sedert de helft der XVIII Eeuw., Haarlem, 1816-40, 
8°, I, 163; with portrait. 

Stephen Maurice Falconet made a bust of Camper in marble. Reinier 
Vinkeles (1741-1816) drew and engraved his portrait. The other por- 
trait of Camper by Roger has already been mentioned. 

Haller: II, 395, 781. 
Ebert: no. 3424-31. 
Weigel: no. 3599, 8454, 18260-62. 


Albrecht von Haller, botanist, anatomist, and physiologist, became 
the founder of a new epoch in these sciences through his many very exact 
investigations in nature and through his numerous works of lasting value. 
He was a man of untiring diligence and admirable sagacity, great and 
unequaled in all that he undertook. He was born at Berne, October i6, 
1708. His first teacher in anatomy was J. G. Duvernoi at Tübingen. 
Later instructors were Boerhaave and Albinus in Leyden, James Douglas 
in London, Winslow in Paris, and others. In 1736, he became professor 
at Göttingen. On account of his poor health he reluctantly resigned 
this position in 1753, and went to Berne, where he became magistrate, 
holding this position until his death, December 12, 1777. 

With the many scientific corrections which Haller was able to present 
to anatomists, owing to his exact investigations and to his studies under 
Albinus, he was bound to make pictorial representations of anatomic 
preparations the main object of his care. His illustrations are therefore 
very numerous. They are very clear, vivid, highly exact, and artistic. 
The greater part of them had been scattered through his many writings 
and these were later collected by Haller himself under the title: 

Opera minora anatomici argumenti, emendata, aucta et renovata. 
Vols. I-HI, Lausanne, 1762, 1766, 1768, 4°, with copperplates. 
Haller himself esteemed this work and his Icones, discussed farther on, 
as among his best productions. 

Above all, however, mention should be made of a collection expressly 
emphasizing perfect pictorial representation of anatomic subjects, a 
collection which Haller prepared during his best days of activity, aided 
by competent artists, viz. : 

Icones anatomicae, quihus praecipuae aliquae partes corporis humani 
delineatae proponuntur et arteriarum potissimum historia continetur, 
Gottingae, apud vid. B. Abrami Vandenhoeck, 1756, large foL, with 47 

The book was begun in 1743 when the first Fasciculus was published. 
This was followed by seven others in 1745, 1747, 1749, 1752, 1753, 
1754, and 1756. In 1756 the above-quoted common title was given to 
the whole. The last four plates of the work, representing the arterial 
system of the whole body and consisting of two finished and two outline 



plates, are twice as large as the others. The engraving of all the plates 
is strikingly clear and done with the graver. C. J. RoUinus, doctor of 
medicine, is named as the artist who drew the plates in the first books. 
As the artist of the other plates Joel Paul Kaltenhofer (d. 1777) is given; 
he also engraved most of them. The other engravers are George Daniel 
Heumann, court and university engraver at Göttingen (1691-1759), 
Jacob van der Spyk of Leyden, J. C. Schrader of Göttingen, Michael 
Rössler of Nuremberg, J. C. G. Fritzsch of Hamburg, and Carl Sepp of 
Amsterdam. The order of the subjects is purely accidental, depending 
upon the author's occasional necessities of making some accurate dissec- 
tions of certain organs. Besides the general views of the system of the 
arteries of the whole body, as given in the last four plates, various other 
plates represent on a larger scale almost all the arteries of special sites 
and organs, on a larger scale, with the surrounding parts. Then there 
will further be found special representations of the diaphragm, the spinal 
cord, the uterus and its appendages, the omentum, the base of the skull, 
and the heart. This work will always remain the main source of informa- 
tion for accurate anatomic studies, especially of the arteries and the 

But in still another respect, Haller has become important. Thanks 
to his habit of reading much and reading accurately, and of taking notes 
on the value and the contents of every book he read, a supply of literary 
resources accumulated which, known as the Bihliothecae of Haller, com- 
prise ten stout quarto volumes. Three of these Bihliothecae, those on 
botany, anatomy, and surgery, he compiled himself during his later years. 
The fourth, on internal medicine, was finished after his death. They 
contain the most exhaustive and most thorough information on the 
writings of all times and all nations in these fields, including also the 
older manuscripts and articles pertaining to these subjects, found in 
collections and periodicals, all of them treated with astonishing complete- 
ness. The best among these works are those on botany and anatomy, 
the subjects in which Haller himself accomplished so much. One of the 
chief sources of historic information in connection with our discussion 
was his 

Bibliotheca anatomica, qua scripta ad anatomen et physiologiam faci- 
entia a rerum initiis recensentur, Vols. I, II, Tiguri, 1774, 1776, 4°. 

The second volume of the Bibliotheca anatomica was later given 
another title with the year 1777 in order to further its sales. On this 
latter title it is said that the book enumerates all the books published up 
to 1776. But as to the latter year, this assertion is only partially true. 


The title cited is the more correct one. This considers all the publi- 
cations up to 1774. Such editions as the author himself had looked at 
he marked with an asterisk. Non omnia certe vidit ipse in lahore immenso 
viresque super ante mor tales, quae dixit ea studuit vera fide dicer e. ("He 
has assuredly not seen everything in a labor so immense and too great 
for human strength, but what he has told he strove to tell accurately"), 
he says himself of this work (II, 216) where he gives a description 
of his life, as far as it influenced anatomy. This work is therefore 
important also for the history of pictorial representations, although 
the history of art is not taken into consideration. 

Blumenbach: Introductio, pp. 383 et seq.; also his Medicinische Bibliothek, II, 
I, pp. 179 et seq. 

Ebert: no. 9204-21. 


John Brisbane, doctor of medicine, was dissatisfied with the way in 
which anatomy was taught, and asked particularly for a short elegant 
manual of anatomy, with good drawings, for the use of the graphic or 
plastic artist and for the general information of the layman. He himself 
never dared to attempt such a book, but suggested that a scholarly 
anatomist, a man of good judgment and a highly cultivated mind 
undertake this task. He sets up as models: Celsus De medicina iv. i; 
vii. 7, i8; viii. i, and the description of the human organization by 
Cicero in his de natura deorum, Lib. ii. He maintains that the artist 
has to study anatomy differently from the physician and the surgeon, 
namely from the point of view of his own art: "for tho' physicians and 
surgeons have, for a long time, in a manner engrossed the whole business 
of teaching anatomy, yet painters, statuaries and engravers, should 
assert their rights, and teach and write upon this science in a picturesque 
manner, suited to their own art," etc. He also thinks that more than 
is commonly beheved can be accomplished by means of good illustrations, 
indeed he even holds that good illustrations may often serve the purposes 
of the artist better than personal dissection. He also presents Albinus' 
plates on a smaller scale as models, and, translating Albinus' own words, 
he describes Albinus' method of procedure. Out of these attempts 
grew the very rare, somewhat curious, but clever and highly instructive 
work under the following title: 

The anatomy of painting, or a short and easy introduction to anatomy; 
being a new edition, on a smaller scale, of six tables of Albinus, with their 
linear figures; also, a new translation of Albinus' s history of that work, 
and of his index to the six tables; to which are added the anatomy of Celsus, 
with notes, and the physiology of Cicero; with an introduction, giving a 
short view of picturesque anatomy. London, printed by George Scott, 
and sold by T. Cadell, 1769, fol.; 22 and 76 pp. and 12 copperplates in 
fol. ; between pp. 58 and 59 there is yet another unaccounted title. 

The plates represent three skeletons and three musclemen done on 
a small scale after Albinus and are all accompanied by outline-plates, 
on which special parts are repeated on a large scale in subordinate figures. 
The outline-plates are marked with engraved letters for explanation. 
The plates are praiseworthy, both from an artistic and an anatomic 



point of view. Each finished print is signed, at the bottom to the left: 
/. Brisbane M. D. delin. direxit editit. On the first plate, in the lower 
right-hand corner, P. Benazech is named as engraver (probably Peter 
Paul Benazech, b. 1774). For the other plates J. Caldwell is given as 
the engraver (James Caldwell, b. 1739). The text contains a preface 
and an introduction, an English translation of Albinus' preface to his 
Tabulae sceleti et musculor., an explanation of the plates, and lastly, 
under a separate title, the translations of the above-mentioned passages 
from Celsus and Cicero. A commentary is added to the former. 

HaUer: II, 662. 
Weigel: no. 17766. 


Ercole Lelli, painter, engraver, stamp-cutter, and modeler in wax, 
was born at Bologna in 1702, and died there in 1766. The anatomy of 
man, as far as it concerns the artist, was the object of his particular 
study. By order of Benedict XIV, he made for the Institute of Bologna 
an anatomic statuette for the use of graphic and plastic artists. Another 
statuette of his \yas regarded as a canon even at foreign schools. The 
Abbate Farsetti in Venice possessed the smaller original of this latter 
statuette. LelH gave instruction in such anatomy as artists needed and 
later became director of the academy in Bologna. 

Anatomia esterna del corpo umano, per uso de^ pittori e scuUori, delineata 
ed incisa da Ercole Lelli, con la denotazione delle parti trata da' manoscriUi 
del medesimo. S. 1. et a. foL, 6 leaves. 

This was probably published after his death and contains five etched 
copperplates, representing musclemen, all marked with letters and num- 
bers for which explanations are always given on the opposite page. The 
engraving is poor; the drawing is done in the style of the Caracci. [On 
Ercole Lelli and anatomic plastic art, cf. Mich. Medici: Delia vita e 
degli scritti degli anatomici e medici fioriti in Bologna dal cominciamento 
del secolo XV III. fine at presente, Bologna, 1853, 4" {discorso I, p. 21).] 

Weigel: no. 17778. 


Michel Frangois d'Andre Bardon, usually called Dandre Bardon, was 
a painter and etcher, and a pupil of Charles Andre Vanloo, whose biog- 
raphy he wrote. Bardon was born at Aix in Provence in 1700. He 
became a member of the Academy in Paris in 1737, and later director of 
the Academy in Marseilles, but he lived in Paris and died there in 1783. 
Besides being the author of many writings on the theory and history of 
the graphic and plastic arts, he also published 

Traite d'anatomie aVusage des jeunes peintres, Paris, 1770 (1783), fol. 



Lambert Sigisbert Adam, sculptor, was born at Nancy in 1700. 
After receiving a prize in Paris he studied for ten years in Rome, He 
then returned to Paris and, in 1737, became a member of the Academy. 
He died at Paris in 1759. He was the author of 

Planches anatomiques, dessinees et gravies par Adam Vaine, sculpteur 
du Roy, corrigees, augmentees, redidttes dans la derniere exactitude et de plus 
enrichies de descriptions et de lettres d'' indications designans les diferentes 
parties; par les soins de F. M. Disdier, maitre et professeur en Chirurgie, 
etc. Ouvrage tres utile pour les peintres et sculpteurs et principalement 
pour les co't^menqans, Paris, chez J. B. Crepy, 1773, fol.; 15 plates 
printed on one side, in oblong folio. 

The work is composed of an allegoric copper-title, six osteologic 
copperplates with the explanations engraved on the opposite pages, 
and two myologic plates without explanations. The title is without 
address. The first osteologic plate is signed: Suite de Squelets dessine 
par L. S. Adam Laine Sculpteur du Roy; the following five osteologic 
plates are signed: Dessine par L. S. Adam, Sculpteur du Roy; the last 
two plates show an altogether different technique and are signed JCF 
(a monogram) /. et ecc. C. P. R., meaning probably cum privilegio regis. 
Adam's plates do not represent complete skeletons, but only skulls, the 
bones of the forearm and the hand, and the bones of the tibia and the 
foot. The last two plates are pictures of musclemen with the skeletons 
drawn inside of them and are, of course, on a smaller scale. On the first 
plate only one body is represented, on the second plate a group of five 
bodies in different positions is shown. All nine plates are done in red 
crayon. The anatomy is praiseworthy. The commentator, Francois 
Michel Disdier (b. Grenoble 1708, d. Paris 1781), was professor of 
surgery and also drawing master at the Academy of Painting in Paris. 



William Hunter, physician and obstetrician of London, was born at 
Kilbridge, Scotland, in May, 1718, and died at London in March, 1783. 
He was chiefly interested in anatomy, and as a teacher of this science, 
he founded, with his own means, an institution for the advancement of 
that subject and in connection with it formed a large anatomic collec- 
tion. Of his works, the following may be discussed here: 

Anatomia uteri humani gravidi tahulis illustrata, auctore Gulielmo 
Hunter. The anatomy of the human gravid uterus exhibited in figures, 
by William Hunter, Birminghamiae, excudeb. Joannes Baskerville, 
1774, large fol.; 3 preHminary leaves and 17 leaves text, 34 copperplates. 

These thirty-four copperplates represent the gravid uterus and its 
contents in life-size, anatomically exact, and artistically perfect. The 
text is written in Latin and English in two opposite columns and contains 
only the anatomic explanations of the plates. The work was begun 
in 1 75 1 and was originally planned to comprise ten, afterward thirty- 
six plates. Two plates that had been engraved before were discarded, 
and thirty-four were published. Plate XVI was drawn by Edward 
Edwards; Plate XXI by Alexander Cozens; Plate XXII by Blakey; 
all the other plates by I. W. Rymsdyk. The engraver of Plates I and 
VII was Frangois Simon Ravenet; of Plates II and IX, Louis Gerard 
Scotin; of Plate III, Thomas Major; of Plates IV and VI, Robert 
Strange; of Plate V, Johann Sebastian Müller; of Plate VIII, Charles 
Grignion; of Plates X, XXVII, XXIX, XXX, Pierre Charles Canot; 
of Plate XI, Pierre Maleuve (probably Maleuvre); of Plate XII, 
J. Mitchel; of Plate XIII, Mechel; of Plates XIV, XVIII, XXIII, 
XXIV, XXV, XXVIII, XXXI, Menil (on Plate XXV the name signed 
is Manil); of Plates XV, XXI, XXII, XXVI, Frangois Aliamet; of 
Plate XVI, Michell; of Plate XIX, J. Fougeron; of Plate XX, Henry 
Bryer; of Plate XXXII, I. W. Rymsdyk; of Plate XXXIII, Thomas 
Worlidge; of Plate XXXIV, George Powle. In the preface the author 
praises his brother John Hunter for his assistance in the anatomic 
examinations, and mentions the men who made the drawings for his 
plates, also the engravers, particularly the famous Robert Strange 
(1723-92). These are his words: 



He owes likewise much to the ingenious artists who made the drawings and 
engravings; and particularly to Mr. Strange, not only for having by his hand secured 
a sort of immortality to two of the plates, but for having given his advice and assist- 
ance in every part with a steady and disinterested friendship. 

Rudolph Weigel in Ch. Lehlanc: Le graveur en taille douce No. II. {Cata- 
logue de Voßuvre de Rohl. Strange), Leipsic, 1848, 8°. p. xv, described the 
two plates by Strange and mentioned there also that, in 1784, the London 
bookseller J. Johnson offered for sale simply the proofsheets at three and 
one-half guineas, while they originally cost six. A new edition with 
impressions from the well-preserved original plates was published in 
London, by Edward Lumey, s. a. (1815), large folio. Caldani's Icones 
anatomicae, Vol. Ill, contains the plates entirely re-engraved in the 
original size. 

The text of this work has been enriched by Matthew Baillie, a nephew 
of the author, with posthumous manuscripts of WilHam Hunter, and has 
thus been separately published under the title: William Hunter's 
Anatomical description of the human gravid uterus and its contents, London, 
1794, 4°. Edited by Edw. Rigby, London, 1843, 8". In German by 
L. F, von Froriep, Weimar, 1802, 8°. 

[The original plates for Hunter's work on the pregnant uterus were 
acquired by the Sydenham Society, founded in London in 1843 ^^^ 
dissolved in 1857. From these originals, this society had an edition 
prepared, not for the book-trade, but for its members only, containing 
the complete Latin and EngHsh text, under the title of the original work. 
In place of the name of the older firm the title-page read : London: printed 
for the Sydenham Society, 18 ji. Preceding the title on a separate page 
are the words: The Sydenham Society instituted MDCCCXLIII, with a 
bust of Sydenham underneath as the printer's mark. The text is separate 
from the plates and begins directly after the preface. The plates are litho- 
graphic facsimiles of the originals, transferred upon stone by a mechanical 
process in such a way as to reproduce every stroke of the cross- 
hatching and of the contour in the original size. The numbers of the 
plates in the upper right-hand corner, the signature, and the names of 
the artists are Uthographed in script. At the bottom are the words: 
London, Printed by Day and Son, which are omitted from some plates. — 
With reference to the original see Weigel: Kunstkatalog no. 19320.] 

Haller: 11,364. 

Von Siebold (Eduard Caspar Jacob): Geschichte der Geburtshülfe, Berlin, 
1839-45, 8°, II, 358, Sec. 133. 
Ebert: no. 10390. 
Weigel: no. 17946. 


Antonio Scarpa, surgeon and anatomist, was born June 13, 1747, 
at Motta in the march of Treviso, and died October 31, 1832, at Pavia. 
He received instruction in anatomy from Morgagni at Padua and instruc- 
tion in surgery from Riviera at Bologna. He became professor of these 
two sciences at Modena. He made a rather extended scientific journey 
through France and England and later also, in the company of Alessandro 
Volta, through Germany. In 1783 he became professor of anatomy 
in Pavia, and later took charge also of the surgical clinic from which 
he resigned in his declining years. 

Scarpa was one of the most excellent men of his day, inventive, and 
of untiring diligence. Finer anatomy, especially the anatomy of the 
nerves and operative surgery, owes to him most vital advancements. 
He was besides an admirable artist and had studied representation of 
anatomic subjects in wax under Professor Calza. He himself trained 
the famous Faustino Anderloni to become the engraver of his illustrations. 
The latter's brother, Pietro Anderloni, assisted Faustino in the beginning. 
His anatomic prints are therefore models of anatomic representation as 
regards faithful differentiation of the tissues, correctness of form, and the 
utmost perfection of engraving. They rank with Soemmerring's illustra- 
tions and even surpass them in respect of the vigor of the engravings. 

Leaving out of consideration the numerous surgical works by Scarpa, 
the following anatomic works may be mentioned: 

De structura fenestrae rotundae auris, et de tympano secundaria 
anatomicae observationes, Mutinae, apud societatem typographicam, 1772, 
8°, with figures. 

This has two copperplates in quarto, drawn and engraved by Antonio 
Butafogo in Padua. The second plate is zoötomic. This small publica- 
tion contains exhaustive historic and anatomic investigations on the 
subject. Scarpa was then professor of anatomy and surgery at Modena. 

Anatomicarum annotationum liber primus, de nervorum gangliis et 
plexubus. Mutinae, typis haeredum Barthol. Soliani, 1779, 4°, with 
figures. — Editio altera, Ticini regii et Mediolani, apud Joseph. Galeatium, 
1792, 4°, with figures. 

This contains two copperplates in large quarto folio, being the same 
in both editions and representing the distribution of nerve fibers in the 



ganglia and the plexus, made perceptible by means of maceration in 
water. They are drawn by Scarpa (see his Preface) and engraved by 
Domenico Cagnoni of Milan. 

Anatomicarum annotationum liber secundus, de organo olf actus prae- 
cipuo deque nervis nasalihus interiorihus e pari quinto nervorum cerebri. 
Ticini regit, typis monasterii S. Salvatoris, 1785, 4°, with figures. — Editio 
altera, Ticini regii et Medial., ap. Jos. Galeatium, 1792, 4°, with figures. 

Two copperplates in quarto folio, drawn by Scarpa and engraved in 
stipple, the first by Charles Knight of London, and the second by Quirin 
Mark of Vienna(i753-i8ii). The plates are the same in both editions 
and represent the position and distribution of the olfactory nerves. To 
each plate is added an outline plate with letters. 

Anatomicae disquisitones de auditu et olfactu. Ticini, in typographeo 
Petri Galeatii, 1789, fol., ctim fig. — Editio altera auctior; Mediolani, in 
typographeo Josephi Galeatii, 1795, fol., with figures. 

Both editions contain the same copperplates, viz., eight finished 
plates, each with an outline plate with letters. The first five plates 
deal with zoötomic subjects, the last three with human anatomy. They 
are all drawn by Scarpa. The first two are engraved by Benedetto 
Eredi of Florence, the third does not give the name of the engraver, 
but seems to have been done by Faustino Anderloni, whose name is 
signed under the last five plates. This work was translated into German : 

Anatomische Untersuchungen des Gehörs und Geruchs. Aus dem 
Lateinischen (übersetzt von Christian Heinr. Theod. Schreger). Nürnberg, 
in der Raspeschen Buchhandl., 1800. 4°, with copperplates. 

The figures of the original plates are complete and have been 
re-engraved in the same size. They are, however, of inferior workman- 
ship. The outhne plates are missing, and the letters are engraved upon 
the finished figures. There are altogether seven plates, since on the 
sixth plate two were combined. Neither the artist nor the engraver is 

Tabulae nevrologicae ad illustrandam Historiam Anatomicam car- 
diacorum nervorum, noni nervorum cerebri, glossopharyngaei, et pharyngaei 
ex octavo cerebri, Ticini, apud Balthassarem Co?nini, 1794, large fol., 
with figures. 

This is Scarpa's anatomic masterpiece. It contains seven finished 
plates, the last of which is zoötomic (animal hearts). Each plate is 
accompanied by an outline plate of the same size with explanatory 
markings. They are all drawn by Scarpa and engraved by Faustino 
Anderlohi. The figures are all life-size representations of the organs. 


De penitiori ossium structura commentarius, Lipsiae, sumtibus J. F. 
Hartknoch, 1799, large 4°, with figures. 

This contains three copperplates drawn and engraved by (Faustino) 
Anderloni, representing the texture of the bones. Partly zoötomic 
and partly pathologic models of exact representations. Another edition, 
Placentiae, 1800 (1799), 8°, which seems to have preceded this work is 
mentioned, but that edition appears to have contained no copper- 
plates, or only a few. It was translated into German: 

Vom inneren Baue der Knochen. Verdeutscht, mit einer Vorrede und 
einigen Anmerkungen hegleitet von Theod. Georg August Roose, Prof. zu 
Braunschweig, Leipzig, bei J. F. Hartknoch, 1800, large 4°, with copper- 

The inserted copperplates are proofs from the original plates. An 
English translation is: A treatise on the minute anatomy of the human 
bones, London, 1830, 18°, with illustrations. Later Scarpa pubhshed an 
enlarged edition of this work: 

De anatome et pathologia ossium commentarii. Cum tabulis aeneis, 
Ticini, typis Petri Bizzonii, 1827, large 4°, with figures. 

This edition contains the complete commentary with the three copper- 
plates. On pages 47 to 136 is given a treatise on callus following 
fractures, illustrated by two new copperplates drawn by Faustino 
Anderloni and engraved by L. Miazzi and representing also diseased 
bones. The entire edition thus contains five copperplates. Compare 
Vincenzo Malacarne: Auctarium observationum et iconum ad osteologiam 
et osteopathologiam Ludwigii et Scarpae, Patav., 1801, 8". The French 
army surgeon Jean Baptiste Francois Leveille, who as such lived a short 
time in Pavia and was a friend of Scarpa's, edited: Memoires de physi- 
ologic et de Chirurgie pratique, Paris, 1804, 8*^, in which edition the Comm. 
de penitiori ossium structura was also inserted. 

Ebert: no. 20471-82. 


Samuel Thomas von Soemmerring was born at Thorn on January i8, 
1755, and died at Frankfort on the Main on March 2, 1830. He was the 
son of Johann Thomas Soemmerring, the city physician of Thorn, and 
from 1774 he studied at Göttingen, having Wrisberg for his teacher of 
anatomy. On April 7, 1778, he received his doctor's degree there and 
in May of the same year he set out on a scientific journey to England, 
Scotland, and the Netherlands, which led to particularly close friendships 
between himself and William Hunter and Pieter Camper. In 1779 he 
became professor of anatomy at the Collegium Carolinum in Cassel, and 
in 1784 professor of medicine at Mayence. In 1797 he established him- 
self as a physician at Frankfort on the Main. Between 1805 and 1820 
he lived at Munich as a member of the Academy of Sciences and be- 
came Royal Physician. From 1820 until his death he again Hved at 
Frankfort on the Main, practicing medicine. 

As far as pictorial representation is concerned, Soemmerring can be 
compared to no other anatomist so fittingly as with Albinus, whom he 
himself esteemed very highly. He aimed, like Albinus, at the discovery 
of the true and beautiful in the form of every part of the human body 
and combined a perfect sense for artistic representation with the most 
exact perception of details. He endeavored, like Albinus, to have every 
part reproduced just as it existed in the living body, and not as it appeared 
after death from the treatment of the anatomist. This is one of the 
reasons that Soemmerring's pictures have, for a long time, maintained 
such a strong influence both in anatomy and anatomic illustrations. 
They displaced all the repulsive, unaesthetic, and unnatural features 
so often prominent in earUer anatomic representations by the substi- 
tution of incomparably better ones. To a very large extent this was 
due to the fact that Soemmerring was himself a good artist and had been 
endowed with an artistic sense for the beautiful. This made him careful 
in his choice of artists, as one may conclude from the number of copper 
engravers who worked for him. 

For the drawing of his plates he had himself trained Christian Köck, 
a stucco-worker, modeler, and draftsman, whom he had found in Mayence 
and whom he esteemed highly. Köck was indeed especially gifted 
for that kind of illustration and knew how to use sepia and pigment, but 



particularly the pencil, to excellent advantage. He turned out most 
admirable illustrations, unexcelled in purity, certainty, and truthfulness, 
a great number of which were found in Soemmerring's posthumous 
works. (Rudolph Wagner: Sömmerring^s Leben und Verkehr, etc., p. 132.) 
But Köck caused him also a great deal of trouble, especially when he 
went to Moscow, where he was very unfortunate and could only return 
to Munich in 1809, after great pecuniary sacrifices on Soemmerring's 
part. In Frankfort, as in other cities, Köck lived with Soemmerring. 
Köck died in 181 8. 

What demands Soemmerring himself made upon anatomic illustration 
may be best learned from the prefaces accompanying the illustrations 
of the sense organs. From the preface to the illustrations of the eye : 

What is the purpose of such an illustration? Certainly nothing else than a 
pictorial reproduction of a single surface of a preparation instead of a demonstration 
in nature, etc. Since, therefore, even the best representation never attains to nature's 
perfection in respect of minuteness and variation, and since what we show the amateur 
in place of nature is only a very poor substitute, it seems only fair to demand that 
every possible effort should be made to approach nature as nearly as possible; or 
at least to reproduce it just as well as possible. It will still be imperfect enough, etc. 

To Plate I pertaining to the eye: 

I also think that physiologists who can avail themselves of a sufficiently large 
number of subjects and of ample opportunities to examine them should always select 
the most perfect and therefore most beautiful specimen for the model of their 
descriptions. Since the anatomic description of any particular organ, generally 
speaking, is just as idealistic as the representation and description of that same organ 
in a sketchbook, it seems appropriate to follow the same principles in describing it. 
Just as, on the one hand, we assume that all the works of art representing the human 
body and claiming ideal beauty for themselves must needs be correct from an anatomic 
point of view, so, on the other hand, should we as readily expect that everything that 
the dissector describes anatomically as a normal structure must needs be excep- 
tionally beautiful. Without having found and established such a norm, by means 
of frequent investigations and abstractions, one is not even able to decide what cases 
are deviations from the perfect norm, etc. With this in mind, one is all the more 
bound to recommend the imitation of the masterpieces of the great Albinus, works 
of Attic perfection. Very few attained to their height, none transcended it, etc. 

From the preface to representations of the auditory organ: 

We endeavored throughout to be faithful to the principles of the great Albinus, 
and strove to represent the connections between different parts just as they occur 
in nature, and not to picture anything in any way distorted, dried, shriveled, torn, or 
dislocated, and also to select only that which proved to be the most excellent or most 
perfect specimen among many, in other words, the anatomic norm, etc. It therefore 
remains the indispensable duty of the physiologist to find the true norm of the organs 
and when he really knows them to demonstrate them to the draftsman who cannot 


know them without him. In short, it is the duty of the physiologist to replace with 
the aid of his intelligence, what such a preparation must needs lose of its natural 
form in alcohol, or through mounting in various positions, etc. The person who 
cannot trust himself to do this should leave such things alone, etc. 

From the Preface to representations of the olfactory organ: 

I always endeavored to be faithful to the principles laid down by the great Albinus 
and to follow his unparalleled examples, which teach us that, in making a repre- 
sentation of a norm, we have to let our intelligence detect and remedy such deviations 
as occur in specimens taken from cadavers, in consequence of death, preparation, 
or preservation, etc. 

From the Preface to the representation of the vocal organ: 

In making this plate, I also endeavored to follow the beautiful and unsurpassed 
examples which Albinus gave us in his representations of the bones, and to reproduce 
the shapes of these cartilages, etc., architecturally, i.e., viewed from all sides. This 
puts everybody in a position even to emboss these cartilages without leaving out any 
of the necessary detaUs and without making any mistake. 

If one compares these principles, laid down and maintained by 
Soemmerring, with all that has been said in the articles on Albinus and 
Camper, he will at once recognize how Soemmerring trained himself in 
the sight of these men and under their influence. It becomes also 
apparent that Soemmerring gave preference to the architectural con- 
ception of anatomic subjects over the perspective, picturesque view. 
Thanks to this conception, it became possible that several of his pictorial 
representations could be reproduced plastically. The representations 
of the eye served as models for reproductions of the eye made in various 
materials by mechanics. The representations of the ear served as models 
for reproductions in wax and plaster, those of the base of the brain and 
the embryo for relief reproductions in wax, etc. Not all these repro- 
ductions could have been made if his illustrations had not been most 
conscientious copies of nature and had not complied strictly with the 
demands which Soemmerring himself made upon them. 

Many of these works by Soemmerring contain criticisms of former 
illustrations of the same subject (for instance the inaugural dissertation 
on cerebral nerves and the essay on the embryo) and they are, in this 
respect too, instructive contributions to the history of anatomic 
illustration. , 

This same endeavor to furnish clear and living, true-to-nature repre- 
sentations is also found in all the literary productions from Soemmerring's 
hand, and to an especially high degree in his principal work: Vom Bau des 
menschlichen Körpers. Indeed they are the real cause of the great and 
lasting value attached to this work and of its widespread usefulness. 


Soemmerring's literary activity was very considerable. Only the 
following are of importance to us : 

De basi encephali et originibus nervorum cranio egredientium libri 
quinque. Cum IV tabulis aeneis, Goettingae, apud Abr. Vandenhoeck 
viduam, 1778, 4°; 4 leaves and 184 pp. 

This is Soemmerring's inaugural dissertation, written at Wrisberg's 
instance, and is of lasting anatomic value. The plates in quarto are 
drawn by Soemmerring and engraved by Carl Christian Glassbach, Jr., 
of Berhn. The second is an outline plate, all the others are finished. 
The last plate is a profile cross-section of the brain, the first three plates 
are representations of the base of the brain and the nerves arising there. 
Christian Friederich Ludwig: Scriptores nevrologici minores, Lips., 
1791-95, 4°, Vol. II, is an enlarged edition of this work revised by the 

Ueber die Wirkungen der Schnürbrüste; with i copperplate, new 
edition, completely rewritten, Berlin, Voss, 1793, 8°, 84 pp. 

This treatise, while pertaining to personal hygiene, contains neverthe- 
less a great deal of anatomic information and is especially important to 
us on account of its copperplate in oblong folio, drawn by Christian 
Köck, and engraved by Daniel Berger. This engraving represents with 
anatomic exactness the outline as far as the knees of the Venus di Medici, 
copied from Gerard Audran, the skeleton drawn within the frame outline, 
the body of a girl disfigured by corsets, and finally an illustration of the 
deformity of the skeleton due to lacing. The first edition appeared in 
Leipzig, 1788, 8°, and had no illustration. It contained, however, a 
second treatise on the same subject by an unknown author and a preface 
by Christian Gotthelf Salzmann. This book concerns itself only with 
the stiff tapering corsets which were then in use. 

Ueber die körperliche Verschiedenheit des Negers vom Europäer, Frank- 
furt und Mainz, bei Varrentrapp Sohn und Wenner, 1785, 8°, 28 and 81 pp. 

The first edition of this important book, published in Mayence, 
1784, 8°, contained no illustrations, but this second edition is said to 
contain pictures on two illuminated copperplates (see Wagner: Samuel 
Thomas von Soemmerring' s Leben, p. 12). Yet neither in the title nor 
in the text is there any mention made of these pictures. Only in the 
Preface (p. 18) is it said: "and I also add a few drawings which were 
done rather correctly by Mr. Range of Cassel from negroes who are 
still Hving." The three copies, however, of the edition of 1785, which 
I saw, did not contain any illustrations. A negro colony, founded by the 
landgrave of Hesse-Cassel in a Httle village on the Wilhelmshöhe near 




Cassel, gave Soemmerring ample opportunity to study and to dissect 
negroes of both sexes. The results of these studies were published in 
this book: 

Ueher das Organ der Seele; with (3) copperplates, Königsberg, 
Friedr. Nicolovius, 1796, 4°, 8 and 87 pp. 

This book is less valuable for its hypothesis asserting that the moisture 
of the ventricles of the brain is the organ of the soul, than for its exact 
investigations of the cerebral origins of the nerves. The plates, one of 
which is wholly an outline plate, were drawn by Christian Köck and 
engraved by Ludwig Schmidt. The first two plates represent an 
excellent, and even today the best view of a profile cross-section of the 
brain, utterly different from the one presented in the inaugural disserta- 
tion. The last plate represents the fourth ventricle of the brain opened 
from above and from behind. 

Tabula sceleti feminini jwicta descriplione. Trajecti ad Moenum, apud 
Varrentrapp el Wenner, 1797, large fol., i copperplate and i leaf of text. 

Since Albinus furnished the most perfect and most faithful representa- 
tion of a male skeleton and expressed his regret that there was no equal 
representation of a female skeleton, Soemmerring undertook to make 
such a representation in the corresponding proportions. He went to 
work most carefully in preparing for this task. Not satisfied with the 
female skeletons in his own collection, he selected the skeleton of a well- 
built girl of twenty years, a native of Mayence, who had once borne a 
child and whose skeleton had been given over for purposes of anatomy. 
He also procured from Blumenbach's collection the famous skull of the 
Georgian woman, which he used for the drawing, by way of comparison 
with the skull of the above-mentioned girl. No less care was taken in 
selecting, with the assistance of artists and connoisseurs, the most 
appropriate posture and the contour of an ideally perfect female body 
in which the skeleton might be drawn to observe its proportions. Several 
living bodies were on this occasion compared for the purpose, and 
Soemmerring did justice particularly to the Mayence beauties. But 
the Venus di Medici and the smaller Venus of Dresden, still more delicate 
in its proportions, although unfortunately greatly restored, were also 
used for comparisons. In this way a beautiful representation of a 
skeleton was produced as one must conceive of it in the Hving body. 
Christian Köck's drawing of it was necessarily a somewhat idealized 
one, since it had to represent not an individual form but the most 
beautiful norm as it was imagined to exist in life, with all the carefully 
observed minutiae of the differential sexual characters of the entire bony 


structure of woman. The engraving was done in Stuttgart by Baehren- 
stecher under the direction of Johann Gotthard von Müller. Later, 
Kilian had the skeleton of the Mayence woman used by Soemmerring 
drawn in a life-size and individually faithful illustration for his obstetric 

[A criticism of Soemmerring' s illustrations of the female skeleton is 
contained in the Journal der Erfindungen, Theorieen und Widersprüche 
in Natur- und Arzneiwissenschaf t, 17 gy, no. 24; an answer appeared in 

1798, no. 28. A side and a front view of the skeleton of the Mayence 
girl used by Soemmerring is reproduced in life-size in Hermann Friedrich 
Kilian: Gehurtshiilflicher Atlas, Düsseldorf, hei Arnz (1835), large folio, 
in forty-eight lithographic plates. Each trio of the Plates I-VI, per- 
taining to this skeleton, can be put together to form a whole plate.] 

Icones emhryonum humanorum, Francof. ad. Moenum, ap. Varren- 
trapp et Wenner, 1799, large fol., 10 pp.; 2 large copperplates and 2 

This work had been planned as an appendix to William Hunter's 
Anatomia uteri humani gravidi (see p. 296) and therefore presents the 
illustration, there missing, of a succession of the embryos in the earlier 
period of pregnancy and the embryo with its coverings in the later 
period. No anatomy is given, only the external forms. The artist 
of these plates likewise was Christian Köck, the engravers were F. L. 
Neubauer, Hüllmann, and the Klauber brothers. The two vignettes 
occur on the title and on page ten. This ranks among the most valuable 
works of Soemmerring and is even today useful and highly appreciated. 
Both the drawing and the engraving show admirable execution. 

Tabula baseos encephali, Francof. ad. Moenum, sumtibus auctoris, 

1799, fol., 16 pp. and 2 copperplates. 

This contains an aquatint representing the brain of a three-year-old 
boy drawn by Christian Köck and engraved by Pierre Michel Alix of 
Paris (b. Honfleurs 1752). The prints were made in Paris under the 
personal supervision of the engraver and of the physician Johann Gott- 
fried Ebel. Copies of the book were provided with the first three hundred 
impressions of the plates, bare and unlettered. Of the later inferior 
prints one impression with printed letters was added to each copy, so 
that the entire edition consists of only three hundred copies, each of 
which must have one well-imprinted plate, unlettered, and one poorer 
print with lettt-rs. The brain is represented with an unexampled fidelity. 
The nerves of the spinal cord are less carefully treated than in the 
author's inaugural dissertation. 


Abbildungen des menschlichen Auges, Frankfurt am Main, Varrenlrapp 
und Wenner, 1801, fol. (Latin by Bernhard Nathanael Gottlob Schreger: 
Icones oculi humani. Franco/., 1804, fol.) ; 10 and iio pp. with 16 copper- 
plates, of which 8 are finished, 7 in outline and one is an illuminated 
reproduction of Plate V. 

This is Soemmerring's most perfect work and has, after Zinn's mono- 
graph (Göttingen 1780, 4°), become the foundation for all modern 
researches on the structure of this organ. The first plate contains repre- 
sentations of the Hving eye in its perfect form, reproduced from living 
models, such as the eye of a male, that of a female, that of a negro, 
that of an Albino, that of a person sleeping (Soemmerring's wife), all 
seen directly from the front and in profile. The other plates are anatomic 
and partly microscopic. Two of them were colored, viz., the fifth, which 
occurs three times as an outhne plate, as a finished plate, and a colored 
one, and the last, or eighth, finished plate which is also partially colored. 
The artist was Christian Köck, the engravers were Vincenzo Scarpati 
of Naples (who engraved only the first and the fifth finished plates and 
nothing else), the brothers Klauber, Clemens KoU of Vienna (b. Prague 
1754, d. Vienna 1807), Johann Christoph Bock (b. Nuremberg 1752), 
Johann Conrad Felsing of Darmstadt (b. Giessen 1766, d. Darmstadt 
18 19). The plates in the Latin edition are the same. 

Abbildungen des menschlichen Hörorganes, Frankfurt a. M., Var- 
renlrapp und Wenner, 1806, fol. (Latin by Christian Heinrich Theodor 
Schreger: Icones organi auditus humani, Francof., 1806, fol.); 10 and 
36 pp., 9 copperplates, of which 4 are in outHne. 

This work was produced at the request of Professor Lichtenberg, 
of Göttingen, to furnish him greatly enlarged reproductions of the 
human ear for his lectures on physics. Soemmerring, with the aid of 
Köck, at once undertook the task. Specimens of such enlargements 
were cast for Göttingen, Bamberg, and Utrecht, but before Soem- 
merring had had a chance to make a cast for himself, the forms, through 
some accident, were spoiled. After that Soemmerring and Köck, now 
perfectly famihar with the subject, worked out pictorial representations 
instead of plastic models. A selection of these illustrations is con- 
tained in the above work. They represent the parts in natural size, 
some very much enlarged, and rank among the most excellent works that 
have been produced deahng with the entire human ear. Here, too, the 
first plate gives the shape of the external ear. The artist is Christian 
Köck, the engravers are G. Rücker and Johann Christoph Eckardt 
(the latter engraved only one plate). 


Abbildungen der menschlichen Organe des Geschmackes und der Stimme, 
Frankfurt a. M., Varrentrapp und Wenner, 1806, fol. (Latin: Icones 
organorum humanorum guslus et vocis, Franco/., 1808, foL); 12 leaves 
and 4 copperplates, 2 in outline. 

The plates are drawn by Christian Köck, engraved by Johann 
Blaschke, of Vienna, and G. Rücker. The book, by the way, contains 
only representations of the tongue and the male larynx. The representa- 
tions of the tongue are of especially great value. 

Abbildungen der menschlichen Organe des Geruches, Frankfurt a. M., 
Varrentrapp und Wenner, 1809, fol. {Icones organorum humanorum 
olfactus, Francof. 1810, fol.); 9 and 24 pp. and 9 copperplates, of which 
4 are entirely in outline. 

This book again gives very complete illustrations. The first plate, 
representing a cross-section of the skull and the throat extending 
below the larynx, with indications of the locations of all the soft parts, 
is an especially instructive fundamental picture, not only of the olfactory 
organ, but also of all the other sense organs. The other plates pertain 
only to the olfactory organ. The drawings are by Christian Köck, the 
engravings by Carl Schleich and Paul Jacob Laminit (b. Augsburg 1773). 

Several of these works on the sense organs were translated into 
French, ItaHan, and perhaps other foreign languages. We do not 
mention translations here, because they do not contain any original plates. 

Besides these principal works, we must also mention a few essays by 
Soemmerring which were provided with illustrations and were published 
separately. They are also contained in the Denkschriften der Akademie 
zu München, physikalisch-mathematische Classe. 

lieber das feinste Gefässnetz der Ader haut im Augapfel {Denkschriften, 
Vol. VII, p. 4). Munich, Franz, 1821, 4", with copperplates. 

Bemerkungen über den Magen des Menschen {Denkschriften, Vol. VIII, 
p. 77). Munich, Franz, 1821, 4°, with i copperplate. 

In 1804 the Academy of Sciences in BerHn offered a prize for the best 
essay on the structure and the function of the lungs. The Strasburg 
physician, Franz Daniel Reisseisen, obtained the prize; Soemmerring 
received honorable mention. The former inserted a number of fine 
sketches in his essay, the latter several preparations. The texts of both 
prize essays were jointly pubHshed at BerHn, 1808, 8°. The engravings 
belonging to Reisseisen's essay were pubHshed in 1822 at Berlin by 
Rücker, in imperial foHo, with the German text and the Latin translation 
by Justus Friedrich Karl Hecker, and included six colored copper 
engravings. The pubHcation of illustrations made after Soemmerring's 


preparations had also been promised, but was never realized, as must 
be mentioned here for correction of erroneous statements. When Soem- 
merring, on April 7, 1828, celebrated the jubilee of his promotion to the 
doctor's degree, a great many congratulatory essays with scientific 
contents, some of them with beautiful illustrations, were published in 
accordance with a laudable tradition prevalent among German scholars. 
The following may here be mentioned : 

Samueli Thomae Soemmerringio — die VII. A prills decern lustra post 
gradum Doctoris medicinae et chirurgiae rite captum felicissime et in 
summum scientiae emolumentum peracta celebranti pia mente gratulatur 
Jo. Frid. Meckelius. Accedunt tabulae aeneae sex. Halae 1828, Lipsiae, 
prostat apud Leop. Voss, ex officina Hirschfeldii, large fol., 4 and 16 pp. 
and 6 copperplates. 

This work, in the largest ''Colombiaformat," necessary through the 
size of some of the engravings, is typographically elegant, and is espe- 
cially remarkable on account of its illustrations. Johann Friederich 
Meckel, Jr., an anatomist of Halle (1781-1833), was still in possession 
of six copperplates which had been engraved for his grandfather, Johann 
Friederich Meckel, Sr. (1713-74), an anatomist of Berlin, who had been 
unable to publish them. The engravings in the above-mentioned essay 
are these same six copperplates. They are representations of the 
lymphatic system drawn by Johann Bernhard Gottfried Hopf er (b. 
Redelsee in Wanconia 1716, d. Berlin 1789), and were engraved by 
Christoph Benjamin Glassbach, Sr. (b. Magdeburg 1724, d. 1779). The 
text contains only the explanations. 

Zu Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring' s Jubelfeier von Friedrich Tiede- 
mann. Heidelberg and Leipsig, Gross, 1828, 4"^, 32 pp., a portrait of 
Soemmerring, and i copperplate. 

Here Soemmerring's pupil and friend of many years presents investi- 
gations of the ova and of the history of the development of the tortoise 
which he had been carrying on with the aid of tortoise eggs, partly with 
fetus, received from Brazil. 

Untersuchungen über die Gefässverbindung zwischen Mutter und 
Frucht in den Säugethieren. Ein Glückwunsch zur Jubelfeier Samuel 
Thomas von Sömmerring' s von Karl Ernst von Baer, with i copperplate; 
Leipzig, Leop. Voss, 1828, fol., 8 and 30 pp. 

The plate drawn by the author and engraved by G. Loreck is an 
illuminated colored print. 

Defoetu humano adnotationes anatomicae, quibus praemissis — Samueli 
Thomae de Soemmerring doctor atus in medicina impetrati semisaecularia 


gratulatur Universitas literarum Regiomontana interprete Carolo Friderico 
Bur dach, P. F. O. Accedit tabula aenea. Lipsiae, a pud Leo p. Voss, 
1828, fol., 4 and 8 pp. 

The plate was drawn by Knorre and Rundt and was engraved in 
stipple by F. W. Linger, Jr., of Berlin, The text contains remarks on 
the anatomy of the human fetus in its earliest stage. 

Samueli Thomae equiti a Soemmerring — -de quinquaginta annis post 
summos in medicina honores rite captos — exactis gratulantur Regiae 
Academiae scientiarum Monacensis classis physico-mathematicae sodales, 
etc. {Ignat. Doellinger de vasis sanguiferis, quae villis intestinorum 
tenuium hominis brutorumque insunt dissertatio, C. F. P. de Martins 
Soemmerringia, novutn plantarum genus). Monachii, apud Lindauer, 
1828, 4°; with 2 lithographic plates. 

We are here concerned with Döllinger's work on the bloodvessels 
of the villi of the small intestines, with an anatomic illustration. The 
botanic plate represents a leguminous plant of the genus Soemmerring, 
which Martius named after Soemmerring. 

Besides several portraits of Soemmerring, scattered in writings and 
portrait collections, particular mention should be made of the following: 

A lithographed print in imperial folio by C. Thelott and C. F. Vogel, 
Frankfurt, 1828. 

A copper engraving in medallion shape, after an oil portrait of Soem- 
merring painted during his last years, drawn by Bagge after Thelott, 
engraved by Carl Barth in Hildburghausen, before Wagner's publication 
of a biography of Soemmerring. 

A medalHon, done at Berlin by Loos, for the jubilee celebration in 

For an appreciation of Soemmerring's life and scientific accomplish- 
ments, the following writings are also important: 

Ignaz Dollinger: Gedächtnissrede auf Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring. 
Gehalten in der K. Academic der Wissenschaften zu München, Munich, 

1830, 4°. 

Rudolph Wagner: Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring's Leben und 
Verkehr mit seinen Zeitgenossen. Erste Abtheilung: Briefe berühmter 
Zeitgenossen an Sömmerring. Zweite Abtheilung: Leben Soemmerring's 
nebst einem Anhang von Briefen und Aufsätzen, so wie einem Porträt 
Soemmerring's. Leipzig, 1844, 8°. (Also forms Vol. I of the new original 
edition of Soemmerring's Vom Baue des menschlichen Körpers.) 

Detmar Wilhelm Sömmerring (JH.): Catalogus musei anatomici, quod 
collegit S. Th. de S. Francof. a. M., 1830, 8". 


Eduard Sandifort, at one time physician at The Hague, was after- 
ward successor to Albinus in the chair of anatomy and surgery at Leyden, 
where he had received the doctor's degree in 1763, and where he died in 
18 19 at an advanced age. Like Albinus he directed his efforts to the 
development and perfection of anatomic drawing, and is therefore 
mentioned here, although most of his works pertain to pathologic 
anatomy. In addition to the one work referred to in the article on 
Vesalius (p. 197), the following deserve mention: 

Tabulae intestini duodeni, Lugd. Batav., apud P. v. d. Eyk et D. Vygh, 
1780, 4°, 50 pp. and 5 copperplates in oblong folio. 

This is the most valuable monograph on the duodenum, as far as its 
shape and its position are concerned. The textural qualities are not 
touched upon. Sketches were made from more than fifty cadavers of 
different ages, from which sketches those given in this work were selected 
as an accurate illustration of the anatomic norm. The plates contain 
both finished and outline figures and are most appropriately and clearly 
«ngraved by Robert Muys (b. Rotterdam 1742). The drawings were 
made by Abraham Delfos (b. Leyden 1731). 

Museum anatomicum academiae Lugduno-Batavae descriptum, etc. 
Lugd. Batav., apud S. et J. Luchtmans, academiae typographos, 1793, 
large fol., Vol. I, 26 leaves, 335 pp., and 9 copperplates; Vol. II, 2 
leaves, 122 pp., and 127 copperplates. 

The first part of this important work, which was published by 
request of the curators of the University and the council of the city of 
Leyden, contains a history of the anatomists of the University of Leyden 
beginning with Gerard Bontius (b. Ryswik 1538, d. Leyden Septem- 
ber 15, 1599). Appended to the first volume are nine finished copper- 
plates, each representing in natural size the profile and the front view 
of a skull. The skulls represented are those of a Calmuck, a Tartar 
from Kazan, a negro, a Russian, a Swede, an Englishman, a Frenchman, 
an Italian, and a woman from Hanover. In the second volume are 
one hundred and twenty-seven inclosed copperplates on pathologic- 
anatomic subjects, one hundred and three of which pertain to osteology, 
ten to the anatomy of the soft parts, two to the study of concrements, 
while the last twelve represent monsters. Abraham Delfos, again, made 



the drawings; the above-mentioned Robert Muys and Pieter de Mare 
(b. Leyden 1757, d. there 1796) engraved them. The main titles of 
both volumes are copper engravings. The third volume of the Museum 
was edited by the author's son, Gerard Sandifort, Lugd. Bat. 1827, large 
fol., and contained the additions from the collections of Brugmans, pro- 
fessor of natural sciences in Leyden. The third volume is without illustra- 
tions. All three volumes are printed on writing paper. A fourth volume 
was published Lugd. Bat., 1835, large fol., with seventy copperplates. 

The Descriptio musculorum hominis, Lugd. Bat. 1781, 4°, and Descriptio- 
ossium hominis, Lugd. Bat. 1785, 4°, both edited by Eduard Sandifort, da 
not contain any illustrations. Illustrations, although mostly of patho- 
logical anatomy, may, however, be found in the following works: 

Observationes anatomico-pathologicae, Lugd. Bat., apud P. v. d. Eyk 
et D. Vygh, 1777-81, 4°, 4 volumes with 36 copperplates in oblong foHo. 

Exercitationes academicae. Lugd. Bat., apud. S. et J. Luchtmans, 
P. V. d. Eyk et D. Vygh, 1783-85, 4°, 2 volumes with 15 copperplates in 
oblong foho. 

Anatome infantis cerebro destituti, Lugd. Bat., apud eosdem, 1784, 
4°, with 6 copperplates in oblong folio. 

The following works were written by his son, Gerard Sandifort: 

Tabulae anatomicae, situm viscerum thoracicorum et abdominalium ab 
utroque latere, ut et a posteriore parte depingentes. Praecedit observatio 
de anevrysmate arteriae iliacae internae, rariore ischiadis nervosae causa, 
Lugd. Bat., apud S. et J. Luchtmans, 1801-4, large fol., 4 parts with 9 

This, in four volumes, contains nine copperprints, engraved by Robert 
Muys and drawn by the author, with the text accompanying the plates. 

Tabulae craniorum divers arum nationum. Delineavit et des crip sit G. S. 
Lugd. Bat., apud. S. et J. Luchtmans, 1838-43, large fol., 3 parts with 
18 copperplates. 

In these three volumes, the eighteen copperplates were drawn by the 
author and engraved by Daniel Veelward. Each print represents in 
life-size a left profile and a front view of a skull. Each engraving is 
supplemented by a printed page of text. The skulls shown are those of 
a Greenland woman, a Roman soldier of Pompeii, an Amboina Islander, 
a Kaffir, a Hottentot, a Bushman, a North American, a Ceylonese, a 
Chinese, a Japanese, a Papuan of New Guinea, a New Hollander of 
New South Wales, an aboriginal Alaskan Indian (Schitgagan) of New 
Norfolk, a Guanche of Teneriffa, a Turk, a Negro of Darfoot, a Japanese,, 
a Jew. The measurements and proportions are given for each skull. 


Cornells Ploos van Amstel, an artist and copper engraver, who was 
also well known as an art collector and as a maker of colored copper- 
prints, was born at Amsterdam in 1726 and died there in 1798. He was 
the author of an exhaustive and useful textbook: 

Aanleiding totie kennis der anatomie, in de tekenkunst, hetreklyk tot het 
menschheeld. Met eenige plaaten, en daar bygevoegde verklaaringen, 
opgehelderd, Amsterdam, by J. Yntema, 1783, 8°, 14 and 114 pp., 27 
copperplates in 8°, of which 9 are printed in red. 

The plates are from line drawings, very cleanly engraved faithful 
sketches from nature. They represent bones, ligaments, and muscles 
of the trunk and of the extremities, mostly in the style of Albinus. 

The same illustrations, re-engraved by L. Haider, recur in 

Johann Heinrich Lavater: Anleitung zur Anatomischen Kenntnis s 
des menschlichen Körpers für Zeichner und Bildhauer. Mit vielen Kupjer- 
tafelft, grösstentheils nach den Albinschen des Herrn Ploos von Amstel, 
Zürich, Ziegler, 1790, 8°, 16 and 179 pp. and 27 copperplates in 8". 

Many of the prints in this edition were made by means of two plates 
in such wise that the bones appear black and the muscles and ligaments 
red. The text of the book is new. This work by Lavater was trans- 
lated into French by Gauthier de la Peyronie and published with annota- 
tions under the title: 

Elemens anatomiques d'osteologie et de myologie ä Vusage des peintres 
et sculpteurs par J. H. L. Paris, chez la veuve Tilliard et fils, Zürich 
chez Ziegler et fds, Basle, chez Thourneisen, 1797, 8°, 8 and 157 pp. and 
27 copperplates. 

This contains throughout the same illustrations as in the German 
edition, some of them also printed in black and red. Johann Martin 
Fischer of Vienna, by the way, accused Lavater of having copied word 
for word the first edition of Fischer's own commentary to his anatomic 

Weigel: no. 10977, 6876, 6877. 



Paolo Mascagni, anatomist, was born at Castelletto (in Siena), 
in 1752, and died at Florence, October 19, 1815. In 1774, he succeeded 
his teacher Tabarani in the chair of anatomy at Siena, accepted the pro- 
fessorship at Pisa in 1800, and was, a year later, appointed instructor 
in anatomy and physiology in the hospital of Santa Maria Nuova at 

In response to a prize question on the lymphatics, repeatedly 
announced by the Academy of Sciences of Paris, Mascagni sent two 
memoirs with illustrations. He did not receive the prize. The Academy, 
however, announced a new competition for 1789. Chiefly to insure 
the priority of his discoveries (his work with the lymphatics dated back 
as far as 1777) Mascagni published in French: 

Prodrome d'un ouvrage sur le Systeme des vaisseaux lymphatiques, con- 
tenant 24 planches in folio, Sienne, 1784, 4°. 

This contained, however, only four foUo plates of the twenty-four 
promised for the work as planned. The language of the book was 
severely criticized, and in reply to a sharp criticism in a Venetian periodi- 
cal, Mascagni wrote a passionate rejoinder, entitled: Lettera di Aletofilo 
al Giomalista, medico di Venezia, Misopoli (Siena), 1785, 12°. Con- 
tinued studies, however, soon enabled him to publish a more extensive 
work on the lymphatics, which made him lastingly famous. 

Vasorunii lymphaticorum corporis humani historia et ichnographia. 
Senis, ex typographia Pazzini Carli, 1787, large fol., 138 pp. text. 

This contained forty-one copper engravings in folio, fourteen of which 
were linear copies of as many finished prints. Mascagni had been able 
to induce his artist and engraver, Ciro Santi (Cyrus Sanctius) of Bologna, 
to move to Siena to do work for him there. The plates show a fine and 
careful workmanship and a faithful and truly masterful representation 
of the lymphatics. Plates I, IV, VIII, XXII, had been published before, 
in the Prodrome. Most of the plates are signed Cyrus Sanctius A. C. 
ad ipsa corpora delin. et inc. or bear a somewhat briefer signature, while 
some of them are without any signature. The title had engraved on it 
a vignette by the same artist, and after it there follows the dedication. 
The Latin text was published separately: Siena, 1795, 8°, and an Italian 
translation: Colle, 1816, 8°. A German translation by Christoph 


Friederich Ludwig was published in Leipzig, 1789, 4°, with some of the 
illustrations re-engraved by Johann Stephen Capieux of Leipzig, and 
was the first one of three volumes on lymphatics, the two other vol- 
umes containing works by Cruikshank and others. Leipzig, 1789 and 

1794, 4°. 

At Mascagni's death, manuscripts and sketches for three other works 
were found, namely: (i) for an anatomy for artists; (2) for a compila- 
tion of the minute, histologic investigations on the anatomy of the human 
body, animals, and plants, most of them microscopic investigations, 
accompanied by twenty plates; (3) for a large complete anatomy of 
man in Hfe-sized illustrations. The pubUcation of these three works 
was at once undertaken, chiefly on account of the surviving family, as 
Mascagni had died without means. The anatomy for artists was 
edited by the brother and the grandchild of the deceased anatomist, 
Bernardo and Aurelio Mascagni, under the title: 

Anatomia per uso degli studiosi di scultura e pittura, opera postuma 
di Paolo Mascagni. Firenze, dalla tipografia di Giovanni Marenigh, a 
spese degli eredi, 1816, large fol., 6 and 35 pages of preface and introduc- 
tion, and fifteen large copperplates, ten of which are each accompanied 
by a separate page of printed explanation. The book is concluded by a 
page of Indice delle materie. 

The first two plates represent front and back views of the skeleton 
with the ligaments. The names of the bones are engraved directly on 
the plate. At the bottom is engraved Antonio Serantoni del., Carlo 
Lasinio diresse, Agostino Costa scu. The remaining thirteen plates 
contain no words directly on the plate, except the signature of Antonio 
Serantoni del. e scolpi (who had for fourteen years been .Mascagni's 
anatomic artist). Plates III-V represent front, back, and side views 
of a muscle-man. Plates VI-XV represent separate parts of the body, 
such as life-size muscles, bones, and Hgaments. The muscles are all 
engraved in red chalk manner, the rest is colored with the brush. The 
publication was prepared by Mascagni's prosector, the physician 
Francesco Antommarchi. 

The two Mascagnis, who had taken charge of this matter, died soon 
after its completion, and a group of unnamed persons undertook to 
publish also the two other posthumous works for the benefit of Mas- 
cagni's family. They placed the preparation of the edition in charge 
of Francesco Antommarchi, the same who had edited the previous work. 
At first the collection of histologic investigations was prepared for pub- 
lication. It appeared under the title: 


Prodromo della grande anatotnia; seconda opera postuma di P. Mas- 
cagni, posta in ordine e puhhlicaia a spese di una societä innominata da 
Francesco Antommarchi, dissettore anatomico nelV arcispedale di S. M. N. 
(Santa Maria Nuova in Firenze), Firenze, dalla tipogr. di Giov. Marenigh, 
1819, fol. (Text: 14 and 195 pp.) 

[The Prodromo has a blank page before the title, making a total of 
fifteen pages of preface.] 

Tavole figurate di alcune parti organiche del corpo umano, degli animali 
e dei vegetabili, esposte net prodromo della grande anatomia di P. M. 
Firenze, 1819, fol. (Exposition of plates, 103 pp.) 

This edition contains twenty copperplates, drawn and engraved by- 
Antonio Serantoni and representing histologically the most hetero- 
geneous subjects. The title Prodromo, as one sees, was ill chosen, 
although it possibly originated with Mascagni himself. The book is 
rather an absolutely independent work, quite different from and unrelated 
to the author's large anatomy. Its subject is the textures of the different 
parts of the human body as compared with the texture of the organs of 
animals and plants. It contains a great number of different figures, 
most of which were intended to illustrate Mascagni's view as to the 
vascular nature of the texture of the organs. The work is beautifully 
printed, the very fine title- vignette shows a profile portrait of Mascagni, 
and is signed: Stefano Ricci sei pi V. Gozzini dis. Antonio Verico inc. 
The arrangement of the text and of the representations did not seem 
satisfactory to contemporaneous critics, and the Milanese physician, 
Tommaso Farnese, therefore, prepared and published a second edition 
under the title: 

Prodromo della grande anatomia, opera postuma del celebre P. Mascagni. 
Seconda edizione riveduta ed illustrata da Tommaso Farnese. Vol. I, II, 
Milano, pr. Batelli e Fanfani, 1821, 8°. 

Descrizione delle tavole citate net prodromo, della grande anatomia, etc. 
Vol. I, II, Milano, pr. gli medesimi, 1821, 8°, 48 copperplates in 4°. 

In this second edition of the Prodromo, the arrangement of the text 
and the illustrations are more instructive and more appropriate. The 
representations are in quarto and are very accurately copied from the 
original plates, but they are, on the whole, less beautiful. Five of them 
were engraved by Antonio Rivelanti, thirty-four by Antonio Bernieri, 
one by Frei, while eight are without signature. The figures on the plates 
are arranged according to the anatomic subjects they represent. The 
first thirty-six plates pertain to the anatomy of the human body, the 
following nine to that of animals, and the last three to the anatomy of 


plants. For practical purposes, this edition is to be preferred to that 
prepared by Antommarchi, on account of the better arrangement and 
the more convenient size. The make-up of the book, on the other hand, 
is inferior. The vignette on the title-page of the first volume bears the 
same signature as the one in Antommarchi's edition, but is evidently 
copied and is certainly less beautiful. 

Before Antommarchi sent the Prodromo he had edited to the pub- 
lishers, he departed for St. Helena to look after Napoleon. He remained 
at the same time in charge of the publication of the large anatomy and, 
for this purpose, had taken with him three copies of each one of Mas- 
cagni's posthumous plates. But toward the end of 1819, during his 
stay at St. Helena, differences arose between Antommarchi and the 
society formed on behalf of Mascagni's heirs, probably because the 
editions of the Anatomy for Artists, and the Prodromo, and their sale 
had proved unsatisfactory. The society dissolved and the contract 
with Antommarchi was annulled by court decision. In April, 1822, the 
heirs sold the copperplates of the large anatomy to the Pisa professors 
Vacca-Berlinghieri, Barzellotti, and Rosini, and these men prepared an 
edition of this work under the following title: 

Anatomia universa XLIV. tahulis aeneis juxta archetypum hominis 
adulti, accuratissime repraesentati dehinc ab excessu auctoris cura et studio 
Andreae Vacca-Berlinghieri, Jacohi Barzellotti et Joannis Rosini, in 
Pisana universitate professorum, absoluta atque edita. Pisis, apud Nicol. 
Capurro, typis Firmini Didot, 1823-32, fol. A stout volume in 2 parts 
without new title. 

Anatomiae universae P. Mascagni icones. Pisis, apud Nicol. Capurro, 
1823-32, large fol., 90 leaves, title, dedication and 88 plates. 

Forty-four of the plates are in color, elaborated by subsequent 
illuminations. They are accompanied by forty-four superposed outline- 
plates (Contratavole), marked with letters. The size of the bodies is 
assumed to be three Tuscan braccie, equal to five feet, five inches, Parisian 
measurement, but such parts as are represented separately are sometimes 
drawn on a still larger scale. The sheets are so large that an entire body 
can be composed out of three of them when they are joined together. 
The muscles are drawn on a flesh-colored background produced with the 
crayon (by means of the roulette) and are further illuminated by means 
of the brush. The viscera are very faithfully represented; vessels and 
nerves are shown in red, blue, and white, the colors commonly used to 
represent anatomic subjects. Copies in black may also be had. Several 
of the plates are signed Ant. Serantonj delineavit, sculpsit et coloribus 


expressü; many have no signature at all, while on one of them the 
engraver, Joseph Canacci, is named besides the artist, Serantoni. This 
large anatomic work is unique even today, but it is certainly expensive 
and inconvenient for practical uses. It is, however, useful to the experi- 
enced connoisseur, although less so to the beginner, for whom it is not 
intended. As the editors assure the reader, it is chiefly recommended 
to the practicing physician and the surgeon. It may be called complete 
since nothing, except microscopic anatomy, histology, and the lym- 
phatics of the skin have been omitted. Even the pregnant uterus, the 
placenta, and the fetus are represented in several illustrations. Accord- 
ing to the editors' preface, Mascagni was believed to have delayed the 
publication of the work because he was always hoping to make his plates 
without the use of the brush, by means of the color print alone. 

After the annulment of his contract with Mascagni's heirs, Antom- 
marchi held himself free from any obligations to them and thought he 
was entitled to have such copperplates of Mascagni's as he possessed 
Hthographed with his own adaptations, and to publish them under his 
name without exactly denying their origin. In this way the following 
work came about: 

Planches anatomiques du corps humain executees d'apres les dimensions 
naturelles, accompagnees d'un texte explicatif par F. Antommarchi, publiees 
par le Comte de Lasteyrie, editeur, Paris, 1823-26, large fol., title, and 90 
lithographic plates. 

Explication des planches anatomiques du corps humain, executees 
d'apres les dimensions naturelles; par le Doct. F. Antommarchi, publiees 
par le C. de Lasteyrie, editeur. Paris, chez R. Bregeaut, lithographe 
brevete, successeur du Comte de Lasteyrie, de Vimprimerie de Dondey- 
Dupre, 1826, fol, 16 and 228 pp. 

Forty-five of the plates are finished, while the other forty-five are 
in outline and marked. The former can be had illuminated, raising the 
price of the edition to 1,050 francs; with the plates in black it costs 
only 375 francs, which proves it to be by far less expensive than Mas- 
cagni's work. The illustrations are obviously imitations of those in the 
latter work. The size and arrangement of the bodies are the same, 
although here and there details may differ. If one thinks of the Anatomia 
universa, edited by the three Pisa professors, as an adaptation of Mas- 
cagni's plates according to the ideas of the three editors, he may, on the 
other hand, look upon Lasteyrie's lithographed edition as Antommarchi's 
adaptation, evidently prepared by him at St. Helena for his edition of 
Mascagni's plates. And it appears that the dishonesty Antommarchi 


committed in publishing this (Lasteyrie's) work consisted in his omitting 
Mascagni's name on the title and in his editing a work undertaken for the 
benefit of Mascagni's heirs, to their loss. The lithographic plates, by 
the way, fall short of the copper engravings, particularly in so far as 
lithography did not succeed in reproducing faithfully the various tissues 
and in artistically setting them off from one another. Furthermore, 
twenty-four figures to be found in Mascagni's anatomy are entirely 
omitted in the lithographed edition. The editors count them in their 
preface to the second part of their edition, but Antommarchi substi- 
tuted a few of his own figures. 

Mascagni furnished the grand-ducal collection at Florence with 
a great number of anatomic preparations, and Felix Fontana (d. 1805), 
with whom he was closely associated while in Florence, made repro- 
ductions in wax, after several of Mascagni's preparations, for the wax 
collection at the Specola in Florence. 

For the biography of Mascagni and the history of his posthumous 
works the following publications are important: 

Lettres des heritiers de feu Paul Mascagni ä M. le Comte de Lasteyrie ä 
Paris, Pisa, 1823. Complaints about Antommarchi with documents. 

Tommaso Farnese: Elogio di P. Mascagni. Milano, 18 16, 8°. — 
Note addizionali were later given by the author as a reply, 

Francesco Antommarchi: Osservazioni intorno al elogio diP. Mascagni y 
Firenze, 181 7. 


Johann Martin Fischer, a sculptor, was born at Hopfen, Swabia, in 
1740 and died at Vienna in 1820. He was a pupil of Schletterer and, 
from 1785, was professor of anatomy at the Academy of Graphic and 
Plastic Arts of Vienna. 

Aided and instructed by Joseph Barth, professor of anatomy and 
ophthalmologist at Vienna (b, Malta 1745, d. Vienna 1818), he decided 
to make an anatomic-myologic statue for the use of graphic or plastic 
artists. This statue was completed on a reduced scale in the eighties of 
the eighteenth century, together with a reproduction on a reduced scale 
of the skeleton which had been used in the making of the statue. After 
he had become professor, Fischer completed a myologic statue in life- 
size which was placed in the Academy of Graphic and Plastic Arts of 
Vienna. In 1803, this statue was cast in soft metal, and the smaller 
statuette, too, was finished in a more perfect form and rendered salable. 

Against Fischer's wishes the president of the academy. Baron von 
Sperges, had a description of the statue printed. But when, as Fischer 
asserts, Johann Heinrich Lavater, in 1790, reprinted this description 
word for word and pubHshed the reprint, with engravings by Ploos van 
Amstel, over his own name as author, Fischer arranged a completely 
revised second edition of his explanations, which seems to have been 
published soon after 1 790, and finally a third revision, which was probably 
pubhshed about 1806. It seems that this last edition was repubhshed 
without any changes after Fischer's death under the title: 

Erklärung der anatomischen Statue für Künstler. Von J. M. Fischer. 
Dritte durchaus verbesserte und vermehrte Auflage. Vienna: Carl Gerold, 
1838, 20 and 108 pp. without illustrations. 
At the same time the following work appeared : 

Darstellung des Knochenbaues und der Muskeln des menschlichen 
Körpers, mit Angabe der Verhältnisse desselben, auf zehn Kupfertafeln. 
Von J. M. Fischer. Vienna: Carl Gerold, 1838, fol., 12 pp. and 10 
copperplates in fol. 

The first two plates, marked A and B, are probably new and contain 
outline representations of the skeleton and its proportions; the four fol- 
lowing plates, marked I-IV, are finished figures of the skeleton, with the 
spear in its left hand; the last four plates, marked V-VIII, are linear 





representations of four different views of Fischer's statuette. The text 
furnishes only an introduction and explanations. The representations 
of the skeletons are all drawn and engraved by Jacob Merz (b. Buch 
on the Irchel in the canton of Zürich 1783, d. in Switzerland 1807). 
The representations of the myologic statuette were made by Fischer 

Weigel: Nos. 2076, 7859, 5776''. 


Jean Joseph Sue, the younger, a son of the anatomist of the same 
name and Christian name, and father of the noveUst, Eugene Sue, was 
himself an anatomist and a surgeon. As such he held the position of 
surgeon at the Hopital de la Charite and was at the same time professor 
of anatomy and surgery at the medical school and instructor in anatomy 
for the artists at the Academy of Painting in Paris. It is believed that 
he died in 1831. He was the author of: 

Elemens d'anatomie a Vusage des peintres, des sculpteurs et des amateurs, 
Paris, 1788, large 4°; with 14 copperplates by Aubert after drawings by 
Thar sis. 

In a manner his more general work also belongs here : 

Essai sur la physiognomie des corps vivants, consideree depuis l' komme 
jusqu'a la plante; ouvrage ou Von traite principalement de la necessite de 
cette etude dans les arts d'imitation, des veritables regies de la beaute et des 
graces, des proportions du corps humain, de I'expression des passions, etc. 
Paris, chez Vauteur, 1797, 8°. 

[Sue translated into French the Anatomy of the hones by the Scotch 
anatomist, Alexander Monro (1697-1767), and published it under the 
title: Traite d'osteologie, Paris, 1759, large fol., in two volumes, of which 
the first contains the French text, the second and thinner volume the 
copperplates. These plates represent whole skeletons, or single bones, 
the latter either in natural size or in sizes very near the natural. They 
also represent the skeleton and single bones of the fetus. The workman- 
ship is very fine, especially as regards the single bones. The thirty-one 
finished plates are without any marking, each one being supplemented 
by an outline plate, with the necessary notations, thus making a total 
of sixty-two anatomic plates. The plates are preceded by a large alle- 
goric copper-title of splendid workmanship which, on earlier impres- 
sions, bears no indication of the artist or engraver, while later impressions 
have engraved on the left, below the margin: /. B. Pierre del., and 
pasted on at the right: N. Dupuis Sculp. Of the other plates only II, 
III, IV, XI, XXVII, XXX, XXXI have the names of the artists; the 
artist's name is given as /. Thar sis (on Plates IV, XXIX) , as Thar sis (on 
Plates III, XI, XXX) or Tarsis (on Plates II, XXVII, XXX). As 
engravers are named Jardinier (Plates II, III, XI, XXX, XXXI), M. 
Aubert (Plate IV), Gobin (Plates XXVII, XXIX). Cf. Haller: Bibl. 
anat., II, 176, 395.] 

See also the section: "Anatomic Color Prints," p. 264. 



Justus Christian von Loder, physician and anatomist, was born at 
Riga on February 28, 1753. From 1773 he studied at Göttingen, and 
in September, 1777, he received his doctor's degree in medicine. In 1778, 
he became professor of anatomy, surgery, and obstetrics in Jena. During 
the years 1780 and 1781 he traveled in France, England, and Holland, 
and in 1803 he became professor of anatomy at Halle. After the occupa- 
tion of this city by the French, in 1806, he went to Hve at Königsberg. 
In 1809 he moved to Petersburg and Moscow and became professor of 
anatomy and surgery at the University of Moscow. He died on April 4, 
1832. The Russian government bought his anatomic collection for 
fifty thousand silver rubles. 

The Bureau of Provincial Industries (Landes-Industrie-Comptoir), 
founded in 1792 by Friedrich Justin Bertuch, of Weimar (1748-1822), 
had already engaged a great many artists, and now facilitated the under- 
taking which we are about to discuss and which Loder began in 1794. 
Its object was the compilation in one work of all the best representations 
then known in all the different branches of anatomy, supplemented by 
representations of original preparations. The work was completely 
carried out and is known under the title: 

Anatomische Tafeln zur Beförderung der Kenntniss des mensch- 
lichen Körpers. (Also with Latin text instead of the German: Tabulae 
anatomicae.) Weimar, im Landes-Industrie-Comptoir, 1794-1803, fol., 
6 parts, plates and exposition, i part alphabetical index, or 2 vols., text 
(exposition and index) and 2 vols, of plates, Weimar, 1803, 1804, fol., 
Vol.1: PlatesI-XC, Vol. II: Plates XCI-CLXXXII. 

The work consists of the following parts: I, osteology with fifteen 
plates after Walter, Albinus, Sue, John Hunter, Cheselden; II, syndes- 
mology with ten plates after Albinus and Bonn; III, myology with 
twenty-six plates after Albinus, Zinn (the eye), Haller (the diaphragm), 
Gerlach and Monro (the pituitary gland), and Prochaska (the muscle 
fiber). The first six plates of this part are accompanied by outline- 
plates. IV, splanchnology with thirty-nine plates after Albinus, WiUiam 
Hunter, Ruysch, Haase, Ludwig, Ledermüller (the sense of touch), 
Haller, Ruysch, Albinus, Duverney, Cassebohm, Scarpa, Cotugno, Zinn, 
Walter, Reil, Wrisberg (the senses of smell, hearing, vision, and taste), 
Santorini, Siebold, Cheselden, Ruysch, LeveHng, Sandifort, Lieberkühn, 
Hedwig, Haller (the digestive organs), Schumlansky, Camper, Röderer, 
Albinus, Haller, Santorini, Wrisberg, John and William Hunter, Wagler, 



Tolberg, Wrisberg (urinary organs, genitals, and fetus); V, angiology 
with sixty-two plates, on some of which the arteries appear illuminated, 
after Ruysch and Wolf (the heart), Haller (the arteries), Vicq d'Azyr 
(on the vessels of the brain), Walter and Janke (on the veins), Mascagni 
(on the lymphatics) ; VI, neurology with thirty plates, three of which are 
supplemented by outline-plates, after Vicq d'Azyr (the brain), Huber 
and Scarpa (the spinal cord), Meckel, Scarpa, Asch, Peipers, Andersch, 
Neubauer, Walter, Schmidt, Camper, Fischer, Reil, Monro, Haller, 
Albinus (the nerves). Each part contains also a considerable number of 
figures drawn from Loder's original preparations; an especially large 
number of these figures may be found in the syndesmologic part of the 
book, but none of the other parts is without some. Of the 143 figures 
on 182 plates, 1,122 are copies and 309 original drawings made after 
preparations. As draftsmen of the latter, the following are named: 
Johann Carl Bock, of Nuremberg, Starke, of Jena, and Jacob Roux, of 
Jena. Only the first two men are also given as the engravers of some 
plates. The other engravers are Johann Stephan Capieux, of Leipzig 
(b. Schwedt on the Oder 1748, d, Leipzig 1813), Johann Christian 
Ernst Müller, of Weimar (b. Troisted in the grand duchy of Weimar, 
d. 1824), Friederich Müller, of Weimar, Daniel Beyel (b. Zürich 1760), 
Westermayr, of Weimar, Samuel Gränicher, of Dresden (b. Zoffingen in 
the canton of Berne 1758, d. 1813 at Dresden), Volkart, of Nuremberg, 
Bock, Junior, of Nuremberg, Johann Friederich Schröter, of Leipzig 
(b. Leipzig 1771, d. Leipzig 1836), Johann Nussbiegel, of Nuremberg 
(b. Nuremberg 1740), A. Weise, of Jena, C. Graf, of Weimar, Friederich 
Kaiser, of Weimar (b. Ulm 1779, d. Vienna 1819), J. B. Hössel, of 
W^eimar. The figures are carefully selected and mostly very well drawn 
but all larger figures are reproduced on a smaller scale. 

At the request of some buyers of the book a portrait of Loder was 
later inserted, engraved by Johann Gotthard von Müller, of Stuttgart, 
in 1801. Another portrait, engraved by Johann Daniel Laurens, of 
Berlin, may be found preceding Vol. XCI of the Allgemeine deutsche 
Bibliothek. Both are done after a painting by Johann Friederich August 

See also Justus Christianus a Loder: Index praeparatorum aliarumque r er urn 
ad anatomen spectantium, quae in Museo Caesareae Universitatis Mosquensis servantur, 
Mosqime, 1823, large 8°. (This work, which was never for sale in the book-trade, 
contains also the text in Russian on the opposite pages; there are 4,451 preparations.) 

Heinrich Karl Laurenty: Erinnerung, Urkunde und Denkblätter zum Kranze der 
^0 jährigen Jubelfeier des Med. Dr. J . C. v. Loder, Riga, 1828, 8°. 


Leopolde Marco Antonio Caldani, physician and anatomist, was 
born at Bologna on November 21, 1725, and died on December 30, 18 13. 
He obtained his doctor's degree in medicine on October 12, 1750, and in 
1758 became a pupil of Morgagni at Padua. In 1760, he took the chair 
of anatomy in Bologna, but soon went to Venice. He became professor 
of theoretical medicine at Padua, and, in 1771, professor of anatomy, 
succeeding Morgagni, and occupied these chairs till 1805. In his later 
years, he was aided in his anatomic and literary works by his nephew, 
Floriano Caldani, a professor in Padua. Together they edited the second 
large compilation which, like Loder's work, comprised the best anatomic 
representations of past periods. They are: 

I cones anatomicae, quotquot sunt celebriores, ex optimis neotericorum 
operibus summa diligentia depromtae et collectae. Tabulas selegerunt et 
nonnullas ex cadaveribus ad vivum delineatas addere curarunt L. M. A. et 
Fl. Caldani. {Tabularum anatomicarum Pars prima. Ossa et Ligamenta. 
Tab. I- 51.) Vol. I. — I cones anatomicae ex optimis, etc. collectae opera 
et studio, etc. {Tabularum anat. Pars altera. Musculi et Bursae mucosae, 
Organa sensuum et viscera. Tab. ^2-1^4.) Vol. II. — Icones, etc. 
{Tabular, anat. Pars tertia. Uterus gravidus, Embriones humani. Cor, 
Arteriae, Venae. Tab. ijj-204.) Voluminis III. Sectio prima. — Icones, 
etc. {Tabular, anat. Partis tertiae Sectio altera. Vasa lymphatica, 
Cerebrum, Nervi. Tab. 205-264.) Voluminis III. Sectio altera. Vene- 
tiis, ex calcographia J ose phi Picotti, 1801, 1804, 181 o, 1813, large fol., 
4 vols. 

Iconum anatomicarum explicatio. Pars prima. Partis secundae 
Sectio prima et altera. Partis tertiae Sectio prima et altera, Venetiis, 
1802, 1804, 1805, 1808, 1814, fol., 5 vols. 

The latter consists of five volumes of which the second and third 
{Partis II. Sectio i. 2.) refer to the second volume of the plates {Pars 
altera) , the first, fourth, and fifth volumes to the first, third, and fourth 
volumes of the plates {Pars prima Partis tertiae Sectio i. et 2.), thus 
leaving two volumes of exposition for the second volume of the plates. 
In the Icones, each finished plate is supplemented by an outhne-plate, 
with the exception of Hunter's and Soemmerring's plates in the third 
volume, in which the outUne-plates have been omitted, just as with the 



original plates. In the first volume, there is a large allegoric copper- 
title picturing a landscape, and the opening of a cadaver, without the 
name of the artist and engraver, and with two connected medallions, 
the portraits of the two editors. This is followed by two plates, each of 
which is accompanied by an outline-plate. They represent a nude male 
body (Apollo Belvedere) and a nude female body seen from the back and 
from the side. The first is drawn and engraved by Cajetano Bosa; the 
second is engraved by him, but drawn by Francesco GalHmberti. The 
anatomic plates begin with a histologic plate, from original preparations 
and after Albinus, Monro, Scarpa, and Cruikshank. Then follow repre- 
sentations of the bones after Albinus, the female skeleton after Soem- 
merring, the teeth after John Hunter, the Hgaments after Floriano 
Caldani's work, which will be mentioned later. The second volume 
contains representations of the muscles after Albinus, the diaphragm 
after Haller, the bursa mucosa from original preparations and after 
Loder, the skin from original preparations and after Ruysch, Leder- 
müller, Albinus, William Hunter, Haase, Ludwig, Loder, the eye after 
Zinn and Soemmerring, the ear from original preparations and after 
Ruysch, Duverney, Cotugno, Albinus, Scarpa, the olfactory organ from 
original preparations, and after Ruysch, Haller, Mayer, Scarpa, the 
tongue from original preparations, and after Albinus, the viscera from 
original preparations, and after Siebold, Santorini, Loder, Ruysch, 
Cheselden, Haller, LeveHng, Sandifort, Albinus, Lieberkühn, Hedwig, 
Bleuland, Walter, Schumlansky, the sexual organs and the fetus after 
John Hunter, Sandifort, Wrisberg, Loder, Ruysch, Santorini, Camper, 
Roderer, Albinus, Haller, Kölpin, Tolberg. The third volume comprises 
representations of the pregnant uterus and the embryos by William 
Hunter and Soemmerring; the heart from original preparations and after 
Ruysch, Haller, Wolf, and Loder; arteries and veins after Haller, Scarpa, 
Walter; the portal vein from an original preparation; the thoracic duct 
after Albinus. The fourth contains the lymphatics after Mascagni, 
the brain after Vicq d'Azyr, Gall, and Spurzheim, the nerves from original 
preparations and after Meckel, Hirsch, Asch, Lobstein, Bang, Scarpa, 
Walter, Fischer. All the original preparations were prepared anatomi- 
cally by the younger Caldani and drawn from nature by Cajetano Bosa. 
Most of the anatomic plates were engraved by Francesco Ambrosi and 
Felice Zuliani, of Venice. A few of the plates were engraved by Fer- 
dinando de Martiis, Francesco dal Pedro, Pietro Zuliani, Giovanni 
Battista Torcellano de Murano, Perini, and Butafoco. All the plates 
are beautifully finished in the size of the originals. 


The two Caldanis were the authors of anatomic works, viz. : 

Leopoldo Marco Antonio C aidant: Institutiones anatomicae. Tom. I. 
II. Venetiis, 1787, 8°; Napoli, 1791, 8"; Lipsiae, sumtu Casp. Fritsch, 
1792, 8°; Italian by Castellani, Brescia, 1807, 8°, with 7 copperplates. 

Leopoldo Marco Antonia Caldani: Memorie lette neW Accademia di 
scienza, lettere ed arti di Padova, Padova, 1804 sq. 4°, with copperplates. 

Floriani Caldani: Tabulae anatomicae ligamentorum corporis humani, 
Venetiis, ex calcographia J ose phi Picotti, 1803, large fol., with 11 finished 
and II outline-plates. 

These were drawn from nature by Cajetano Bosa, engraved by 
Francesco Ambrosi and Felice Zuliani. A very excellent and complete 
work which has been wholly included in the Icones anatomicae, Vol. I. 
Tab. 41-51, is 

Floriani Caldani: Rifiessioni sulV uso delV anatomia nella pittura, 
Venezia, 1808, 4° — French translation by H. Kühnholtz: Reflexions sur 
V Anatomie appliqtcee a la Peinture, traduites de Vltalien et accompagnees 
d'un Avantpropos et de Notes sur le meme sujet. Montpellier: Louis 
Castel, 1845, ^°} 52 PP-, without illustrations (contains many literary 


The conception of a textbook of medicine containing anatomy with 
illustrations is a feature of modern times, in which people began to depart 
from the orthodoxy of Islam in many ways, and also in this connection. 
The Turkish Printing Office existed in Constantinople from the year of 
the Hegira 1139 (1726-27 A.D.), but was closed from 1755 to 1784, and 
turned out some sixty works up to 1819. In the year of the Hegira 1231 
(1815-16 A.D.), the Ulema Schani Zadeh (whose complete name is Schani 
Zadeh Mehemmed Ataullah and who had studied in Italy) published a 
medical work under a title which, translated, would be something like 

Mirror of the structures in the anatomy of the parts of the human body. 
Printed at Scutari. Year of the Hegira 12 j^, 1820 A.D., fol., with fifty-six 

The work comprises about 300 pages of text and consists of three 
parts, viz.: I, anatomy beginning with the bones, then the muscles and 
the anatomy of the eye, the uterus, the ovum, and the fetus, finally the 
brain, the blood vessels, the nerves, and the glands; II, physiology and 
general pathology; HI, special pathology and therapy, concluding with 
pharmacology. The technical terms are mostly Arabic, often Greek or 
Latin. The poorly engraved illustrations are not drawn from nature, 
but copied from Occidental models. A specimen illustration is given in 
the book mentioned below. For the publication, a special Khattischerif, 
a permit from Sultan Mahmud, was needed. The author had presented 
his work to him in the year of the Hegira 1231 (181 5- 16 A.D.). Through 
the French embassy in Constantinople, a printed copy of it came into 
the possession of the Royal Library of Paris. 

These notes were taken from T. X. Bianchi: Notice sur le premier ouvrage 
d'anatomie et de medecine imprime en Turc ä Constantinople en 1820, intitule Mir air 
des corps dans I'anatomie de Vhomme, envoye et oßert par S. Exc. V ambassadeiir de 
France pres la Sublime Porte ä la bibliotheque du Roi. Suivi du catalogue des livres 
turcs, arabes et persans, imprimis ä Constantinope, depuis ^introduction de I'imprimerie 
en 1726-27 jusqu' en 1820. Paris, impr. L. T. Cellot, 182 1, 8°, containing 40 pages 
and 4 lithographic sheets, i piece of Turkish text and a specimen of the illustrations 
(face and arm muscles). 



Giovanni Battista de Rubeis came from the patrician family 
De Rossi, of Udine, and received an academic education, but turned 
to arts and studied first at the Academy of Arts at Venice, later under 
Ercole Lelli in Bologna (cf. p. 294). He afterward went back to Udine 
and gained fame as a portrait painter. He was born about 1750 and 
died about 18 10. Besides a treatise on portraits or the art of observing 
physiognomy, he wrote also a treatise on anatomy for the use of artists. 
Both were published in Italian, with the French translation at the side 
of the text, under the title: 

Giovanni Battista de Rubeis: Trattato dei ritratti ossia trattato per 
coglier le fisionomie. Trattato d'anatomia per uso dei pittori. Parigi, 
1809, 4°; /. B. de R.: Traite des portraits ou traite pour saisir la Physiog- 
nomie. Traite d^ anatomic ä V usage des peintres, Paris, 1809, 4°, with 


Giuseppe del Medico was the author of a manual of anatomy for 
artists. Cicognara (catal.) mentions it with particular praise and his book 
is thought to have been introduced at the Academy of Arts in Rome. 

Anatomia per uso de* pittori e scuUori di, Giuseppe del Medico pro- 
fessore di chirurgia, Roma, MDCCCXI. presso Vincenzo Poggioli, fol., 
contains eighty-four pages and thirty-eight copperplates. [Between 
pages 4 and 5 of the text is inserted an unnumbered page, a dedication 
alia insigne accademia di San Luca. The copperplates all have the 
explanations engraved on them and are either simply black (as Plates I- 
III, XXXIV, XXXV), or printed in two colors (as Plates XIV-XXXIII) 
with the bones black and the muscles red-brown, or in three colors, 
black, brown, and light-blue (as Plates XXXVI-XXXVIII) . In some 
cases the brush seems to have been used for touching up. The illus- 
trations are, on the whole, good and correct as to anatomy; Plates I, II, 
XIII contain whole skeletons, apparently after Albinus, Plates IH-XII 
bones. Plates XIV-XXXIII muscles. Plates XXXIV, XXXV two views 
of the Borghese Gladiator, Plates XXXVI, XXXVIII internal organs.] 

There exist copies of the prints on colored paper, struck off from two 
separate color plates.' 

• A copy is in the Surgeon General's Library at Washington, D.C. 



Jean Galbert Salvage received his doctor's degree at Montpellier 
and was military surgeon with the armies in the field until 1796, later, 
in the same capacity, in the military hospitals at Paris. After many 
studies, he published a most valuable work which was adopted by the 
French government for use in the graduate schools, but which seldom 
appeared in the market and, therefore, is now rare. Its title is: 

Anatomie du gladiateur combattant, applicable aux beaux arts, ou 
Traits des os, des muscles, du mecanisme des mouvemens, des proportions 
et des car acter es du corps humain. Ouvrage orne de 22 planches. Par 
Jean Galbert Salvage, docteur en medecine de la faculte de Montpellier. 
Paris, chez Vauteur, de rimprimerie de Marne, 181 2, large fol., 10 and 
64 pp. and 22 folio copperplates, mainly in black and red. 

The title is preceded by two pages, a bastard-title, on the back of 
which the Parisian booksellers, Le Normant, Treuttel et Würtz, and 
Bance, Vaine, advertise themselves as the distributors of the work, and 
a dedication aux manes d'Agasias, fits de Dosithee et citoyen d'Ephese, 
auteur de la statue du gladiateur ("to the Manes of Agasias, son of 
Dositheus and citizen of Ephesus, author of the statue of the gladiator"). 
Then follows the principal title and four pages of introduction. The 
text begins with a detailed treatise on osteology and myology. Begin- 
ning with page 35, the other treatises mentioned in the title of the book 
follow. The book contains 21 plates besides the copper-title. They 
are all drawn by Salvage, and fifteen of them, the finest among the 
collection, were engraved by Bosq. The first and the nineteenth of 
the numbered plates bear the signatures, N. Outkine and Outkin, cer- 
tainly Nicolaus Outkyn (Outkin), the director of the Academy of Arts 
of Petersburg. The sixteenth and seventeenth are signed, Sculpsit J. 
Wolffsheimer, perfecit Bosq. The twentieth plate is signed, Sculpsit 
Cor. peregit Bosq; the eighteenth Dorez Sculpsit. The plates num- 
bered I-XX are preceded by a Planche dHnstruction, which represents 
individual bones and a muscle and has no number. Consequently there 
are 21 plates in the text, the twenty-second being the copper- title. Of 
the last twenty plates, the first represents bones and muscles of the head 
and the neck of Apollo Belvedere. The second plate represents, in the 
same way, another head and the eye; the third and fourth plates show 




the forearm and the hand, the leg and the foot. The following eleven 
plates show a skeleton of the statue of the gladiator and a complete 
muscleman, with the superficial and deeper muscle-layers, viewed from 
four different sides. On the whole, these are well and correctly drawn, 
though showing some arbitrary treatment as to details, especially in 
osteology. These are followed by two plates which serve to illustrate 

the mechanism of muscular motion. A third plate serves to illustrate 
body movements in general, a fourth shows the proportions of the male, 
the female, and the child's body. The last plate is designed to present 
differences due to age and represents in finished figures the Apollo of 
Florence, the Apollo Belvedere, Silenus and the infant Bacchus, and the 
Farnese Hercules, all without anatomy. The Planche dHnstruction and 
the fifteen plates immediately following it are struck off from two plates 
so as to bring out the bones in black and the body contours and muscles 


in red, similar to the method successfully used before by J. H. Lavater 
(cf. p, 310). The text engraved upon the plates had been distinguished 
in a like manner. Copies on vellum could be had at double the cost 
of the regular copies, or 160 francs, and with the counter-proofs, at 200 
francs. The ordinary copies cost 80 francs, and with the counter-proofs 
100 francs. 

[Of his work on the Borghese Gladiator, Ottfried Müller says: "No 
work is better fitted to convey conveniently to the archaeologist informa- 
tion on the essentials of osteology and myology than J. G. Salvage's 
Anatomie du gladiateur combattanV^ {Handbuch der Archäologie der Kunst, 
edition 2, 1835, § 328, note 4). Cf. Lessing: Laokoon, § 28, and Anti- 
quarische Briefe, letters 35-39 (edition Göschen, Leipzig, VI, 203; Vol. V, 
459)1 Weigel: Kunstkatalog no. 18264.] 

Ebert: No. 20145. 


Giambattista Sabattini, physician and professor of anatomy at the 
Academy of Fine Arts in Bologna, published a very valuable anatomy 
for graphic and plastic artists under the title: 

Tavole anatomiche per li pittori, e gli scuUori di Giambattista Sabat- 
tini, dottore in medicina, e chirurgia, professore d'anatomia nella Reale 
Accademia di belle arti in Bologna, membro delta Commissione diparti- 
mentale di sanitd del Re?w, medico-chirurgo maggiore sostituto nel grande 
Spedale delta vita, e morte, etc. Bologna, tipografia dei fratelli Masi, 
1814, large 4°, 87 pp. and 48 copperplates. 

The latter show very excellent workmanship and anatomic accuracy 
and correctness. The first four plates represent the front and back 
views of a male figure, finished and in outHne, with explanatory letters. 
The following plates have osteologic representations of special organs, 
with the myologic representations, also finished and in outline. Sixteen 
plates pertain to the trunk and the head, twenty-eight to the upper and 
lower extremities. There are altogether forty-eight plates, some of 
them having one figure, others with several figures. But they are num- 
bered from one to twenty-six because, beginning with the fifth plate, the 
outHne representations always have the same number as the correspond- 
ing finished plate. They were all drawn by Giuseppe Guizzardi, and 
engraved by Antonio Gajani (born at Bologna, a professor of the art of 
copper engraving in Modena). The work is rare, and one should take 
care that all plates are included in his copy, and guard against having 
some plates double and others missing, since it appears that trans- 
positions of sheets occurred. Each finished plate should always be 
accompanied by an outline-plate with lettering. The text contains only 
explanations of the plates, but, in the preface, the author promises the 
publication of a separate Trattato teorico osteologico e miologico for the 
use of artists. This treatise, however, seems not to have been published, 
while an abridged and less expensive, but inferior edition of the anatomic 
plates appeared under the title: 

Tavole anatomiche per li Pittori e gli ScuUori ricavate dalV opera 
insigne del celebre Giamb. Sabattini — disegnate dal rinomato pittore Bolog- 
nese Gius. Guizzardi. Lavoro ridotto dalV incisure Luigi Rados a sole 17 
tavole, contenenti 20 figure osteologiche e 20 miologiche colle rispettive 



descrizioni ne* rami, dedicato a particolare utilita de* giovani Artisti, 
Milano, presso Antonio Bossi e Gio. Silvestri, s.a., oblong folio, 20 leaves 
all in copper. 

The title is followed by two more pages of text: Piano delV opera 
and Discorso preliminare, and by seventeen engravings. The first two 
represent the front and back views of the male body; the remaining 
fifteen plates each contain one or more myologic with the corresponding 
osteologic figures. Most of the plates were engraved by Gaetano 
Bonatti, except Numbers III and IV which were executed by Luigi 
Rados, an engraver of Parma. 

[Weigel: Kunstkatalog, no. 18265-66.] 


Giuseppe Bossi, draughtsman and painter, is particularly famous 
for his drawings and has also become known for his great admiration for 
Dante and Leonardo da Vinci. He made the first arrangements and 
all the preparations for Giacomo Raffaelli's mosaic copy of Leonardo da 
Vinci's "The Last Supper" for the Belvedere at Vienna. He was 
born at Busto Arsizio, in the territory of Milano, in 1776 or 1777, and 
died at the Villa Melzi, on Lake Como, in 1816. After his death, was 
published : 

Tavole anatomiche disegnate dal Pittori Giuseppe Bossi ora per la prime 
volta pubblicate sotto la Direzione del Pittore Giuseppe Sogni, Professore 
d'elementi di figura presso V J. R. Accademia di helle arti, e del Pittore 
Giovanni Servi, Aggiunto al Professore suddetto. Milano, presso la 
litografia Prison e Corbetta, s.a., large fol.; lithographed cover and title 
and 20 Uthographed and illuminated plates. 

The different parts of the human body are represented almost in 
life-size and are very valuable, both from an artistic and an anatomic 
standpoint. The least valuable of them all is perhaps the first plate 
representing head, neck, and shoulder. Each myologic representation 
is supplemented on the following page, or, if space permits it, on the 
same plate, by an osteologic representation, showing the same parts in 
the same position. The extremities have been given the most conscien- 
tious treatment and take up all of the remaining fourteen plates. Most 
of the plates are signed, Giuseppe Bossi disegno dal vero, but the purely 
osteologic plates (II, IV, and VI) are without this signature. Plate IV 
is signed C Sommariva dis. dal vero, who is also the lithographer of the 
cover. Gallina is given on most of the plates as the Hthographer. On 
many Carlo Porro esegui or dis. sulla pietra. are added to Gallina's name. 
Giuseppe Sogni was a Milanese painter and was born about 1800. 
Giovanni Servi of Venice was born about 1795 and was a painter at 
Rome, later at Venice and Milano. On the following page an illustration 
from this work has been reproduced. 

[Weigel: Kunstkatalog, no. 18267. 1 





Koeck, a professor at the Academy of the Graphic and Plastic Arts 
at Munich, was the author of: 

Anatomische Abbildungen des menschlichen Körpers für bildende 
Künstler, with 12 executed plates; Munich, 1822, fol. 

The plates are Hthographs showing remarkably beautiful execution 
and finish. They represent bones, ligaments, and muscles. The text 
contains only explanations of the figures. The scale chosen is not too 
small, and the selection recognizes the needs of artists. Owing to these 
facts and to the anatomic accuracy, the beauty of the drawings, and the 
inexpensiveness of the book, this atlas is one of the most useful works in 
its fine. 

[Christian Köck, who illustrated Sömmerring's works, is apparently 
not the same man. He died in 18 18.] 



George Simpson, surgeon, and a member of the Royal College of 
Surgeons of London, taught anatomy to a London society of artists, 
organized for the study of that phase of anatomy suitable to their needs 
(The Artists' Anatomical Society), and published, to this end, the 
following book : 

The anatomy of the bones and muscles, exhibiting the parts as they appear 
on dissection, and more particularly in the living figure; as applicable to 
the fine arts. Designed for tlie use of artists, and members of the Artists^ 
Anatomical Society. In two parts. Illustrated with highly finished litho- 
graphic impressions. London: printed for the author, by J. Johnson, 
1825, large 4°, 13 and 141 pp. and 30 lithographed plates in 4°. 

The first (osteologic) part of the work, contains 13 plates representing 
different parts in natural size and a fourteenth representing the skeleton 
on a reduced scale. The drawings were made by Cooley and litho- 
graphed by L. Haghe. The second (myologic) part contains 16 plates 
of which only the four representing the hand and the foot are in life- 
size, while others are drawn on a different and smaller scale. The 
drawings made from nature are by William Henry Brooke (also Brook) 
and by John Taylor Wedgwood. They are lithographed by J. W. and 
C. Newcombe, W. Fairland and R. Thomas Stothard. The three last 
plates represent the entire muscleman after Albinus. All are finished 
in crayon on India paper. The Hfe-size figures are remarkably beautiful 
and true to nature, the smaller figures and copies less so. One short- 
coming is the fact that differences of sex and age have not been taken into 
consideration. The text is splendidly printed. The work is dedicated 
to the painter Thomas Lawrence (b. Briston 1769, d. London 1830). 



John Flaxman, sculptor, was born at York in 1755 and died at 
London in 1826. He left a number of anatomic studies treating of the 
skeleton, the muscles of the trunk, and the extremities. They show, in 
their sequence, a certain completeness which is carried out more fully 
in the myologic part than in the osteologic, but which, nevertheless, at 
the time of their planning, had not been thought of. Nor had these 
studies ever been intended to serve as a textbook of anatomy for artists. 
They were collected after Flaxman's death, arranged on 19 plates, and 
were given the necessary reference letters for the different bones and 
muscles. Two other plates, drawn by W. Robertson, with an explanatory 
text, were added to them, and the whole collection published under the 

Anatomical studies of the bones and muscles, for the use of artists, from 
drawings by the late John Flaxman, engraved by Henry Landseer; with two 
additional plates and explanatory notes by William Robertson. London: 
M. A. Nattali, 1833, large fol., with a portrait of Flaxman, etched by 
M. de Clauson, and 21 anatomic plates; 6 printed leaves. 

The first two plates were drawn and lithographed (not engraved on 
copper) by Robertson and contain six whole figures, viz. : the skeleton 
and the muscleman, each from three different viewpoints. The pro- 
portions are good, and the drawing, although less accurate in the 
details, meets the needs of artists. The nineteen plates following these 
were drawn by Flaxman and engraved by Landseer. The first three 
(Plates IH-V) are finished in aquatint and pertain to osteology. They 
represent the trunk with the head and a part of the extremities, as well 
as the pelvis in different positions and a difficult foreshortening. No 
completeness seems to have been intended. The sixteen plates following 
(VI-XXI) are done in the easy, unconventional style of chalk-drawings 
and pertain wholly to myology. They represent the head, trunk, and 
extremities in various positions, movements, and foreshortenings. Some 
of them seem to have been only studies for some planned work, yet this 
group is more complete. Flaxman's drawings are all unconventional, 
clever, and true to nature. But to use them the artist must already 
possess a knowledge of the anatomy of bones and muscles, with which, 
to a certain extent, the two plates by Robertson are intended to furnish 



him. The text contains nothing by Flaxman; it is rather an index by 
Robertson to the names of bones and muscles and the origins and 

insertions of the latter. The work is splendidly gotten up and rare in 

Cf. CEuvres de Flaxman graves au trait par Revil, Paris, i8 — , 8'. 
Weigel: No. 13522. 


Sir Charles Bell, the author of an original and notable work on the 
anatomy of expression in painting, was born at Edinburgh in November, 
1774, the exact date of his birth being unknown. He died at Hallow 
Park, April 29, 1842. Early in life he gave evidence of ability as a 
practical dissector, anatomist, and surgeon, making his own beautiful 
drawings in his own inimitable way. His various essays on the nerves 
of the face, and his illustrations of these nerves under disease, are of 
the highest importance and deepest interest, and the greatness of the 
work can only be realized when compared with what was known, or 
rather not known, in his day of the physiology of the nervous system. 
His various systems of anatomy, dissections, and surgery, still stand 
unrivaled for facility of expression, elegance of style, and accuracy of 
description. The plates are all from drawings made by the author. 
The Library of the Surgeon General's Office, Washington, D.C., is 
in possession of a volume of his original water-color sketches. His first 
publication was entitled: 

Essays on the anatomy of expression in painting, London, 1806, 4°, 
with illustrations. 

In this work he points the importance of a knowledge of anatomy to 
the artist and displays the error into which artists may be betrayed by 
an exclusive attention to the antique. He treats of the skull and form 
of the head, of the muscles of the face in man and in animals, depicts 
the several passions by a comparison of these, marks what is peculiar 
to man, embodies the idea of a living principle in the expression of 
emotion, and finally treats of the economy of the living body as it relates 
to expression and character in painting. The illustrations show some 
of the finest specimens of his pencil. A second edition, with additions, 
was published in 1824, 4°. The title was changed in the third and 
succeeding editions to: 

The anatomy and philosophy of expression as connected with the fine arts, 
London, 1844, 8°. 

Many Latin quotations and several illustrations were left out and 
the work was practically re-written, so that this edition is really a new 
work. The seventh edition appeared as late a? 1893. 

Weigel: No. 18693. 

Pettigrew (Thomas Joseph): "Sir Charles Bell"; Memoirs of Physicians, 
Surgeons, etc., London, 1839, 

Corson (Eugene R.): Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, Baltimore, XXI (1910), 
171-82; XXV, 185-89. Tr. XVII. Internat. Cong. Med. 1913, Lond., 1914, Sect. 
XXIII, 73-86.] 



Burkhard Wilhelm Seiler, anatomist and physiologist, was born 
at Erlangen on April ii, 1779, and died at Freiberg on September 27, 
1843. I^ 1802, he became prosector in Wittenberg, and from 1807 until 
the closing of the university he was professor of anatomy, physiology, 
and surgery there. In 181 5, he became professor of anatomy and physi- 
ology and director of the Medico-Chirurgical Academy of Dresden. Of 

his works the following one is in line with 
our discussion: 

Anatomie des Menschen für Künstler 
und Turnlehrer von B. W. Seiler. Heraus- 
gegeben von A. F. Günther, Professor, etc. 
With 8 copperplates in large imperial 
folio and i lithographic plate, repre- 
senting the skeleton and muscles of 
the horse; Leipzig: Arnold, 1850, 8" 
and fol. 

At Seller's death only the first volume, 
containing the first four copperplates and 
explanations, had appeared in 1826, while 
the other four had been engraved but were 
still without numbers or text. August 
Friedrich Günther, Seller's pupil and 
assistant for many years, director general 
of the Army Medical Department and pro- 
fessor at the Medico-Chirurgical Academy 
(succeeding Seiler there), undertook the 
difficult task of finishing the work, adding 
to it the lithographic plate pertaining to 
the horse, and the explanatory text. The 
work now has nine large plates. Dietrich 
Wilhelm Lindau (b. Dresden 1779), who 
later became famous as a genre painter 
in Rome, made the drawings for the cop- 
perplates. Johann Friederich Schröter (b. Leipzig 1771, d. Leipzig 1836) 
and Christian Ernst Stölzel (b. Dresden 1792) did the engraving, but 




others, not named anywhere, aided them in the work. The drawing 
for the Hthographic plate was made by M. Krantz. J. E. Assmann 
finished it on stone. The first plate is histologic, representing the tissues 
of the body, and is a very remarkable composition not to be found any- 
where else, although it has little value for the graphic artist, who does 
not expect to become an anatomic artist and make anatomic repre- 
sentations. The second plate represents three views of the skeleton; 
the third the same views and positions in the muscleman. The fourth 
contains representations of the extremities, and the neck and head in 
various movements. The fifth shows three musclemen with the deeper 
muscle layers. The sixth consists of a few myologic figures of the trunk 

and representations on a larger scale of the skull and the larynx. The 
seventh plate treats rather convincingly of the proportions, the skull- 
forms, and the differences due to sex and age. It also represents the 
body outline of the Venus dei Medici, the Meleager (Antinous), and the 
Apollo Belvedere. The eighth plate shows the contours of the Borghese 
Gladiator, the Dying Gaul in the Capitoline, the Laocoön without his 
sons, the Satyr, Farnese Hercules, the Crouching Venus (Venere della 
chiocciola), and of the Cymbal Player; all have the skeletons drawn 
inside the body outlines. The ninth plate represents the skeleton and 
the myology of the horse and, in a few accessory figures on a somewhat 
larger scale, the head of the horse. The wealth of the material given and 
the beauty of the very careful and faithful representations render this 
atlas a very useful tool in the hands of graphic and plastic artists. The 


text (i6 and 184 pp. 8°) not only contains explanations of the plates but 
also presents varied information regarding the structure and functions 
of the body. 

Die Gebärmutter und das Ei des Menschen in den ersten Schwanger- 
schajtsmonaten nach der Natur dargestellt, with 12 copperplates, Dresden: 
Walther, 1832, fol. 

These twelve copperplates, two of them illuminated, and thirty-eight 
pages of text were published. The rest of the text is missing. The 
drawings for the plates were made from nature by Puschner of Dresden. 
The engraving was done by Johann Friederich Schröter, of Leipzig. 
Most of them represent microscopic subjects after investigations carried 
on for many years by Seiler himself. 

Choulant (Ludwig): Nachricht von dem Leben und Wirken B. W. Seiler' s, etc. 
With portrait and facsimile, Dresden, 1844, small fol. 
Weigel: No. 17769''. 


Pierre Nicolas Gerdy, professor of anatomy, physiology, and surgery 
in the Faculty of Paris and surgeon at the Hopital St. Louis and the 
Charite, was born at Locher (Aube) on May i, 1797. He edited: 

Anatomie des formes exterieures du corps humain, appliquee ä la 
peinture, ä la sculpture et ä la Chirurgie. Avec un Atlas, Paris, chez 
Bechet jeune, 1829, 8° and fol.; German: Weimar, im Landesindustrie- 
Comptoir, 183 1, 8°, with 3 Hthographic plates in 8°. 

The book suffers from the opposition of the entirely different aims of 
the graphic or plastic artist and the surgeon. It shows on the other hand 
conscientious work, having particular reference to existing pictorial and 
sculptural representations. The plates of the German translation show an 
inferior workmanship and represent three complete bodies upon which the 
different parts and the muscles are indicated without anatomic exposure. 

The work remained incomplete, as the author intended to follow this 
representation of the external forms of the body by an actual anatomy for 


Eduard Salomon and Carl A. Aulich, the former a physician, the 
latter an instructor in drawing for natural science and anatomy at the 
University of Leipzig, edited: 

Anatomische Studien für Künstler und Kunstfreunde. Mit einem 
einleitenden Vorworte von Veit Hans Schnorr von Carolsfeld. With 9 
lithographic plates, Leipzig: Gebhardt and Reisland, 1841, fol. 

This work is based on Houdon's anatomical plaster statuette. The 
osteologic and myologic plates are very praiseworthy, not so the skeletons 
which are drawn superficially, vaguely, and arbitrarily. The repre- 
sentations of single organs on the ninth plate, besides being useless to 
the artist (at least as they are drawn), are not wholly correct anatomi- 
cally. The printing of the finished plates is sooty. The text is copious, 
scientifically instructive, and not merely explanatory. Explanations are 
given separately. Schnorr was born at Schneeberg in 1764 and died in 
1 84 1 as director of the Academy of Arts of Leipzig, before the work had 
been finished. 



Ferdinand Berger, professor and instructor at the Royal Academy 
of Arts in Berlin, was the author of: 

Handbuch zum Gebrauch für das anatomische Studium des mensch- 
lichen Körpers besonders für bildende Künstler und Dilettanten der Kunst. 
Berlin: CG. Lüderitz, 1842, small fol., 15 pp., 10 copperplates and 2 
lithographs in small fol. 

All the illustrations were drawn and finished by the author himself. 
They include three skeletons and five musclemen after Albinus and four 
sketches of male bodies made from nature. A large number of post- 
humous sketches by Berger, partly studies in preparation for this work, 
partly other studies bearing on the knowledge of the human body needed 
by the graphic or plastic artist, are among the collections of the Medico- 
Chirurgical Academy at Dresden [Berger contributed to Schadow's 
work, Lehre von den Knochen und Muskeln, etc. Berlin, 1830, foL] 



Julien Fau, doctor of medicine in Paris, edited two different anatomic 
works for artists: 

Anatomie des formes exterieures du corps humain, ä V usage des peintres 
et des sculpteurs. Avec un Atlas de 24 planches dessinees d'apres nature 
et lithographiees par M. Leveille, eleve de M. Jacob. Paris: Mequignon- 
Marvis fils, 1845 (16 and 214 pp.), 8" and fol. (24 lithographic plates), 
black and white and also colored. 

The plates are very beautifully finished and comprise one plate of 
skulls of different nationalities ; several different views of the nude bodies 
of a man, a woman, and a child, all drawn from nature, some of them 
supplemented by skeletons placed alongside of the bodies, with the 
body outlines; representations of the bones, and the muscles, the latter 
with the bones in some cases drawn in. Particular attention has been 
given to the various positions and flexions of the extremities. The last 
plate represents the myology of the Laocoön, without the sons, after 
Charles Clement Bervic's well-known print. This work has been 
translated into English, with additions, by the physician Robert Knox, 
and published under the title: The anatomy of the external forms of man, 
intended for the use of artists, painters and sculptors, London, 1848, 8°, 
with an atlas of 26 plates in quarto ; published in black and white and also 
colored. The second, smaller, and less expensive work by Fau is: 

Anatomie artistique elementaire. Dessins d'apres nature par J. B. 
Leveille, gravures sur acier. Paris: Mequignon-Marvis, 1850, 8°, with 
17 steel engravings in 8°, three of which are in small folio. 

In this work the representation of the shapes of skulls, of the nude 
bodies, and of the Laocoön are missing, but representations of three 
beautiful skeletons, with the contours drawn around them, have been 
added. The remainder deals with osteology and myology, although less 
exhaustively than in the previous work. 

The same author had a young artist, Eugene Caudron, a pupil of 
David d'Angers, make an anatomic plaster statuette, 70 centimeters 
high, for the use of artists {nouvel ecorclie) which is sold, white or colored, 
with a description and four pages of pictorial representations (the four 
views of the statuette), for 15 and 30 francs respectively (the descrip- 
tion alone costs 3 francs) . Prior to this, Johann Martin Fischer's plaster 




statuette (cf. section, p. 321) had preferably been used by graphic and 
plastic artists in Germany, in Spain, that of Caspar Becerra (b. Baeza 
1520), in Italy, that of Luigi Cardi (called CigoH or Civoli, b. Empoli 
1536, d. Rome 1613), and in France, that of Jean Antoine Houdon 
(b. Versailles 1741, d. Paris 1828). 

[To the anatomic statuettes for artists, mentioned here, there should 
be added that by Ercole Lelli (p. 294). Lelli also made, especially 
for Bologna, anatomic reproductions in wax for anatomists, i.e., repro- 
ductions of healthy or diseased parts of the human body, and two 
myologic figures in wood for the anatomic theater in Bologna. For 

three years Giovanni Manzolini 
worked with him and turned out 
even more splendid anatomic prepa- 
rations in an especially prepared 
wax substance. After Lelli's death, 
in 1766, he worked by himself, but 
was assisted by his wife, Anna 
Morandi Manzolini, who gained even 
greater fame than he in this field 
and was visited by every tourist in 
Bologna, among them Emperor 
Joseph II. The large collection of 
anatomic wax preparations in the 
Specola of Florence was undertaken 
under the direction and after prepara- 
tions and drawings by Felice Fontana 
(b. Pahnavoli in Tyrol, April 15, 1730, d. Florence, March 9, 1805). He 
employed especially for this work the services of the artist demente 
Susini, and improved the composition of the wax substance used. Toward 
the end of the last century anatomic wax preparations were made by 
the artists Giambattista Manfredini and Alessandro Barbieri under the 
direction of the anatomist. Carlo Mondini of Bologna. Giuseppe Astorri 
is also given as the name of an artist active in this same specialty. In 
Germany, Heineman, of Brunswick, and his pupil Meves produced beau- 
tiful wax preparations of anatomy, of a rare detail and accuracy.] 

Weigel: No. 17767-68. 



[These were compiled by Choulant in an attempt to render this litera- 
ture complete.] They are either without illustrations, of small size and 
significance or were difficult to get in Germany. 

[Willem Goeree: Natuurlyke en schilderkonstige onlwerp der mensch- 
kunde. Amsterdam, 1683, 8°; 1730, 8°, with illustrations after Vesahus; 
the author was an artist and wrote for the benefit of artists; he also 

Jnleyding tot de praktyk der algemeene schilderkonst. Amsterdam, 
1704, 8°, and Jnleyding tot de algemeene teykenkonst, Amsterdam, 1705, 8°; 
German translation by Filip von Zesen, Hamburg, 1669, 8°; cf. Haller: 
Bibl. anat., I, 310; Weigel: No. 9795, 12166. 

Scuola perfetta Per imparare a Disegnare tutto il corpo Humano 
Cavata dallo studio, e disegni De Caracci. Nouamente data alle stampe, 
s.l. et a., 4°, with the copper- title, 48 copperplates, representing heads 
and parts of the head; Plate VII represents two skulls. There are also 
illustrations of hands, feet, torso, and sketches made from the nude; 
Plates XVIII-XIX animal heads; Plate XXXIV a street with houses. 
Some of the illustrations are reproductions of well-known paintings. 
The following artists' names appeared on the plates: Lucas de Urbino, 
Annibale Carracci, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Agustino(Carracci),Marius 
Cartarius; most of them being probably the painters of the originals 
from which the copies were made. The drawing and engraving are 
valuable; there is no text.] 

Johann Carl Wilhelm Moehsen: Verzeichniss einer Sammlung von Bild- 
nissen, grösstentheils berühmter Aerzte; sowohl in Kupferstichen, schwarzer 
Kunst und Holzschnitten, als auch in einigen Handzeichnungen: diesem sind 
verschiedene Nachrichten und Anmerkungen vorgesetzt, die sowohl zur 
Geschichte der Ar zeney gelahrtheit, als vornehmlich zur Geschichte der 
Künste gehören. With vignettes, Berlin: C. F. Himburg, 1771, 4°, 12, 
243 and 240 pp. 

Contains very valuable reports on artistic anatomy and the history 
of anatomic illustration. The copper vignettes have no reference to these 
subjects. Very accurate and conscientious research work is characteristic 
of this book, as of all of Moehsen's works. 



Charles Monnet {Monet): Etudes d'anatomie a Vusage des peintres 
par Chart. Monnet, peintre du Roi, grav. par Demarteau, graveur du Roi, 

Paris ?, large 4°, forty- two pages of copper engravings in red-chalk 

manner. Cf. Weigel: Kunstkatalog, no. 19935. 

The illustrations were drawn by Monnet in the style of sketches or 
crayon drawings, and were engraved by Gilles Demarteau (d. 1 7 76) . They 
comprise osteologic and myologic representations of no particular value. 

Gottlieb Friedrich Riedel: Abbildungen der Knochen und Muskeln des 
menschlichen Körpers nebst einer Erklärung und Benennung aller Theile 
in deutsch-latein- und französischer Sprache für junge Künstler und 
Wundärzte, Dessau, 1783, fol.; new title: Augsburg, printed by Herz- 
berg, 1826, fol. 

Containing three skeletons after Vesalius, two muscle-manikins 
after Albinus, and eight pages of text. The skeletons are engraved by 
Gottlieb Friedrich Riedel (b. Dresden 1724, d. Augsburg 1784), the 
musclemen are engraved by Johann Christoph Nabholz (b. Regensburg 
1752, d. Leipzig about 1796). The anatomy is the reverse of excellent. 

Bottmann: Cours d^anatomie ä Vusage des artistes, Paris, 1788, 12°; 
ibid., 1796, 12°. 

This book has no illustrations. Cf. Cicognara: Catal. 

[Alexander Cozens: Principles of beauty, relative to the human head. 
London, printed by James Dixwell, MDCCLXXVIII, large foUo, 6 and 
15 pages of printed EngHsh text; page 15 is followed by a title: Principes 
de beaute, consideres relativement ä la tete humaine. Par Alexandre 
Cozens, Londres, imprime par Jacques Dixwell, M.DCCLXXVIL, and 
the title of the French translation on fifteen newly numbered pages; at 
the end are 1 7 folio copperplates in brown representing parts of the head 
and complete heads, without proportional lines and anatomy. All are 
signed: Alexander Cozens inven., F. Bartolozzi sculp. Each illustration 
of a complete head is accompanied by a transparent page on which the 
hair, omitted on the plate itself, is especially represented. This makes 
it possible to see the head with the hair by placing the transparent page 
on the plate, and without hair by looking only at the copperplate. All 
the plates show beautiful sketching of characteristic heads.] 

Gamelin: Nouveau recueil d'osteologie et de myologie a Vusage des 
peintres et sculpteurs, dessine d'apres nature, pour Vutilite des sciences et 
des arts, Toulouse, 1799, large fol., with copperplates. 

The author was a French painter living in Carcassone. 

Bosio: Traite elementaire des regies du dessin, Paris, chez Vauteur 
et chez Tiger, an IX (1801), large 12°, 118 pp., including 17 copperplates. 


The author was a pupil of David. The book treats only of the 
human figure and deals with osteology, myology, and proportions. 

Charles Etienne Gaucher: Traite d'anatomie ä Zusage des artistes. 
Paris ? 

The author was a copper engraver and connoisseur, born at Paris in 
1740, died there in 1803 or 1804. He was also the author of an Essai 
sur la gravure. 

[Tommaso Piroli: Raccolta di Studj come Elementi del Disegno tratti 
daV Antico da Rafaello e Michelangelo. Con aggiunta di alcune Tavole 
Anatomiche. II tutto puhlicatio ed inciso in 40 Rami da, etc. Vanno 1801. 
In Roma presso VAutore, s.a., fol., Weigel: No. 193 17. 

Johann Christian von Mannlich: Versuch über die Zergliederungskunde 
für Zöglinge und Liebhaber der bildenden Künste: with 8 copperplates, 
München auf Kosten des Verfassers und in Commission der Lindauerschen 
Buchhandlung, 181 2, imperial folio, 6 pages of text and 8 copperplates of 
the same size as the pages. The text contains the explanation of the 
copperplates and a few general remarks, technical and historical; the 
copperplates represent front, back, and side views of the skeleton, besides 
the muscles of the trunk and individual limbs. The drawing throughout 
is very beautiful and true to nature. The skeletons are done in simple 
sharp lines with little crosshatching; the muscles in crayon style. Four 
myologic plates are signed: N. Strixner sculp., although they are not 
otherwise distinguishable from the other plates. Albinus' illustrations 
served as a foundation for the skeleton, Houdon's statuette as a basis 
for the muscles. Sexual differences are nowhere considered. The 
author was the director of the Munich Galleries for Graphic and Plastic 
Arts. Weigel: No. 20633.] 

Johann Christian Rosenmüller: Prodromus anatomiae artificibus 
inservientis, Lipsiae, 1819, 4°, 14 pp. without illustrations. 

A Prodromus in which the author, professor of anatomy in Leipzig 
(17 71-1820), presented the plan of a course of anatomy for graphic and 
plastic artists. The work itself was never published. 

Francois Chaussier: Recueil anatomique ä Vusage des jeunes gens, 
qui se destinent ä Vetude de la Chirurgie, de la medecine, de la peinture et 
de la sculpture. Paris, 1820, 4°, with illustrations — Edition 2: Planches- 
anatomiques ä Vusage, etc., par Dutertre, Paris, 1823, 4°. 

Chaussier was born in Dijon in i746,and died in Paris in 1828. As pro- 
fessor of medicine he hved first in Dijon, later in Paris. The purposes of the 
book are too numerous to render it a publication particularly appropriate 
to the needs of artists. The prints of the first edition are also by Dutertre. 


Carl Gustav Adolph Theodor Förster: Quid anatomia praestet artifici, 
dissert, inauguralis, Berolini, 1821, large 8°, 75 pp., without illustrations. 

The author was a physician and an instructor in anatomy at the 
Academy of Graphic and Plastic Arts in Berlin. The dissertation 
contains no new matter. 

Leopolde Uguccioni: Elementi di anatomia esterna, Milano, 1829, 8°, 
with 21 copper engravings and lithographic prints. 

It is of little value, either from an artistic or an anatomic standpoint. 

Jean Baptiste Sarlandiere: Anatomie methodique ou Organographie 
humaine en tableaux synoptiques, avec figures. Ä Vusage des universites, 
des academies de peinture, etc. Deux Parties avec 75 planches, Paris, 1830, 
fol. Latin: Anatomia methodica, etc., Paris, 1830, 1831, fol. ; with 
illustrations in black, 30 francs; with colored illustrations, 40 francs. 

Physiologie de r action musculaire appliquee aux arts d' imitation, 

Paris, 1830, 8°, 48 pages and i plate with 8 figures. 

The author was a physician, born in Aix-la-Chapelle in 1787. 

Halma-Grand: Quelques considerations sur les connaissances anato- 
miques applicables aux beaux arts, Paris: Dufey, 1830, large 8°, 7 and 
47 pages, without illustrations. 

The author was professor of anatomy, surgery, and obstetrics in 
Paris and urges some knowledge of physiology for graphic and plastic 
artists. He treats most exhaustively of human physiognomy. 

Johann Gottfried Schadow: Lehre von den Knochen und Muskeln, von 
den Verhältnissen des menschlichen Körpers und von dem Verkürzen, In 
jo Tafeln zum Gebrauch bei der Akademie der Künste. Berlin, 1830, fol. 

Polyclet oder von den Maassen des Menschen nach dem Geschlechte 

und Alter mit Angabe der wirklichen Natur grosse nach dem rheinländischen 
Zollstocke. Berlin, 1834, 4°, and fol. With German and French text 
and 29 outline-plates. 

Nationalphysiognomieen oder Beobachtungen über den Unter- 
schied der Gesichtszüge und die äussere Gestaltung des menschlichen Kopfes. 
Als Fortsetzung des Werkes von Petrus Camper, Berlin, 1835, 4° and fol., 
with German and French text and 29 outline-plates. 

/. Lordat: Essai sur Viconologie medicate, ou sur les rapports d'utilite 
qui existent entre Part du dessin et Vetude de la medecine. Montpellier, 
chez veuve Picot, 1833, 8°, 16 and 296 pages. 

In 1822 the medical faculty of MontpelUer was presented with a 
rich collection of sketches of all schools, by Xavier Atger (d. 1833). 
Since 1829 the city of Montpellier has also owned Baron Francois 
Xavier Fabre's museum, a collection of paintings. [The historic painter 


Frangois Xavier Fabre was born in 1766 and died in Montpellier in 183 1.] 
The book mentioned above tries to show how both these collections and 
the graphic arts in general, may be utilized in the study of medicine. 
In a special part (pages 49-142), it treats of the history of anatomic 
iconology and introduces a great many important notes pertaining to 
the general history of art. The book contains no illustrations. Its 
author was professor of physiology in Montpellier. 

E. F. Verhas: Anatomie appliquee aux beaux arts, ä I' usage des 
Academies de dessin, sculpture et peinture. Ontleedkunde toegepast op 
de beeidende kunsten, etc., Bruxelles, 1838, large fol.; 24 lithographic 
plates with French and Belgian Text. 

The author was professor at the Academy of Art and Architecture in 
Termonde. Cf. Weigel: No. 8455. 

[Costantino Squanqiierillo: Trattato di anatomia pittorica con analoga 
illustrazione. Roma, tipografia delle belle arti, 1841, A spese di Filippo 
Lustrini, fol. 

The printed title is followed by one blank page, sixty-four pages 
of printed text, and one Hthographed title representing a skeleton 
and a muscle-manikin holding a plate on which a male and a female 
body are shown with their measurements; below is lithographed: 
Trattato di anatomia pittorica Fatto da Costantino Squanquerillo Roma 
MDCCCXXXIX. The hthographed title is followed by 64 Htho- 
graphed plates of which Nos. I-LIII represent the bones and muscles of 
man, Nos. LIV-LVII internal organs, Nos. LVIII-LX proportions of 
the human body, Nos. LXI-LXIV bones and muscles of the horse. 
Plate LIU is without the artist's name, on the remainder C. Squanquerillo 
is given. Rosi is given as lithographer on sLx of the plates, Wieller- 
Martelli on eight, Martelli on twenty-six of them, and Battistelli on 
twenty- three ; all were lithographed in Rome. Bones and muscles are 
given better than the internal organs. The Hthographed title does 
not give the names of the artists.] 

/. A. Wheeler: Handbook of anatomy for students of the fine arts. 
With illustrations in wood, London, Samuel Highley, 1846, 8°. With 
10 pages of woodcuts. [The illustrations are done after Albinus on a 
very much smaller scale and comprise skeletons, musclemen, bones, and 
muscles. The 16 pages of text contain only explanatory terms printed 
by Bentley, Wilson, and Fley, London. It was published earlier under 
the title: Hand-book for students of art, containing a description of the 
skeleton and the external muscles of the human figure; with illustrations 
on wood, London, 1838, 8°; Weigel: No. 8456.] 


Anton von Perger: Anatomische Studien des menschlichen Körpers für 
bildende Künstler. Vienna: Carl Gerold, 1848, large 12°; 8 and j6 pages. 
Without illustrations. 

The author, the son of a painter and engraver, and himself trained 
in the art of painting, presents in this book a general view of the human 
figure and its proportions, detailed treatments of osteology and myology, 
and only the most essential points of the rest of the body, including also 
something on physiology. 

Antonio Maria Esquivel: Tratado de anatomia pictorica, Madrid, 
1848, 4°. 

Carl Schmidt: Proportionsschlüssel. Neues System der Verhältnisse 
des menschlichen Körpers. Für bildende Künstler, Anatomen und Freunde 
der Naturwissenschaft; with 3 lithographic plates, Stuttgart: Ebner and 
Seubert, 1849, ^° ^^^ oblong folio. 

The first plate contains two views of the male body, two views of 
the skeleton and a few smaller illustrations. The second represents a 
skull and head and also the hand and its bony structure. The third 
gives only measurements. The author bases his theory of the propor- 
tions on the points of support in motion. He was a historical painter 
and his opinion, as expressed on page 16, that the proportions of the 
mature female body differ from those of the male body only in the pelvis, 
is erroneous. 

Carl Heidelojff und Philipp Walther: Der kleine Anatome oder Hand- 
buch des figürlichen Zeichnens zum Gebrauch der Vorbereitungsschulen 
und für Liebhaber dieser Kunst, Nuremberg: Riegel and Weissner, 1850, 
8°, 18 pp. and 20 copperplates; the plates are Hthographic. 

This contains Albinian skeletons and musclemen, on a greatly reduced 
scale, also the head and extremities similarly reduced. Drawings of 
the external forms added are without anatomy. The illustrations of 
heads and extremities are the best. Heideloff calls himself ''Royal 
Curator"; Walther signs himself as a painter and copper engraver and 
an instructor at the Commercial and Industrial School at Nuremberg. 
The cover shows Albrecht Dürer and Titian in their studies, both as 
complete figures. The text furnishes only explanatory terms. 

[Characteres des figures d' Alexandre le Grand et de Zenon le Stoicien, 
eclaires par la medecine par le Dr. A. Dechambre. Memoire lu, pour la 
premiere partie, a VAcademie des beaux arts {Institut de France) le 22. Mai 
i8j2, Paris, 1852, large 8°; a treatise on two antiques in Paris, 35 pages, 
I lithographed plate representing a bust in 8°, and two small woodcuts 
printed in the text. Weigel: No. 193 19. 


Robert Knox: A manual of artistic anatomy, for the use of sculptors, 
painters, and amateurs, London, Henry Renshaw, MDCCCLII, 8°. 

Twenty-eight and 175 pages with many woodcuts in the text, drawn 
by Westmacott representing skeletons, bones, muscles, and ligaments of 
single organs, proportions, national skulls, illustrations after antiques, 
such as Venus, Niobe, Hercules, Centaurs, and Lapithae, a bust of 
Memnon from the British Museum. The workmanship is excellent; 
printed by Thomas Harrild, London; Weigel: No. 193 16. 

Great artists and great anatomists, a biographical and philo- 
sophical study, London, 1822, 8°. 

Contains an exhaustive biography of Georges Cuvier and Geof- 
froy St. Hilaire, a comparative biography of da Vinci, Michelangelo 
Buonarroti, and Raphael, and a treatise on the relation of anatomy to 
the graphic and plastic arts; Weigel: No. 1807 13. 

Henry Warren: Artistic anatomy of the human figure. With 2j Illus- 
trations. Drawn on Wood by the Author, and Engraved by Walter G. 
Mason. Ars probat artificem. London: Winsor & Newton, 1852, 
8°, 64 pages. 

The woodcuts represent the skeleton, the skull, bones and muscles 
of single organs; printed by Schulze, London, cf. Weigel: No. 18712. 

Auszug aus Paul Zeiller' s geburtshiilflichem Hand- Atlas. Abbildungen 
über den Bau des weiblichen Skelets für Schüler der bildenden Kunst. 
München, im Verlage des Verfassers, s.a., large 8°. Six lithographed plates 
representing standing female bodies, from the front and back, and 
skeletons in the same positions with the body outlines sketched around 
them and the different parts numbered in red; Antinous and Venus 
with the skeletons sketched in. This book was pubKshed in 1852; the 
author was a preparer of anatomic specimens in Munich; Weigel: 
No. 18714. 

J. J. Naue: Mimisch-Phrenologisches . Die Phrenologie im Ver- 
hältniss zur bildenden Kunst des Allerthumes und der Jetztzeit, with 14 
lithographic illustrations, on two lithographic octavo pages; Cöthen 
1853, 8°. Weigel: No. 19322. 

George Combe: Phrenology applied to Painting and Sculpture, London, 
1855, 8°, Weigel: No. 20631. 

E. Harless: Lehrbuch der plastischen Anatomic. Enthaltend die 
Gesetze für organische Bildung und künstlerische Darstellung der mensch- 
lichen Gestalt im Allgemeinen und in den einzelnen Situationen; with 
illustrations after original drawings, Stuttgart, 1856, 8°, Weigel: 
No. 21017.] 



Pomponii Gaurici Neapoli / tani de sculptura. / Vhi agitur / De Syme- 
triis, I De Lineamentis. / De Physiognomonia. / De etc. / De Claris 
Sculptorihus. /Ac plerisque aliis rebus scitu dignissimis ; colophon: 
Florentiae, VIII. Cal. Januar. / M.D.I III, small 8°. 

Forty-eight pages printed in italics, with signature, but without 
catchwords and pagination; page 41 (sign, fii) is blank, page 40a: 
Errores. Was published in Florence by Philip Giunta December 29,1 503 ; 
is rare; cf. Ebert: No. 8 191. Was reprinted in Norimherg., apud J oh. 
Petreium (1542) 4° cf. Weigel: No. 21021. It was formerly highly valued 
by students for the theory of proportions, but is without illustrations. 

Erhart Schön Unnderweissung der proportzion vnnd Stellung der 
passen, / liegent vnd stehent abgestolen wie man das vor augen sieht / in 
dem puchlein durch Erhart schon vonn Norennberg f für die Jungenn 
gesellenn vnnd Jungenn zu unnt / herrichtung die zu der Kunst liebthragenn 
vnd I in dann truck gepracht. 1538; below this the initials, E. S., inter- 
laced. The colophon: Gedruckt zu Nürennberg durch / Christof Zell 
beyn Rosenbad. Small 4°. 

Comprises in all 21 pages, counting the title, and contains many 
woodcuts printed in the text illustrating the proportions of the human 
body, with figures and mathematical diagrams. The book was repub- 
lished in 1540, 1542, or 1543. Cf. Heller: Geschichte der Holzschneide- 
kunst, page 116: Haller: Bibl. anatom., I, 192. 

Heinrich Lautensack: Desz Circkelsz vnd Richtscheyts , auch der Per- 
spectina, vnd Proportion der Menschen vnd Rosse, kurtze, doch gründtliche 
vnderweisung, desz rechten gebrauchs. Mit viel schönen Figuren, aller 
anfahenden Jugendt, vnnd andern liebhabern dieser Kunst, als Cold- 
schmiden, Malern, Bildhauwern, Steinmetzen, Schreinern, etc. eigentlich 
fürgebildet, vormals im Truck nie gesehen, sonder jetzunders von neuwen 
an tag gegeben, Durch etc. Gedruckt zu Frankfurt am Mayn bey Egenolf 
Emmel, Jn Verlegung Simonis Schambergers. Jm Jahr, M.D.C.XVIII, 
colophon: Gedruckt zu Franckfurt am Mayn, Jm Jahr 16 18, folio. 

Contains 4 and 54 pages with many woodcuts printed in the text; 
the third part of the book dealing with the proportions begins on page 32^ 
and contains many woodcuts, which, however, are smaller than Diirer's. 
On page 51a the text on the proportions of the bodies of horses begins, 
illustrated by three woodcuts. It has been published ^bef ore at Frankfort 
on the Main by G. Rabe, S. Feyerabend, and H. Lautensack, in 1564, 
folio. Weigel: No. 8545, 19427. The author, on the title-page, calls 
himself a goldsmith and painter of Frankfort on the Main. 


Jean Cousin: Livre de pourtraittre. Contenant par une facile instruc- 
tion, plusieurs plans et figures de toutes les partiees separees du corps 
humain: ensemble les figures entieres tant d'homes, que femmes, et de' 
petits enfans: Veues de front, de profit et de dos, avec les proportions, 
mesures et dimensions dHcelles, etc. Paris : Jean Leclerc, 1608, oblong folio. 

Thirty-seven pages with woodcuts. Counting the printed parts 
there are in all 40 pages; the cuts are supposed to have been drawn on 
the block by Cousin and cut by Leclerc. Was published later under the 
title : La vraye Science de la Pourtraicture. Repräsentant par une facile, etc.. 
Paris: Guillame Le Be, 1656, oblong folio. Weigel: No. 19497, 19498. 

Filippo Esegrenio: Li primi elementi delta simmetria ossia commen- 
surazione del disegno delli corpi umani e naturali — at giovamento delli 
Studiosi di questa nobil arte, s.l. et a., 4°. In Latin: Facillima methodus 
delineandi omnes humani corporis partes. Ex typographoeio Remon- 
diniano Veneto, folio, 24 beautiful copperplates; in the Italian edition 
the author calls himself Pittore ed Antiquario. 

Crispino del Passo: La seconda parte delta Luce delV arte, dove sHnsegna 
la proporzione del corpo d^uomini e donne, etc. Amsterdam, 1664, folio. — • 
La terza parte del designare, continente diverse posture defemine nude, tanto 
grosse che mediocre, etc. Amsterdam, 1664, folio. 

The first part of this work consisting in all of five parts, was published 
Amsterdam, 1663; the second part contains twenty-five academic 
figures and eleven plates on perspective; the third part contains two 
plates illustrating the human proportions and thirteen nude female figures. 

Girard Audran: Les proportions du corps humain mesurees sur les 
plus belles figures de V Antiquite. Avec jo planches, Paris, chez Audran, 
1683, folio. — G. Audran, graveur du Roi, les proportions, etc. Paris, chez 
Chereau, graveur, MDCCLXXXV, fol. 

Contains 30 copperplates in folio, with measurements of the pro- 
portions; the last four plates crosshatched ; 4 pages of printed text. 

Des menschlichen Leibes Proportionen, von denen Vortref- 
flichsten und aller schönsten Antichen genommen, und mit Fleisz abgemessen 
durch Mr. Audran Professeur, etc. Anitzo den Kunstliebenden zum 
Besten, ins Deutsche übersetzet. Jn Verlegung Joh. Jac. oun Sandrart sei. 
hinterlas senen Erben. Nürnberg, gedruckt bey Christian Sigmvnd Frobergy. 
s.a., folio. 

This German translation was probably published in 1689, with 26 
folio copperplates and 4 pages of printed text. The copperplates were 
engraved by Sandrart himself. An earlier edition was published, perhaps 
without place and date, in folio. Cf. Weigel: No. 19326, 19937. 


Les premiers Elemens de la Peinture pratique. Enrichis de Figures 
de Proportion measurees sur V Antique, desinees et gravees par Jean Bapt. 
Corneille, peintre de VAcademie Royale: Paris, Nicolas Langlois, 1684. 
Small 8°. 

Is said to be rare but useful, on account of its concision. Weigel: 
No. 6813. 

Georg Lichtensteger: Die aus der Arithmetic und Geometrie geholten 
Gründe der menschlichen Proportion, Nuremberg, 1746, fol. 

The author was a copper engraver and art-dealer in Nuremberg; 
of. Haller: Bihl. anat., II, 407. 

Vorstellung der Gebeine und Muskeln des menschlichen Körpers. 

Wobei dieselben in ihrer natürlichen Farbe dargestellet, und in Teutsch, 
Lateinisch und Französischer Sprache tabellenförmig beschrieben sind. 
Nebst Einleitung von dem, was überhaupt von den Gebeinen und Muskeln 
zu merken ist. Deme auch eine eigene Beschreibung der Proportion einer 
ncht Kopf grasen Figur und der U ebereinstimniung seiner Theile, beigefüget 
worden. Künstlern, Wundärzten und Liebhabern zu Dienst, herausgegeben 
und verlegt von, etc. Gedruckt bey Joh. Jos. Fleischmann, Anno i'jy4,fol. 

Comprises 10 printed pages and 16 copperplates engraved by G. 
Lichtensteger; only the first plate without number pertains to the theory 
of proportions, all the others are myologic, and some of them colored. 
On Plates I and III we read: Nie. Fried. Eisenberger ad Nat. del. et sc, 
Georg Lichtensteger excudit. Norimbergae. 

Teekenboek der Proportien van 't menschelijke Lighaam Geinventeerd 
en Ceteekend door Jacob de Wit. This is engraved on the allegoric 
copper- title, while the printed title that follows reads: Les proportions 
du corps humain. De proportien van het menschlyk ligchaam geinventeerd 
en geteekend door Jacob de Wit. Te Amsteldam, by W. Vermandel en 
J. W. Smit. MDCCXC. Large 4°. 

Contains 16 pages of Dutch and P'rench text printed side by side. 
Not counting the copper-title, there are twelve plates. The copper- 
plates are engraved by Jan Punt and represent figures showing the 
proportions of man, woman, and child, and especially of the head, also 
those of the Farnese Hercules and Apollo Belvidere. It was published 
before without place and date, Amsterdam 1747, large oblong foHo, with 
13 plates. Cf. Weigel: No. 21016. 

Jan Stella: Mesure et proportion du corps humain, Paris: Daudet, 
s.a.; 17 plates in outline. 

Franqois Anne David: Proportion des plus belles figures de Vantiquite, 
accompagne de leur description par Winckelmann, Paris, 1798, 4°, 


C. A. Kalliauer: Zeichenbuch; 10 pages. Proportionen mensch- 
licher Figuren von ihm seihst radirt. Vienna, 1804 ? large folio. 

D. R. Hay: The geometric beauty of the human figure defined, to -which 
is prefixed a system of aesthetic proportion applicable to architecture and 
the other formative arts. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood, 
185 1, royal 4°. 

Contains 16 and 68 pages and 16 copperplates in folio, representing 
geometric constructions and illustrations of the male and female skele- 
tons, and muscle-manikins, with the li|ies of proportion, after Hay's 
system. They are all drawn by the author and beautifully engraved 
by W. Forrest. Page 68 has a woodcut printed in the text, drawn by 
Houston from a living female model and provided with Hay's Hues of 
proportion. Weigel: No. 18687. In French: La beaute geometrique de 
la forme humaine. Avec 16 planches gravies en taille douce et une figure 
dans le texte. Edinburgh, 1851, 4°. 

On the science of those proportions by which the Human Head 

and Countenance, as represented in ancient Greek art, are distinguished 
from those of ordinary nature. Edinburgh, royal 4°. 

Carl Gustav Carus: Die Proportionslehre der menschlichen Gestalt. 
Zum ersten Male morphologisch und physiologisch begründet. With 10 
lithographic plates, Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus, 1854, large folio. 

Contains 4 and 23 pages and 10 folio plates drawn by Meyer and 
Krauz, lithographed by Hanfstängl, representing the human skeleton, 
the development of the ovum of the rabbit, a normal figure of the human, 
body, from the antique, such as Silenus with the young Bacchus, Venus 
of Aries. Cf . Symbolik der menschlichen Gestalt, with 1 50 printed figures, 
Leipzig: 1853, 8°; edition 2, Leipzig, 1857, 8**, by the same author. 
Cf. Zeising, pages 93 et seq.; Weigel: No. 19321, 19918. 

A . Zeising: Neue Lehre von den Proportionen des menschlichen Körpers, 
aus einem bisher unerkannt gebliebenen, die ganze Natur und Kunst durch- 
dringenden morphologischen Grundgesetze entwickelt und mit einer voll- 
ständigen historischen Uehersicht der bisherigen Systeme begleitet, with 
177 woodcuts printed in the text; Leipzig: Rudolph Weigel, 1845,8°, 
22 and 457 pages. 

The system is based on what mathematicians call the golden mean 
and is chiefly used in connection with the human body, but sometimes 
also for other illustrations of nature and art; cf. A. Zeising: Aesthetische 
Forschungen, Frankfort on the Main, 1855, 8°. 

Jos. Bonomi, sculptor: The Proportions of human figure. With six 
illustrative outlines. London, 1856, 8°. Weigel: No. 21015.] 


By Ludwig Choulant' 

Pictures of Chinese anatomy were probably first published in Europe 
by Andreas Cleyer of Hesse-Cassel, a physician of the East India Com- 
pany, in a work which Haller [Biblioth. anat., I, 137) justly calls an opus 
indigestum. It is entitled: Specimen medicinae Sinicae, sive opuscula 
medica ad mentem Sinensium, continens I. De pulsibus lihros quatuor 
e Sinico translatos. II. Tradatus de pulsibus ab erudito Europaeo col- 
lectos. III. Fragmentum peris medici ibidem ab erudito Europaeo 
conscripti. IV. Excerpta Uteris eruditi Euro paei in China. V. Schemata 
ad meliorem praecedentium intelligentiam. VI. De indiciis morborum ex 
linguae coloribus et aßectionibus. Cum figuris aeneis et ligneis. Franco/., 
sumptibus Jo. Petri Zubrodt, 1682, 4°. 

The pagination begins anew several times. Printed between the 
text are many smaller woodcuts representing the pulse and illustrating 
the appearance of the diseased tongue. Appended are thirty copper- 
plates in quarto and among them several anatomic ones. To the latter 
belong the following: 

Plate I. The trunk and head of a human body in profile; it shows 
the dissected spinal column with twenty- three vertebrae, of which the 
-highest and lowest are longer than the rest. At the neck, somewhat 
lower than the mouth, partitioned into four sinuous sections or lobes, 
is a body representing the larynx and the pharynx, for from it descend 
the trachea and oesophagus. On the former, which leads to the heart, 
the annular cartilages are suggested at the top; the latter (oesophagus) 
is smooth and leads below the diaphragm into the stomach. In the 
thoracic cavity are shown the lungs, like soft plicate lobes, divided 
longitudinally into sections running from top to bottom. Cross divisions 
irom right to left are not given. The heart is a cone with its apex 
pointing downward; it is surrounded externally with a covering which 
bears the Latin inscription Involucrum cordis. Into the base of the cone, 
pointing toward the top and somewhat to the left and back, enter the 
trachea and three narrower ducts, one of which leads to the left kidney 

' Illust. Med. Ztg., Munich, 111(1853), 211-16. 




and from there, passing beneath the urinary bladder, to the lower interior 
end of the abdomen; a second goes to the liver, the third to the spleen. 
Below the heart, the diaphragm is suggested as a double membranous 

From Andreas Cleyer, Specimen medicinae sinicae, Francofurti, 4°, 1682 

layer separating the thorax and the abdomen. Below the diaphragm, 
at the left and very near the front, is the spleen, shown as a vesicular 
body resembling the gall bladder and touching the frontal wall of the 


abdomen, extending, with its blind end, even slightly beyond it. One 
would be inclined to take it for the gall bladder if it were not expressly 
marked Lien. Below this structure is the stomach, a sac only moder- 
ately expanded. The use of two lines for its upper curvature is probably 
meant to suggest a pachydermatous margin. The stomach is shown 
extending in its full length from back to front, so that the entrance 
of the oesophagus is at the back and the expansion into the intestines is 
toward the front. The intestines are represented as convolutions below 
the stomach, of which the upper layer is called Parva intestina and the 
lower layer Magna intestina. They terminate posteriorly in the some- 
what curved rectum; the anus lies in front of the lowest vertebrae, at a 
distance equal to the length of the same. Behind the stomach and 
extending below it, but above the intestines, lies the liver, represented 
as a tuft with many folds as if composed of long tongue-shaped leaves 
with pointed apices; in its greatest length, the liver extends from top 
to bottom. Between this cluster of leaves and the apices of the leaves 
protrudes a saclike body, with an obtuse lower end, marked Pel. Pos- 
terior to the liver is shown the left kidney, bean-shaped and with its 
upper end slightly larger than the lower. The greatest length extends 
from top to bottom ; it appears to be composed of an oblong nucleus and 
several coats, and is marked: Renes seu locus uhi seminum congeries. 
At the lower extremity, in front, is shown a vesicular structure, very large 
and terminating, toward the front, in a short narrow canal, evidently 
the urinary bladder, although it is marked Ureteres. Through all the 
vertebrae passes a narrow canal terminating in the anus and beginning 
in the upper portion of the head, with a leaf-shaped body whose apex, 
turned slightly downward, lies behind the forehead and represents 
probably the brain. 

Plate VI. The lung, with the trachea entering from the top and 
consisting of nine rings; the highest ring and the three lower ones are 
somewhat longer than the rest. The lung consists of six leaf-shaped 
structures with pointed apices; to the trachea are attached the bases 
of the leaves, each one of which, like the leaf of a tree, has a midrib and 
veinlets branching from it. 

Plate VIII. Intestinal convolutions, called Intestinorum majorum 
imago. They are the large intestines. 

Plate X. The stomach with very narrow oesophagus entering from 
the left; at the right is the thick expansion into the intestines. The 
upper curve terminates in a rather straight line, while the lower one is 
strongly convex. 


Plate XII. The spleen, at least what is entitled Lienis imago, is an 
oblong, slightly narrower at the top than at the bottom, with its sides 
only moderately curved. 

Plate XIV. The heart. At the top the trachea enters, as an abso- 
lutely straight canal, provided with seven rings at its upper end, but 
smooth from thence to the bottom. From this lower part three canals 
branch off at the left, curved and growing somewhat thicker in their 

Plate XVI. The small intestine, in horizontal convolutions, lying 
over one another instead of being interlaced, as with the large intestine. 

Plate XVIII. The urinary bladder, in its greatest length extending 
transversely from one side to the other, uniformly round, tapering to an 
obtuse end at the top and the bottom; title: Ureterum imago. 

Plate XX. The two kidneys connected by an absolutely straight 
canal originating from both hila, and showing a small circle drawn in its 
center. The kidneys are represented fairly true to nature. 

Plate XXIV. The gall bladder in the shape of a large, bulging, 
narrow-necked bottle. 

Plate XXVI. The liver composed of seven long leaves with pointed 
apices and veinlets, converging at the bottom in a common stem, 
apparently hollow. 

The remaining plates contain for the most part entire figures, among 
them two female figures, with designations for the many canals, which 
are assumed to be the conductors of primary humors and of the natural 
warmth, and which form the foundation of sphygmology. The lower 
part of the trunk is always very modestly covered with drapery so that 
the external genitals of either sex are never seen. 

At an earlier period, the Pole, Michael Boym, a Jesuit and missionary 
in China and Siam, had compiled a work on Chinese medicine from 
native sources, in Chinese and Latin. The Latin translation was put 
together, it is alleged from fragments, by the above-mentioned Cleyer, 
who sent it to the Jesuit, Philipp Coplet. Thus originated a book with 
the following title: Clavis medica ad Chinarum doctrinam de pulsibus, 
autore Michaela Boy mo. Huius peris ultra viginti annos iam sepulti 
fragmenta hinc inde dispersa collegit et in gratiam medicae Facultatis in 
lucem Europaeam produxit Andreas Cleyerus. A quo nunc demum 
mittitur totius operis exemplar, e China recens allatum et a mendis 
purgatum, procuratore Philip po Copletio, sine loco, 1686, 4°, 144 pages 
and 6 copperplates in quarto pertaining to sphygmology, and not 


The same text with the copperplates is also contained in Miscellanea 
curiosa sive Ephemeridum Academiae Naturae Curiosorum Decuria II. 
Annus IV. {1685) Norimh. sumpt. W. M. Endteri, 1686, 4°. The appen- 
dix shows that the first-mentioned edition is nothing but sheets taken 
from the Ephemeridae and separately bound. The only anatomic 
illustration is on page 144, a small woodcut in the text representing the 
pericardium or the involucrum cordis, as a bag with a stem or a canal 
entering at its upper broad end. 

The well-known surgeon Fabricius von Hilden (i 560-1 643) is said 
to have owned a Chinese manuscript with anatomic illustrations which 
he had received from China (Haller: Bibl. anat., 1, 9, 138). In the 
complete edition of his works, however, nothing is said about it. In 
Description de V empire de la Chine, etc.. Vol. Ill (La Haye, 1736, 4°), by 
the Jesuit, Duhalde, one may find on pp. 461 ff. a representation of 
Chinese medicine. Recently F. A. Lepage treated this subject in a 
separate work in Recherches historiques de la medicine des Chinois, Paris, 
1813, 4°. But both descriptions are without illustrations. 

Through the agency of Dr. G. Schultz, prosector at St. Petersburg, 
four genuine Chinese plates acquired by the Russian mission in Peking, 
were obtained for the library of the Medico-Chirurgical Academy, and 
since they are beyond any doubt originals, an exact description of the 
illustrations follows: 

The plates, each 0.75 meter high and 0.29 meter wide, have been 
printed on one side of very thin tissue paper, with somewhat gray ink, 
apparently by means of wood blocks. For the sake of durability they 
were mounted on cardboard at St. Petersburg. On the figures them- 
selves there is a great deal of Chinese writing in various sizes ; a small part 
was translated by the well-known missionary, Giitzlaff, later English 
commercial agent, during a brief stay at St. Petersburg and will be given 

The first plate contains the profile view of the trunk and head of a 
human body, without the arms, legs, and genitals. It resembles the 
figure represented on the first of Cleyer's plates, except that it is reversed. 
On the original plate is shown the right side of the face and the body, 
while Cleyer's plate shows the left side. Cleyer's figure was probably 
put on the copperplate just as it was found on the original plate and 
therefore appeared reversed on the print. Other differences must prob- 
ably be blamed on the artist; the original plate has only twenty- two 
vertebrae, of which only the highest is very long while the lowest equals 
the rest in size; the mouth is of regular shape and small, the oesophagus 


narrower than the trachea (while with Cleyer the latter is narrower), 
on the trachea thirteen broad rings are indicated. The upper end of 
the heart into which the trachea, very much narrowed, enters is shown 
turned upward and slightly to the right; one of the canals arising from 
it leads into the right kidney and from there, following the course of 
the spinal column and passing beneath the urinary bladder, descends 
to the lower part of the abdomen; from whence it ascends to the front 
and widens into the lower anterior and empty part of the abdominal 
cavity, which lies in front of the urinary bladder. With Cleyer, it pro- 
ceeds as a tube up to a ball or aperture, lying beneath and separated 
from the urinary bladder. The second canal, proceeding from the upper 
part of the heart, leads to the liver, the third into the organ which Cleyer 
calls the spleen, but which, judging from its position in the original 
plate — it Ues on the right side of the abdomen and very near the front— 
and also judging from its shape, might be the gall bladder. The anus 
lies near the lower end of the last vertebra, while on Cleyer's plate it 
lies away from it. In the center is also shown the body which, toward 
the bottom, has the shape of a sac and might be taken to be the gall 
bladder; it bears here also two Chinese characters. Only the right 
kidney can be seen; the anastomosis of the duct descending in the back 
is not obtuse, as with Cleyer, but sharp-edged and pointed and seems 
to be an attachment rather than an anastomosis. The urinary bladder 
is a sac tapering to a point at the bottom; there is no indication of a 
canal as shown by Cleyer. 

The second plate represents a full front view of a complete human 
figure and corresponds with Cleyer's second copperplate. Over the 
middle part of the body is thrown an apron. The whole figure shows 
only the canals in which the blood, the natural warmth, or the primary 
humors are supposed to flow, and the places for feeling the pulse. Note- 
worthy are two rounded, trilateral excrescences, on one side above the 
forehead pointing sUghtly outward, to which canals lead; and the 
sternum, which is represented very distinctly and on which the manu- 
brium and the two parts of the metasternum can be very well dis- 
tinguished. The body of the sternum itself consists of seven pieces; 
the ribs and intercostal spaces are shown in outline only; four false ribs 
are distinctly brought out. The umbilicus is indicated by a small 
rounded slanting shield with writing; nothing is seen of the genitals; 
fingers and toes have long nails. 

The third plate represents a back view of a whole human figure with 
an apron over the loins and corresponds with Cleyer's third copperplate. 


Here, also, the two lateral excrescences are shown on the top of the 
crown of the head, bearing the same Chinese characters as on the pre- 
ceding plate; the vertebrae are represented as round bodies, of which 
there are twenty-four, the lowest one being very small (with Cleyer they 
are rectilinear structures). The scapulae are without acromial processes, 
the nails on the fingers are very long, those of the toes are shorter. In 
the region of the kidneys there are two roundish shields. 

The fourth plate shows a whole human figure, with an apron over the 
loins. It is a view of the left side of the body. The left arm is placed on 
the hip, the right arm is bent at the elbow-joint and is covered with a 
wide sleeve so that only the upturned hand at the neck can be seen; 
thumb, index, and the little finger are stretched upward; the middle 
finger is bent over toward the upper joint of the thumb; the fourth 
finger is bent back into the palm of the hand. The nails are very long 
on both hands and short on the left foot; on the right foot they are 
covered by a shoe. On this plate, as on the two preceding plates, nothing 
anatomic is represented, only the imaginary canals and places for feeling 
the pulse. This plate corresponds with Cleyer's fourth copperplate, 
except that the latter is reversed, so that the body is seen from the 
right side. 

This makes it certain that Cleyer had these, or very similar plates, 
before him and that he had them copied on a reduced scale of a little 
less than one-third their original size. Many things, however, especially 
in the represented canals, had to be omitted. Nor were any pains taken 
to reproduce them on the copperplate with the use of the mirror, so that 
they are all reversed. All the Chinese writing of the original plates is 
also left out. 

The passage translated by Gützlaff was taken from the fourth plate, 
the one just described (the lateral view), and there constitutes the title: 

The heart is the monarch of the whole body. The lung is the communicating 
principle which rules over all the members (prime minister). The liver is, so to 
speak, the general for the strategic branch. The bile is the principle that always 
leads to equability and which causes decision and acts as the handmaid of joy and 
happiness. The spleen (Pi), a department of the stomach, is like a granary which 
produces the five types of taste and gives the power to feel them. The large (long ?) 
intestines are the great viaduct in which everything is changed. The small (short ?) 
intestines are the rich recipients which throw out the transformed substance. The 
kidneys are the strengthening principle whence all firmness proceeds. The urethra 
(san-tsi-ao) is a channel through which the water is conducted. The bladder is a 
receptacle of saps (seminal fluid?). When our temperature changes we can shed 
tears — but we must never shed uselessly any of these two saps (namely tears and 


semen). The heart is the lake of the marrow and of all that concerns the brain, 
from the top down to the lowest part, and controls the kidneys, the five difTerent 
intestines and the six inner organs, the hundred kinds of marrow and the nine aper- 
tures, the arteries and the veins, which are all connected with each other like joints. 
The bile is the lake of the central humor between the two milk receptacles which are 
the two principles of life, both of the male and the female, and the source of every- 
thing living. The diaphragm lies underneath the lung and the heart and extends 
like a curtain to the vertebrae, covering the coarser humors in order to prevent them 
from evaporating and ascending. All humidity enters into the bladder and the waste 
matter into the large intestines, from whence it is excreted through a viaduct between 
the large and small intestines. The red field (the heart) comprises six joints (depart- 
ments), but the pulse of the kidneys has seven joints (or, the pulse of the kidney is 
the seventh joint). At the side of these seven joints is the upper heart and this is 
the door of life, etc. 

So far Giitzlaff, who dictated this translation rather hastily and who him- 
self admits that he was unable to interpret many characters. Another 
sinologist will probably interpret many portions quite differently and 
will perhaps know how to account for the symbolic and allegoric terms.] 



Fielding H. Garrison and Edward C. Streeter 

The earliest known hand-drawings in manuscript representing details 
of human anatomy (from the twelfth century down to the time of 
Leonardo da Vinci) are of the most rudimentary and diagrammatic 
character and, for several centuries, reveal nothing but servile adherence 
to tradition. Before the advent of Leonardo, the finest figurations of 
anatomical structure were by-products of the advancement of the plastic 
and graphic arts. The question, "Did anatomy do anything for art?" 
has been conclusively answered by the late Dr. Robert Fletcher, in two 
essays of unrivaled scholarship, viz., "Human Proportion in Art and 
Anthropometry" (1883) and "Anatomy and Art" (1895). I^ Fletcher's 
view, the concept "artistic anatomy" should be replaced by "artistic 
morphology," its true content being physiology and external pathology, 
rather than the science of musculature. Our problem is: Did art, in 
the sense of sculpture and painting, do anything for anatomy ? What 
such processes as free-hand drawing and engraving did for anatomy has 
already been exhaustively considered by Choulant himself. 

Detailed investigation of this subject is of recent date. It has 
two aspects: (i) anatomical illustration without (didactic) intention, 
(2) anatomical illustration with intention. Most artistic productions 
bearing upon our subject fall into the former class. 

Far back in prehistoric time, early man seems to have concerned him- 
self with delineation of the surface anatomy of the human body, particu- 
larly during the glacial periods, when increased cold confined him to 
the caves. Representations of man and animal in the shape of carvings 
and statuettes in bone and ivory, sculptures in alto rilievo, line engravings 
on stone and bone, and mural paintings in polychrome, abound in all 
the caves of the Old Stone Age (Paleolithic period). Sculpture preceded 
engraving and painting. The earliest known representations of the 
human figure have been found in the deposits of the Middle Aurignacian 
period (40000-16000 b.c.). In 1908, Szombathy discovered, deep in the 
loess, at Willendorf, on the left bank of the Danube, a limestone statuette 
of a woman, about 4^ inches high, representing a nude female figure of 


Statuette from Willendorf (Middle 



massive proportions, known as the "Venus of Willendorf."' The 
gigantic breasts and buttocks (steatopygy) of the primitive woman are 
thrown into strong relief, the head is bowed over the breasts, so that the 
face is indistinguishable, the arms, ornamented with bracelets, are 
folded over the breasts, but the feet are missing. The hair is arranged 
in a cascade of curls, like the coiffure of later Egyptian and Grecian 
women. The physical habitus is distinctly negroid, that of Maupertuis ' 
"Hottentot Venus," and probably the effect, as Osborn says, of eating 
large quantities of fat and marrow, in the sedentary life and confine- 
ment to caves incident to this glacial period. Other sculptures of the 
Cro-Magnon artists, such as the ivory Venus of Brassempouy and other 
statuettes fashioned out of the teeth of animals from Laugerie Basse 
and Mas d'Azil, the female figurines in soapstone and talc (one a figura- 
tion of pregnancy) from the Grimaldi caves near Mentone,^ the female 
statuettes of Sireuil and Trou Magrite, are described by Osborn as 
prototypes of modern cubist art. The posterior steatopygy is absent, 
but the gigantic breasts and haunches are blocked out in truly cubist 
fashion. At Laussel, M. Gaston Lalanne found four bas-reliefs of the 
human figure sculptured on limestone blocks. Of these the most remark- 
able are a nude female figure, 18 inches high, with large pendent mammae 
and exaggerated haunches, holding a buffalo horn in the uplifted right 
hand; another female figure with the cowl or capuchin headdress of 
Brassempouy; and a figure of a well-formed, vigorous man, minus head, 
feet, and hands, apparently in act to bend a bow or hurl a spear. ^ The 
latter, in sharp contrast with the female figure, is nowise corpulent, but 
suggests the straight flanks, narrow hips, and serviceable musculature of 
the athlete par excellence. Thus the passion for uncompromising realism 
in sculpture was already characteristic of Paleolithic man. The line 
engravings on schist and bone, representing horses, reindeer, bison, bears, 
rhinoceros, chamois, antelopes, birds, and plants, are also unmistakably 
lifelike, and the parietal decorations in polychrome, executed by Mag- 
dalenian man (16000 b.c.), and found on the walls of the caverns of the 
Dordogne and the Pyrenees, have the same startling realism. These 
mural paintings frequently convey all the semblance of '7e mouvement^" 

' For a photograph of which see Szombathy, Kor. Bl. d. deutsch. Gesellsch. f. Anthrop., 
Bmschwg., XI (1909), 87, or Osborn, Men of the Old Stone Age, New York, 1916, p. 322. 

»S. Reinach, L' Anthropologie, Paris, IX (1898), 26-31, 2 pi. 

3 G. Lalanne, ibid., XXIII (1912), 129-49, 4 pi. Recently, P. Schiefferdecker in Arch.f. 
Anthrop., Braunschweig, N.S., XV (1916), 214-29, gives a different interpretation of the last 
figure. He believes that the athletic man is not engaged in handling weapons but in 
protecting a woman from the aggressions of another man. 


the ambition of modern artists. The fore and hind legs of galloping 
animals, such as those of running stags engraved on an antler from the 
cavern of Lorthet (Hautes Pyrenees), are exactly as we find them in 
our instantaneous photographs, an action unknown to all animal painters 
of later times.' The most striking of the rock paintings in red and black 
in the Spanish cave at Cogul (Lerida) represents a sacral dance of nine 
women around a phallic figure.^ The women have pendulous breasts, 
narrow waists, flaring haunches, knee-high, bell-shaped skirts of recent 
fashionable type, and mantillas over the shoulders. The women depicted 
on the rock-shelter wall of the Alpera cave (Sierra Chinchilla)^ are 
steatopygous, with exposed breasts, flaring hips and bell-shaped skirts, 
strongly suggestive of the physical habitus and national costume of the 
Spanish maja or gitana. The same bell-shaped skirt is again found in 
the remarkable post-Neolithic figurines excavated by Sir Arthur Evans 
in the palace at Knossos (Crete), representing the primordial Mother- 
Goddess and her votary. The breasts in these finely executed figures 
are again exposed and anatomically correct in execution. The anatomy 
of similar human figures on Cretan and Mycenaean seals and signets 
is far cruder in representation. The Babylonian mother-goddesses 
sculptured in alto rilievo (Yale Collections) are comely figurations of the 
nude, usually representing the act of suckling, vague in outline but of 
gracious charm. The Egyptian paintings are commonly executed in 
profile, and with sufficient clarity of outline. In the bas-relief of the 
temple at Sakkarah in upper Egypt (1500 B.c.), the fact that the harp- 
players are blind, while the singers are not, is wonder/ully conveyed by 
a simple indication en profit (Holländer). Earlier Egyptian statuary, 
from the Sphinx to such figures as the Scribe and the basalt head in the 
Louvre, or the bronze lady in the Athens Museum, reveals remarkable 
rugged skill in representing the human face and form, dwindling into 
mere academic elegance in the figures of the Middle and New Empires. 
All these figures, of whatever period, exhibit Lange's "law of frontality," 
i.e., they are always represented as gazing directly and rigidly forward, 
usually motionless, but even in walking, static, in that they rest solidly 
on the soles of the feet."* 

Perhaps the earliest anatomical models constructed were the ancient 
Babylonian livers in baked clay, subdivided into squares and studded 

» See S. Reinach, Apollo, New York, 1907, pp. 6-7. 

*H. Breuil and J. Cabre Aguila, L' Anthropologie, Paris, XX (1909), 17. 

iH. Breuil, P. Serrano Gomez, and J. Cabre Aguila, ibid., XXIII (1912), 556. 

* S. Reinach, ApoUo, New York, 1907, p. 20. 


with prophetic inscriptions. Although these were used for purposes of 
divination (hepatoscopy), yet the nomenclature of the inscriptions and 
the configuration of the parts already impHes considerable knowledge 
and study of didactic anatomy. The lobes, the gall-bladder, bile duct, 
hepatic duct, the porta hepatis, processus pyramidalis, and processus 
papillaris are all distinctly outlined, as Stieda has shown, and these 
specimens, viewed merely as examples of anatomical illustration in 
three dimensions, are far superior to the five-lobed livers of medieval 
tradition, as given in the Tabulae anatomicae of Vesalius. Similar 
models have been found on ancient Hittite sites in Asia Minor. Stieda 
describes an ancient Etruscan Hver in bronze from Piacenza (third 
century b.c.) and another in alabaster from Volterra. All these models 
represent the sheep's liver.' The lore of Babylonian hepatoscopy is 
considerable. The figures of dancing girls, hewn out of solid rock in 
the temples of India, Ceylon, and the East Indies, are already splendid 
representations of the surface anatomy of muscular action. 

The crown and flower of achievement in artistic representation of 
human surface-anatomy is that of Greek sculpture in the classic period, 
as Berenson says, "the creations of men with almost unrivaled feeling 
for tactile values, movement and the relation of the two." Here, in 
the words of Fletcher, "Art was far in advance of medicine. The noble 
works of Phidias and his contemporaries and successors were in existence 
long before the time when Hippocrates began the work of rescuing medi- 
cine from the priests and made his first imperfect sketch of anatomy." 
In the earlier period, sculptures in high and low relief, Hke those on the 
shields of Achilles (Homer) and Hercules (Hesiod) , preceded the carving 
of statuary in wood and stone. Of early sculpture, such figurations as 
those from the temples at Selinunt (Palermo) and Gartelza (Corfu) are 
grinning grotesques en face, suggesting the fantastic carvings of Japanese 
art. The earliest specimens of statuary, such as the Artemis of Delos 
(620 B.c.) or the Hera of Samos (580 b.c.), were evolved from the crude 
wooden images of godhead {^bava), stiff, rigid columns, without separa- 
tion of limbs or eyes, which apparently derived immediately from the 
aniconic idols of post-Neolithic man. Of these the Nike of Delos 
(Athens), the Apollo of Tenea (Corinth), and the twin figures (Cleobis 
of Biton) of Delphi (sixth century b.c.), while still serio-comic in facial 
expression, have considerable anatomic merit. As with the Egyptian 
statuary, these upright nude figures again illustrate the Lange "law of 

■ L. Stieda, "Ueber die ältesten bildlichen Darstellungen der Leber," Anal. Hefte, 
Wiesbaden, XV (1900), 673-720, 1 pl. 


frontality," gazing directly forward, singularly alike in pose, the attitude 
in both being exactly that of "attention" in our "school of the soldier." 
In the Apollo, the pectoralis major, deltoid, biceps, and rectus abdominis 
muscles are thrown into relief, the musculature of the forearm, thigh, 
and calf of the leg is well modeled, as also the bony conformation of the 
wrist and ankle; the flanks, hips, and prepatellar region are unmistakably 
masculine in character, suggesting already a keen, accurate vision for 
the surface anatomy of the body. Some observation of the workings 
of facial musculature is evidenced in the faint smile. The hair is worn 
long, falling in wavy cascades of curls, as in the coiffure of Aurignacian 
women. The musculature of the back, the gluteal, soleus and popliteal 
muscles are well differentiated in the rear view, and Hyrtl's dictum that 
grace and poise in statuary depend, in the last analysis, upon the sculp- 
tor's exact or intuitive knowledge of underlying bony structure is already 
borne out in these figures. The bronze statues of Harmodius and 
Aristogeiton (Naples) by the Attic sculptor Antenor (510 b.c.), repre- 
senting two gigantic figures in the attitude of combat, have the same 
anatomical merits, the muscles being thrown into sharp relief by the 
movement of the figures. The decorative figure-paintings on vases of 
this period are mainly grotesques, suggesting Persian or other Asiatic 

Greek art in the time of the Persian Wars (500-479 b.c.) was that of 
a period of transition. The temples erected to the gods were built of 
marble, instead of wood or limestone; the differential characters of sex 
and the external appearances of the joints and veins were better featured 
on the vases, and linear perspective was mastered by Cimon of Cleonae 
(Pliny). Sculpture, however, lagged behind, and was still in the tenta- 
tive, experimental stage, feeling its way toward perfection. Molding 
in bronze was more highly specialized, since the reflection of the light, 
absorbed by translucent marble, required closer attention to surface 
details. The athletic bronze Apollo of Lord Strangford (British Museum) 
brings out the pectoral muscles, the ribs, and the masculine character 
of the hips and lower extremities with great clarity. The special details 
of bronze statuary, in which the artists of Aegina exceUed, in particular 
the armor, weapons, and hair, were made separately and fastened to 
the figure. Similar details in bronze and lead were also attached to the 
marble figures. The finest examples of figuration in marble in this 
period are those which adorned the east and west gables of the Doric 
temple of Aphaia at Aegina, acquired by Ludwig I of Bavaria after their 
discovery in 181 1, and restored by Thorwaldsen. Excavations made by 

Apollo of Tenea (Corinth) 600 b.c. 

Figure from the Aphaian Temple at Aelina U 'üü Ckxtukv b.c. 


Adolf Furtwängler go to show that this temple was erected after the 
battle of Salamis (480 b.c.), in which the Aeginetae bore away the palm 
for bravery. Of the thirteen figures on the western gable, ten remain; 
of the eleven larger statues on the eastern gable, only five. These 
decorations consist of a central figure (Athena) with symmetrical arrange- 
ments of warriors in combat on either side. The poses of these athletic 
figures afford the best opportunity for the exploitation of muscular 
anatomy. The kneehng Hercules, on the eastern gable, for instance, 
in act to discharge an arrow from a bow, reveals remarkable empirical 
knowledge of the effect of bending the knee and elbow-joints upon 
flexure and extension of the muscles of the extremities. The prostrate 
wounded warrior at the corner of the eastern gable, lying on his side in 
a semiprone posture, displays the same tendency. The figures are all 
nude, not that warriors actually exposed the unprotected frame to the 
enemy in this way, but because nudity was the "festal costume" at the 
athletic games from 700 b.c. on. When we reflect that Greek sculptors 
acquired their knowledge of the surface-anatomy of the body, the effect 
of rest and motion upon its musculature and its underlying bony frame- 
work, not from dissection, but from empirical observation of athletes 
in action during games and military exercises, the achievement seems all 
the more wonderful. 

In the period between the Persian Wars and the age of Pericles, 
Athenian sculpture and architecture progressed by leaps and bounds, 
and the Attic drama attained its height. The temples of the gods, 
destroyed by the barbarians, were rebuilt in a spirit of piety and sincere 
gratitude. The temple of Zeus at Olympia (completed 457 b.c.) and 
the Siphnian and Athenian treasuries at Delphi were erected in this 
period. The metopes of the Olympian temple, particularly the friezes 
representing the twelve labors of Hercules and the battle between the 
Centaurs and the Lapithae, were executed with great power and distinct 
realism as to musculature and other details. In the compositions of 
the great sculptors of the period — Calamis, Myron, Phidias, Paeonios, 
Alcammenes, Polycletus — greater artistic freedom was attained, par- 
ticularly in the expression of momentary attitudes. Calamis, Myron, 
and Polycletus worked in bronze as well as marble. The chryselephan- 
tine statues of Athena by the Athenian Phidias (born circa 500 b.c.) 
were celebrated in the writings of Pausanias and others, and the sculp- 
tures of the Parthenon — the metopes in alto rilievo, the friezes in basso 
rilievo, and many of the figures in the round of the pediments (now famed 
as the Elgin marbles) — were either modeled by him or executed under 


his direction. Of these, the Moirae, the Theseus, the Poseidon, 
are splendid examples of massive modeling from the half-draped and 
undraped nude. The characters of his seated Zeus in the temple of 
Olympia are sensed in the majestic head in the Carlsberg Glypothek 
(Copenhagen). The Marsyas and Discobolus of Myron are remarkable 
for bold movement, and here the "law of frontahty " is totally abolished. 
The Aphrodite of Myron was admired for its grace and beauty. The 
winged Olympian Nike by Paeonios (454 b.c.) is a splendid semidraped 

Polycletus, the Peloponnesian rival of Phidias, whose Amazon 
(Vatican) and other statues introduced the new motif of resting the 
weight of the body on one foot, was only excelled by Phidias in grandeur 
and excelled him in finish. His Doryophorus (Naples Museum) was 
called the ''Canon," on account of its just rendering of human propor- 
tions. The wonderful power of first-hand observation of anatomical 
structure possessed by the sculptors of the age of Polycletus is evinced 
in a torso from the metopes of the friezes of the Argive Heraeum at 
Argos. This figure represents a nude warrior youth in violent contest 
with an Amazon. In the groin is a curious hernia-like protrusion, which, 
as Waldstein proved by dissection and by throwing a well-developed 
athlete into the same posture, is nothing less than the forcibly contracted 
pectineus muscle, not visible in repose, being hidden at the bottom of 
Scarpa's triangle. This muscle, which was highly developed in Greek 
athletes, has escaped the attention of modern sculptors, as also a well- 
defined fine running from the groin to the iHum, which is found in all 
antique statues of the athletic prizemen.' 

The pupils of Phidias, the gem engravers and the painters (Polyg- 
notus) represent the last stages of the transition from the splendid 
dignity and repose {ethos) of the older masters, the static expression of 
physical power, to the newer pathos, which conveyed the impression of 
pain by muscular contraction of the body and face. The older artists 
avoided the expression of active emotions. 

For the gods approve 
The depth and not the tumult of the soul. 

Pathos, passion, and movement were the newer ambitions of the Peri- 
clean and post-Periclean sculptors — Cephisodotus, Praxiteles, Scopus, 
and Lysippus, and particularly of the painters, Zeuxis, Parrhasius, and 
Apelles. In the beautiful draped Irene of Cephisodotus (Munich), 
the influence of Phidias is still apparent. The Hermes, Kore, and 

' Sir Charles Waldstein, The Argive Heraeum, Boston, 1902, p. 186, pi. 30 and 34. 

The Nike of Paionios {circa 420 b.c.) 

The Doryphorus of Polycletus (Fifth Century b.c.) 


Cnidian Aphrodite of Praxiteles, the Apoxyomenos and Medicean Venus 
of Lysippus, the Milesian Venus in the Louvre have still immortal 
repose, suggesting physical dignity (anima) rather than passion and 
movement {animus). The heads of the Tegaean Temple (Athens) and 
Heracles (Florence) of Scopus express passion and suffering, while the 
Borghese warrior of Lysippus (Louvre) is thrown forward in a violent 
attitude of combat. The sculptures of the Alexandrian period (323- 
146 B.c.) were mainly character studies executed for the Roman con- 
querors. The Farnese Bull and the Laocoön (Vatican), both of the 
Rhodian School, are supreme examples of the expression of pathos and 
emotion by means of violent muscular movement. The Samothracian 
Nike in the Louvre, the Niobe in the Ufhzi (Florence), and the Demeter 
of Cnidos (British Museum) are majestic expressions of the draped 
female figure. The Dying Gladiator in the Capitoline Museum and the 
Dying Giant (Berlin) are the best-known examples of the School of 
Pergamus. The sculptures of the newer Attic School, such as the 
Venus Genetrix and Felicitas of Arcesilaus, show greater elaboration of 
detail, but have little to say as modes of anatomic illustration, the actual 
Roman sculptures even less. 

In the ancient Greek world, it was customary for those who had 
escaped some disaster or who were desirous of averting it to dedicate to 
a god an avadrjua or votive ofTering in token of gratitude or anticipation 
of favor. These anathemata were usually statues or images of objects, 
the latter sometimes graven upon a stele. In the temples of Aesculapius, 
these ex-voto images were suspended by those who had recovered from 
illness or wounds, through the cures rendered by the god during the rite 
of incubation or temple-sleep. In the Roman civilization, the cult 
remained the same, and was carried over into Latinized Christianity, 
even through the Middle Ages. The Roman votive offering was a 
donarium or oblation, such as the clothes of the shipwrecked person in 
Horace, suspended on a votive tablet to the god of the sea. The ex-voto 
figurations in the medical cult represented all parts of the body — heads, 
eyes, ears, arms, legs, hands, feet, female breasts, male and female genera- 
tive organs, viscera or a torso of the chest or of the opened abdomen 
with the inclosed viscera.' Most of these objects are rough and faulty 
in execution, and of little moment as examples of anatomical illustration. 
The best are unquestionably those representing coils of intestines. The 
oldest medical ex-voto known is a stone object from Mycenae (600 b.c.), 

' See E. Hollander's Plastik und Medizin, Stuttgart, 1912, pp. 175-235, and Sudhoff, 
Beilage 2. AUg. Zschr., Augsberg, 1901, No. 140; Zschr. f. Balaeol., V (Berlin, 1912-13), 


in the Schliemann Collection at Athens, representing a coil of intestines, 
with a smooth base, provided with bored holes for suspension.^ There 
are signs of strangulation, but the mesenteric or omental attachments 
are not represented. This three-dimensional figuration is superior, in 
sheer realism, to the pictures of the same objects in the Fabrica of 
Vesalius (1543). Many of these ex-voto objects have been found in 
the Asclepieion at Athens. In the Hieron at Epidaurus, a marble 
votive tablet representing the ears of the Gaul Cutius, was discovered. 
Votive eyes and breasts are most common among the temple objects. 
Hovorka describes two inscribed Lydian stelae of 236 A.D., represent- 
ing eyes, legs, and breasts.^ Girard notes no votive eyes from the 
Asclepieion at Athens. The Berlin Museum possesses ex-votos of 
PenteUcan marble from the Acropolis at Athens representing eyes, a 
breast with nipple, and a torso of the female pelvis, also a pair of breasts 
from Paros. A highly decorated Greek vessel in clay, in the Villa di 
Papa Giulio at Rome, has the form of the human astragalus.^ 

The cult of medical votive offerings existed also in ancient Etruria, 
and the most important objects excavated are from the Etruscan cities 
notably Veii. Others come from Capua, Nemi, Citta Lavinia, Ter- 
racina, the Isola San Bartolommeo in the Tiber, and the temple of 
Minerva Medica in Rome. The city of Veii, the ancient enemy of Rome, 
was destroyed by Marcus Furius Camillus in 396 b.c. The cult of 
Aesculapius was introduced into Rome in 291 b.c. These dates fix the 
approximate period of the early Italian ex-votos in baked reddish-brown 
terra cotta, sometimes painted red. These donaria, first described by 
Ludwig Stieda (1901)'' and Gustav Alexander (1905) ,5 represent all parts 
of the body. The most significant for our purpose are those representing 
the exposed viscera of the thorax, abdomen, and female pelvis, coils of 
intestines and other isolated organs and viscera. It is known that post- 
mortem sections and dissections of the human body were never made 
by the ancients, for theological reasons. The exposed situs viscerum 
in these votive objects represents such knowledge as was gained from 
the Haruspicina, or inspection of the viscera of domestic animals at 
the time of sacrificial slaughter. The representations are therefore 

' Holländer, op. ciL, pp. 211-12. 

^ O. von Hovorka, Wien. med. Wochenschr., LXIII (1913), 958. 

3 Holländer, op. cit., p. 189. 

■•L. Stieda, "Anatomisches über alt-italische Weihgeschenke {donaria)," Anal. Hefte, 
Wiesbaden, XVI (1901), 1-83, 4 pl. 

s G. Alexander, "Zur Kenntnis der etruskischen Weihgeschenke," Anal. Hefte, XXX 
(1905-6), 155-98, 4 pl- 

Coil of Intestinks {Ex voto from Mycenae) 



rudimentary and sometimes inaccurate. The trachea is a definitely seg- 
mented tube, the lobes of the lungs were known, also the position of the 
heart between them; the stomach and coiled intestines were frequently 
well represented; the existence of the spleen, kidneys, bladder, uterus, 
vagina, and external genitalia is clearly indicated, but the liver is repre- 
sented as three-lobed and no trace of the oesophagus is found. The 
intestines are frequently delineated as a mere wriggling line in two 
dimensions, like the trail of a serpent, but of the so-called budelle, or coiled 
intestines in three dimensions, admirable specimens exist in the Museo 
nazionale and the Museo dei Fermi at Rome. These are comparable 
with the isolated intestinal coils in Vesalius {Fabrica, 1543, 361; 
1555, 562). 

Apart from the medical donaria, there are a number of ancient 
marble sculptures which, from their nature, we may assume to have been 
employed for medical instruction. That such specimens of anatomic 
illustration may have been conceived and executed with didactic inten- 
tion may be inferred from a note in Pausanias concerning the bronze 
skeleton at Delphi, dedicated to Apollo by Hippocrates. Such skeletons 
were more often as not, larvae, i.e., images of dried skin and bone with 
the bones thrown into relief, as in the medieval Dances of Death; but 
the miniature skeletons in bronze from Imola, described by Lovatelli 
(1895), so exact in execution that there can be little doubt as to 
their probable usefulness in teaching anatomy. The marble skull in 
the British Museum (London), said to have come from the grotto of 
Tiberius at Capri, is thought by Treu' to belong to a late period. The 
most remarkable of these sculptures with presumable didactic intention, 
is an unusually well-executed marble torso in the Vatican, representing 
the thorax, with clavicle, sternum and the twelve ribs.^ Nothing is 
known concerning the provenance of this fine torso, beyond the state- 
ment of Visconti (to Charcot) that it was found, along with various 
inscriptions relating to medical slaves, in an evil quarter of Rome, near 
the Via Aestensis.^ The scientific accuracy of representation suggests 
didactic import. Helbig regards it as a donarium. Braun and Alex- 
ander believe that it was fashioned after an anatomical preparation, in 
Charcot's phrase, "une sorte d'anatomie plastique ä V usage des niedecins." 

' Treu, De o'ssium humanorum larvarutnque afmd aniiquos imaginibus, Berlin, 1874, 
cited by Alexander. 

'Holländer, op. cil., p. 187. Charcot and Dechambre, Gaz. hebd. de mid., Paris, IV 
(1857), 513-18- 

3 Charcot, op. cit., p. 515. 


Stieda regards it as an ornament of a tomb.^ Visconti attributed it to 
the age of Augustus, but it may belong to a very late period, since similar 
figurations of the chest are still used as votive offerings in Tyrol and 
Southern Germany. Another marble torso in the Vatican, first described 
by Charcot and Dechambre,^ was excavated on the site of a villa which 
is said to have been the residence of the physician Antonius Musa. 
It represents the exposed thoracic and abdominal viscera. The heart 
lies vertically in the central plane of the thorax, as in Galen's description, 
and is therefore the heart of the lower apes. The left lung has two lobes, 
the right three, as in various apes, and representation of the stomach 
and intestines is faulty. As the anatomy of this '^ splanchnologie en 
marbre" is inferior to the anatomy of Galen, Charcot attributes it to an 
earlier period. Veit^ describes an Etruscan ex-voto from Veii, a female 
torso in baked clay, acquired from the effects of Count Vespignani, the 
director of the papal excavations made at Veii under Pius IX. A spindle- 
shaped opening in the abdomen contains the exposed thoracic and 
abdominal viscera, the heart, lungs, three-lobed liver, stomach, intes- 
tines, and bladder, in succession downward, with spleen and kidneys 
on the side. This, Stieda states, is more complete than any other 
Etruscan situs viscerum. From the character of the coiffure of wavy 
hair, reaching to the shoulders, which was the fashion in the time of 
Julia Domna, wife of the emperor Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), 
this ex-voto has been attributed by the archaeologist Bulle to the period 
of Galen (131-200 a.D.). '* Gustav Klein points out that this visceral 
representation corresponds closely with some of the bloodletting mani- 
kins of the Middle Ages and with the pictures in Mundinus.^ It is, 
therefore, within the range of possibility that these visceral representa- 
tions in marble and baked clay may have been ultimately transferred to 
paper to become the originals of the earliest known anatomic illustrations 
in two dimensions, as seen in the hand-drawings of the Middle Ages. 

In this connection, an interesting question arises, namely, as to the 
provenance of the figurations of skeletal and visceral anatomy in the 
medieval Books of Hours. 

In ancient Egypt and in the later Roman period, small skeletons in 
wood or metal were used as Epicurean memento mori devices at feasts, 

' G. Alexander, op. ciL, pp. 191-92. 

' Charcot and Dechambre, op. ciL, pp. 515-18. Alexander, op. cit., pp. 191-93. 

3 J. Veit, "Ueber ein Weihgeschenk aus Veji," Sitzungsb. d. phys. med. Soz. zu Erlangen, 

XXXVI ([1904I 1905), 43-46. 

* Veit, op. cit., pp. 44-46. 5 Veit, op. cit., p. 44. 


reminders of the brevity of human life. Those engraved on the silver 
wine cups of the Boscoreale treasure in the Louvre (first century a.D.), 
some of them representing the "shades" of departed philosophers, are 
unusually realistic in execution. But as Lessing (1769)' and latterly 
Parkes Weber^ have shown, the skeleton was never used by the ancients 
to represent death itself; these serio-comic figures were merely employed 
at banquets with the usual carpe diem intention. Among the ancient 
Greeks, Death was figured as Thanatos, a winged black-robed figure 
with a drawn sword, or associated with Hermes Psychopompos, the 
conductor of souls to Hades, with Hermes Psychostates, the weigher of 
souls, or with the winged sirens on vases and sarcophagi. On various 
clay oil flasks (lecythi) in the British Museum and elsewhere. Sleep 
(Hypnos) and Death (Thanatos) are represented as bearing away the 
body of Sarpedon to Lycia {Iliad xvi. 671-83).^ Dancing and tipsy 
skeletons abound even on vases and wine cups of the Mycenaean period; 
all have an unquestionable Epicurean significance. In the Ars Moriendi 
or the Holbein "Dance of Death," similar skin and bone devices occur 
(the Hautskelett of the Germans), but these now signify Death as the 
medieval King of Terrors. In the same period appeared the Horae 
Canonicae or Books of Hours, which are illustrated not only with spectral 
skin-and-bone skeletons of the Holbein type, but also with corpses 
showing the dissected viscera. Now, even as the fearsome Holbein 
skeletons have no possible kinship with the amiable serio-comic skeletons 
of the Graeco-Roman period, so it is fair to assume that the eviscerated 
figures in the Books of Hours had some other provenance than the 
marble and terra-cotta donaria of that period. With anywhere from 
ten to seventeen centuries intervening, the gap in time seems too great 
for any bridge of tradition. The inevitable conclusion is, then, that the 
dissected figures in the Books of Hours were derived from contemporary 
anatomical drawings in manuscript.'' The following reasons may be 
given for this inference. In the first place, artists and physicians who 
followed dissection became associated through the fact that (in Florence 
at least), the painters formed a subsection of the Guild of Physicians and 

' Lessing, Wie die Allen den Tod gebildet: eine Untersuchung, Berlin, 1769. 

' F. Parkes Weber, Aspects of Death and Correlated A:pects of Life (etc.), 3d ed., New 
York, 19 18, pp. 27-40. 

J For which, see F. Studniczka: Die griechische Kunst an Kriegergräbern, Leipzig, 1915, 
Plate VIIL 

<W. M. de Voynich and F. H. Garrison, Ann. Med. History, New York, I (1917-18), 


Apothecaries (Streeter)/ whence it is reasonable to assume that the 
miniature painters of the Books of Hours were also acquainted with 
dissecting and dissectors. Again, the traditional dissected figures of the 
Books of Hours are remarkably like those in the anatomical MSS and 
the earliest printed and illustrated books on anatomy, the so-called 
graphic incunabula, and, in both, the eviscerated corpses and the 
skeletal larvae alike have sometimes between their outstretched legs, 
quaint little jesters, with caps and bells. The inference is plain. 

The thirteenth century was the age of cathedrals, stained glass 
windows, illuminated manuscripts and missals, and beautiful carving in 
stone. The work of the Romanesque architects and sculptors, deriving, 
as it did, from Roman, Byzantine, and Arabic traditions, was composite 
and decorative, but otherwise stiff, conventional, and unreal. The 
flowering of Gothic art in the thirteenth century was as spontaneous and 
natural as that of ancient Greece. This art was essentially realistic, in 
that it sought a direct reproduction of nature, as in the carved flowers 
and foliage of Reims Cathedral, the carved figures of angels, saints, 
prophets, Christ, and the Virgin which adorned the cathedrals, the 
gisants or recumbent male and female figures on the tombs of the nobility, 
or the painted and gilded statuettes and bas-reliefs in wood and ivory. 
These figures of the Gothic imagiers, such as the Amiens Christ {le beau 
Dieu d^ Amiens) or the Prophet of Reims, are all serene and beautiful. 
The pose is gracious and dignified, the skill in representing the contours 
of the human body underneath thin drapery is wonderful, the grotesques 
of Romanesque art crop out only in the gargoyles of Gothic cathedrals; 
but the prejudices of the age forbade alike the figuration of the nude and 
the study of anatomy by dissection. The science of the imagiers was 
therefore a science of draped figures. This Gothic naturalism exerted 
a powerful influence upon Italy, in the Apulian school of sculptors and 
the Florentine school of painters. The pulpit of the baptistery at Pisa, 
carved by Niccolo Pisano in 1260, reveals the same wonderful skill in 
the representation of complex drapery, and introduces a new motif, the 
partly draped Christ upon the cross. Cimabue, the teacher of Giotto, 
worked in mosaic, after the Byzantine fashion. Giotto followed Niccolo 
Pisano and the Gothic glass-painters of France, whose brilliant coloring 
is easily sensed in the paintings of the earher Italians. As Berenson 
points out, Giotto was the first great artist to realize the third dimension 
(depth and solidity) in painting, by giving tactile values to retinal sensa- 
tions. Just as the infant acquires its knowledge of depth and solidity 

' E. C. Streeter, Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., Baltimore, XXVII (1916), 113-18. 


by the sense of touch, so these early Florentines strove to get out of 
the two-dimensional flatland of the Byzantine mosaics into that great 
field of figure painting in which the semblance of reality and movement 
is conveyed by "functional lines," i.e., purposeful lines which are "life- 
communicating, life-confirming and life-enhancing" (Berenson). Tactile 
values, that is, the reverse of inexpressive "dead lines" and "dead 
surfaces," were to be translated into movement, and this realism was 
attained, in the end, by deliberate science, in particular mathematical 
and anatomical science. Gradually the Florentines underwent a drill 
in such disciplines as the chemistry of colors, the mathematics of com- 
position, the geometry of perspective, the illusions of chiaroscuro, the 
mechanics of motion, and the science of human anatomy. The principles 
of human proportion were closely studied by them. Practically all the 
early technical treatises on the science of perspective and the science of 
bodily proportion, except Diirer's, issued from Florence (Streeter). 

In Giotto are found the seeds of these several developments, among 
other things, the Florentine flair for anatomy — a vast abortive inquiry 
into the physical make-up of man. Once aroused, this interest was 
never to lapse or fall from the circle of living art, although it was seriously 
hindered and crossed at various times by the church, as, for example, 
by Savonarola and again in the period of the Catholic Reaction. It 
should be noted that it was not Giotto's higher gifts that brought so 
many into communion with his artistic aims, but his compelling natural- 
ism, his projection of reahty into pictorial illusion. Gently with Giotto 
came the impulse to measure, to explore, to exploit the form, to the end 
of making more true to nature, more "express and admirable" the pic- 
tured world of life in movement. In close and incessant study of human 
kind, artists searched out all the experiential modes of expressing 
the inmost soul by the outward gesture, for this was their metier. And 
although the Trecentisti turned away the challenge of fact with 
rather soft answers, there abode in them at all times, Giotto's love of 

Reorganization of the study of nature, then, was the issue of Giotto's 
teaching. The spirit of inquiry into nature incited human nature in 
its deepest essence to push on to the discovery of man. Artists felt that 
incitement, in a special sense, for the human form was their supreme 
decorative principle, in the shaping of which they would convey reaUty 
and utter fidelity to fact. It dawned upon the minor masters following 
Giotto, that Nature was the specific for Art's malady, that "things of 
the mind which have not passed through the senses, are vain things and 
injurious." But this they knew only in part. They lightly accepted 


nature-study as inevitable, avoiding the duteous observances. The 
outcome of Giottesque schooling, however, was the final abandonment 
of "intuitional" drawing, the refinement of plastic modeling by shading 
and defining the separate surface planes and a firmer accentuation of the 
supporting skeletal system, in each carefully observed figure. Giotto's 
intimate assistant Stefano (i3oi?-5o), called the ''ape of nature," 
attained to such a pitch of realism in representing the branching veins 
of the arms, that his pictures were studied by the barber-surgeons about 
to do bloodletting. Buffalmacco, Daddi, Giottino (son of the "ape of 
nature"), Orcagna, Giovanni da Milano, Antonio Veneziano, and 
Ambrogio di Baldese mark distinct stages in the movement toward 
Renaissance naturalistic forms. Still greater gains in the struggle for 
the mastery of form are recorded in the sculpture of this early period. 
Naturalistic treatment of the vital plastic problem, the cause hotly 
supported by Cennini in theory, and in practice by a majority of the 
Florentine workers in the serious figurative arts, found ready acceptance 
in Umbria, Lombardy, the Marches, even inhospitable Siena.' 

A conscious search for form thenceforth characterized art on the Arno. 
The study of the human figure, objectified and separated from the dross 
of dogmatic mysteries, held most weighty claims upon artistic genius. 
Even as envisaged by artists of the trecentist tradition, this study par- 
took somewhat of that intensive quality and independent trend which 
is the peculiar, yet typical, issue of the union of devouring eye and por- 
traying hand. Now in Italy, eye and hand were rigorously trained for 
the perfect and final apprehension of form and action, three quarters of 
a century before the appearance of any printed work on descriptive 
anatomy or the mechanics of motion which could be of slightest use 
to an artist. In the interval, the artists, impatient to master external 
myology, the skeleton, the joints, even "the risings of the nerves," did 
pioneer work by immediate independent preparations and dissections. 
These artful prosectors performed so well in the field of external myology ^s^^ 
and went so deeply into studies of function of the skeleto-muscular 
system, that they aroused the ire of the professional anatomists. The 
fact that artists were herein forestalling the school anatomists, appears 
on a superficial view, to upset the Pausanian theory of art which literally 
traces animation, proportion, and detail in painting and sculpture to the 
progress of geometry, mechanics, arithmetic, and anatomy. 

' See Giovanni di Paolo's (1403 ?-82) "John the Baptist," Paul Sachs Coll., Cambridge, 
Mass. Vechietta's (1412- ) "Cristo resbrto" bronze, Kann Coll., Paris; and his paintings 
in the hospital at Siena. See also frescoes of Domenico di Bartolo and the work of Vechietta's 
follower, Francesco di Giorgio. 


In Florence, the circle of true instruction ran on to Antonio Veneziano, 
who taught Stamina, who in turn taught Masolino. Thus the last of 
the Giotteschi touched hands with the first Quattrocentisti. Art 
straightway became more curious and attentive to form, more accommo- 
dative and explicit in expression. The unclouded drawing of the nude 
figure in Masolino's " Baptism of Christ," in the baptistery at Castiglione 
d'Olona, and Masaccio's epochal frescoes in the Carmine at Florence 
signalize the return to the Greek conception of form and, at the same 
time, a return to nature, Leonardo once remarked that Florentine 
art entered a decline after Giotto, "until Masaccio showed by his perfect 
works how those who take for their standard anyone but nature — the 
mistress of all masters — ^weary themselves in vain." Of Masaccio's 
frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel, Berenson says: ''I never see them 
without the strongest stimulation of my tactile consciousness. I feel 
that I could touch every figure, that it would yield a definite resistance 
to my touch, that I should have to expend thus much effort to displace 
it, that I could walk around it." With such an ambition as this, with 
the keen desire to realize depth in space, to convey the illusion of mass 
underneath the external configuration of the body, with the passion to 
express the muscular basis of bodily action by surface indications, the 
Florentines took up dissection, as also the mathematics of perspective 
and proportion, as a necessary part of their training. 

It should be noted here that the painters had early been incorporated 
in the great " Guild of Physicians and Apothecaries."^ "Being beholden 
for their supplies of pigments to the apothecaries and their agents in 
foreign lands" on their own petition they had become enrolled members 
of that guild in 1303. This guild relationship endured for more than two 
and a half centuries, furnishing innumerable points of magnetic contact 
between Science and Art. The artist members (known from 1349 on, 
as "The Company of Saint Luke") stood on a most familiar footing 
with the apothecaries "who buy, sell, and deal in colors and other 
materials needed by artists" {spetiarii, qui emunt, vendunt et operant 
color es et alia ad memhrum pictorum memoratum). Many a "discipulus" 
from the apothecary shops rose from color-grinding to eminence in the 
schools of painting. Masolino was not the first of these, nor Cosimo 
Roselli the last. These dusty backshop prentices who ground colors 
for the master apothecaries were in daily contact with the medical part- 
ners of the shop {medicos in apotheca) whose consulting rooms adjoined. 

■ La Sorsa, VArte dei Medici, Speziali e Merciai. Molfetta, 1907. E. Staley, Guilds of 
Florence. London: Methuen. 


The artists, too, who came there perforce for pigments and other materi- 
als, found the shops alluring places in which to loiter and renew acquaint- 
ance with their fellow-guildsmen, the apothecaries and physicians. Thus 
through close guild and trade relationships easy intimacies arose between 
men of the two callings. The physicians were not only the sponsors for 
the artists in the guild's multiform functions, but their natural patrons, 
protectors, and collaborators. Hence, when the tide of realism in art 
rolled over north Italy, adherents of the two branches of the house of 
St. Luke (painter and beloved physician) could have collaborated, with 
brilliant effect upon Tuscan art and science. On the whole there was 
but httle concerted action of this kind, and we are put to some trouble 
to explain the situation on the ground of any fundamental lack of accord. 
The earlier anatomizing artists, urged on by the grim requirements of 
formal technique, expected Httle, and derived little support from physi- 
cians in working out their peculiar applications of anatomy to problems 
of form. Artists concentrated their interests upon the skeletal and 
muscular systems. Professional school anatomists before Vesalius had 
failed to elaborate these systems in any detail whatsoever. Even 
Berengar confesses scant interest in matters of external myology, because 
of the difficulties in the way of prosection: 

Note, reader,' that I have made very little comment on the muscles of the body, 
and that I have concerned myself very sparingly with this system; mainly for the 
reason that, in the ordinary dissections made before the scholars in the schools, the 
majority of the muscles cannot be demonstrated. To expose these structures to 
view properly, extremely long and painstaking labor is required, as well as a suitably 
appointed room (ita locus accommodatus, a place arranged just so). 

And yet the smallest mortuary chamber, cubicle, or side chapel in the 
charnel house sufficed the artist — a cellar or burial pit — it mattered 
not, when he went down to make essay of the "science of the sepulchre." 
A large share in matters of scientific moment was taken by Paolo 
Ucello (1397-1475), whose zeal for the house of science had all but eaten 
him up. He typifies the adventurous temperament of the time. He 
lacked the largeness of intelligence, the godlike comprehension, the vast 
variety of attainments of men of the universal stamp Hke Brunelleschi, 
Ghiberti, Donatello, Orcagna, Luca della Robbia, and Leon Baptista 
Alberti. His talent was expended in design, in genre, in geometric 
development of the laws governing perspective and foreshortening. His 
passion for literal delineation of the near and present and inquisitive 
attitude toward exact science, he passed on to scores of unknown indus- 
trial craftsmen in Florence, whose unremembered labors enabled later 

^ Carpi Commentaria .... super Anatomia Mundini, Bologna, 1521, p. 516. 


painters to proceed from a basis of exact science to the far nobler pursuit 
of ideal beauty. Men of Ucello's following hewed close to the line; 
the Carrand Master, the artist of the "Ten Nude Men" in the Stockholm 
Collection, the creators of those unattributed gems of naturalistic repre- 
sentation now gathered in the Uffizi, the Louvre, London, Berlin, Vienna, 
Venice, Dresden, and in private hands, flooded the "botega" of Ucello's 
day, with a tide, full and flowing, of chalk and wash drawings, pen and 
silverpoint. These studio sketches and cartoons reveal, to the least prick- 
ings of the paper, the full reach of Florentine technique in drawing the liv- 
ing model. They register most patently the crescent interest in anatomy. 

Despite earlier hints of the existence of this "corporum intus curio- 
sitas'J among workers in the plastic arts, the followers of Donatello 
were apparently the first to undertake the study of human anatomy, in 
the modern sense of a sustained serious discipline for artists. That 
Donatello (1386-1466) himself assisted at an actual anatomy, at least 
from the spectator's bench, we need no better proof than his forceful 
rendering of such a scene in his "Anatomy of the Miser's Heart," 
one of his Paduan^ series of bronze tablets illustrating the miracles of 
St. Anthony. The almost cruel naturalism and searching myologic 
detail in Donatello's sainted peasants proved a source of torment to 
lesser craftsmen, leading them along paths of purely objective inquiry 
to the dissecting room. His pupil Antonio Pollajuolo (1429-98), pupil 
also of Ucello, was the virtual beginner of artistic anatomy in Italy. 
"He dissected many bodies to study the anatomy," says Vasari, "and 
was the first to investigate the actions of the muscles in this manner, 
that he might afterwards give them their due place and effect in his 
works." His drawings created a clear space for the new teaching. His 
engraving of the "Battle of the Ten Nude Men" electrified the town. 
His painted themes, in which Hercules generally takes the leading role, 
are anatomies of stressed movements, bizarre energy, unimaginably 
fierce and vengeful power. And the sources of all this sinewy, exuberant 
phrasing of life spring from immediate and prolonged manipulations of 
the dead. Pollajuolo had estabHshed altogether novel modes of approach 
to the intimacies of form, and could say with Browning: "The fife in 
me abolished the death in things. " This quickening impulse soon made 
itself felt in all the schools, pagan and pietistic, realistic and conven- 
tional, and crossed the Alps northward with Dürer on his return home. 

Andrea del Castagno (i396?-i457) "lover of the difficulties of art" 
{ammatore delle difficultd delV arte) certainly helped to incorporate the 

' W. Bode, Donatello in Padua, Paris & Leipzig, 1883, Plates X and XI. See also 
St. Anthony setting a broken leg in the same series. 


teaching of Masaccio in respect of figure-draughtsmanship, and may 
have anatomized to attain that incisive point and apposite modeling 
which is so striking a characteristic in his work. Although he did not 
matriculate in the Guild of Physicians and Apothecaries until he was 
fifty-five, he became a lusty exponent of the new plastic conceptions 
furnished by proportional analysis and dissection. He is a strict uncom- 
promising realist, bound to his model, in all narrowness, believing that 
to embellish is to falsify. His interest in character, in ethnic type, is 
intense. Postmortems by him would surely be expressed in terms of 
some new declension for he engaged new appetencies for the task, viewing 
the thing thus from the ethnic angle. 

Ucello, Castagno, Baldovinetti, whose great pupil was Verrochio 
together with Piero della Francesca, whose great pupil was Signorelli, 
brought in flowing wells of refreshment to Umbro-Florentine art, to 
join the racing tumult of waters set free by Pollajuolo, or to spread 
abroad in other directions. The Medici made a special point of encoura- 
ging Tuscan artists with scientific leanings. Thus, to impart a fillip to 
Verrochio 's more academic interest in human anatomy, was he com- 
missioned to restore an antique statue of the flayed Marsyas which 
glorified the gate of the Medici gardens — given the mutilated red-marble 
torso, by sheer "tour de force" to reconstruct the missing parts. The 
which he did with consummate skill, utilizing the white veins of stone as 
the proper superficial veins of the Hmbs. Verrochio (1435-88) was the 
first to make practical use of casts of the living body and ecorche posture 
models, for use in schools. These marvelous flayed figurines, exhibiting 
all the superficial muscles in action, accurately moulded in wax, terra- 
cotta, plaster, carved from marble or cast in bronze, formed a fresh series 
of essays in artistic anatomy. Verrochio's bronze ecorcMs certainly 
were calculated to excite the admiration, emulation, and despair of his 
contemporaries, the same contemporaries who criticized the naturalism 
of the horse in his great Colleoni statue for its Hteral translation of the 
anatomy of the animal as seen dissected. In this sculptor, bronze 
worker, goldsmith, builder, and painter, the "true-eye," expressed in 
his very name, meant analytical vision, the firm, poised, robust character 
of a born teacher. Small wonder that Leonardo fingered on in appren- 
ticeship to this man, for years after his admission to the guild, imbibing 
sound method of science along with ideals of drawing, of modeling, of 
formal composition in line and plane. ^ 

'See Leonardo da Vinci, Oswald Siren, Yale University Press, 1916, chap, iii, "An 
Apprentice in Verrocchio's Studio." 


The progress of naturalism was continuous and triumphant; under 
such champions of reality it was destined to spread far and wide over 
Italy and finally over Western Europe, in the swift seasons of the diaspora 
of Florentine science. The new art, grounded on actuality, pleased the 
princes, and, at the same time, commended itself to the honest and 
honorable intelligence of the bourgeoisie. In Italy, the people, in wider 
commonality, had come to share the artist's passion for unadorned truth. 
There, the verities reigned, through popular choice. "The desire of 
seeming wise on matters of form, with which every man of us is born" 
was there recognized as the last treachery of the artistic hand and soul. 

The old Ars et Mysterium in the canons of painting no longer 
obtained — at least, there was no longer the mysterious content in the 
teaching. "Beauty is measured and proportioned by geometrical 
accuracy." This rule, repeated on all hands, doubtless led to trials of 
"presumptuous and paltry technical skill" (Ruskin's wrathful char- 
acterization of this trend), yet it led straight on to the creation of 
immortal works, symbols of the highest connotation, most profound 
experiential expression, attained by man in his glad runs through the 
amazing universe. 

Among those who ran the whole gamut of experience, endowed with 
the universal mind, mark Piero della Francesca, who became a great 
master in the exact sciences before he became one in the arts. "He 
understood all the most important properties of rectiUnear bodies better 
than any other geometrician" (Vasari). He wrote a treatise on perspec- 
tive, for centuries accredited to a mythical Peter of Bruges. He trained 
in "proportioni et proportionalitd,'^ the great Pacioli, companion in 
studies mathematical of Leonardo da Vinci. His studies of the undraped 
figure are splendidly realized, effective, and living portraits of the body. 
His frescoes at Arezzo set him apart as one of the foremost masters of 
figure expression. His treatment of the resurrection theme at Borgo 
San Sepolcro proved for all time that "Nature could not invest herself 
in such shadowing passion of line without some instruction" (to adapt 
lago's vivid phrase). On the whole, considering Piero's extant works 
and his known preoccupation with matters of pure science, the presump- 
tion of fact is that he anatomized. He was, in spirit, more scientific, 
and in his art, more narrowed and bound to nature, than any of the great 
Florentines with the exception of Leonardo. His Umbrian follower and 
spiritual heir, Luca Signorelli (1441-1523) exploited the nude in art 
with astonishing verve and abandon. Luca's severe and sculptural 
design and modeling, as seen in his "Education of Pan" {circa 1475) now 


in Berlin, changed, in the following thirty years, by some subtle increase 
in vehemence of execution, into an utterly different thing, or at least 
a modally different thing. His frescoes in the cathedral at Orvieto 
whirl the beholder into regions of Dantesque impressiveness and solem- 
nity. These awful walls are charged with great, primal perfervid pres- 
ences, executed on a heroic plane; the elder brothers of Michelangelo's 
Sistine conceptions. Signorelli was a restless experimenter; his handling 
of vital plastic problems, without diminution of the sense for pictorial 
illusion, is instinct with a vigor and intensity which is almost satiric, 
sardonic. Luca even nerved himself to paint the body of his own dead 
son. That he painted for painters is readily seen. 

Of Melozzo da Forli (1438-94), another pupil of Piero della Francesca, 
although much could be said, we will mention only his "Pesta-Pepe" 
or apothecary's assistant braying in a mortar with the muscles of a 
Hercules — a panel which originally must have served as a druggist's 
shop-sign. It is done in a vein too dashing to allow of comparison with 
that piece of neat quick fashioning of the outward form by his master 
Piero^ — ^the *'Ercole" from Borgo San Sepolcro, now in Mrs. Gardner's 
collection— yet the derivation is plain. 

Other Umbrians, as Fiorenzo di Lorenzo together with his pupils 
Perugino and Pintorricchio, never quite succumbed to the spirit of Floren- 
tine science, although admitting its prepotency. They drew their 
St. Sebastians with anatomic refinements which were borrowed, rather 
than the outcome of individual research. Raphael, too, misprized 
science while in Urbino and under the influence of these men, yet it is well 
to remember that his first teacher Timoteo Viti, who had quitted the 
Bolognese studio of Francia in 1495, in that studio had seen much of the 
great anatomist Achillini, the Hfe-long friend of Francia. Raphael had 
a genius for assimilation and in his Florentine period (1504-8) imitated 
Leonardo and Michelangelo, drinking deep of the Pierian spring. There 
is much to give color to the rumor current at his death and credited 
throughout the two centuries following, that Raphael had imitated 
Leonardo and Michelangelo even to the point of preparing materials 
for a work on artistic anatomy. 

Padua possessed much work of unique merit from the hands of early 
Florentine masters, and was susceptible to their moulding influence. 
Giotto (1306), under the eye of exiled Dante, raised the standards of 
universal beauty in the frescoes of the Arena Chapel; Donatello labored 
at Padua from 1443 to 1453; Ucello was there also at some time in the 
same decade, and Fra Filippo Lippi worked there in 1434. Squarcione, 


head of the native school in which ancient Roman sculpture and the 
new Florentine models received equal attention, consciously adhered 
to the naturalistic mode. He and his scholars lived on terms of some 
intimacy with the physician Michele Savonarola, in whose brother's 
house the school was maintained. Squarcione's school took on a tre- 
mendous significance through the genius of his chief pupil and adopted 
son, Andrea Mantegna (1431-1506), the most influential artist in North 
Italy during the early Renaissance. Mantegna's earnest and intense 
search for reality is seen in the figures of the Eremitani frescoes. His 
study of the "Dead Christ" in the Brera Gallery is accepted as the 
extreme and sovereign instance of realism, the direct inspiration of 
Tintoretto when he painted his "Finding the Body of St. Mark" (like- 
wise in the Palazzo di Brera) and of Rembrandt's "Deyman Anatomie," 
in the Rijksmuseum. Next to Mantegna, Cosimo Tura (1430 ?-95), 
founder of the school of Ferrara, and Vincenzo Foppa, central master of 
the Lombard and Brescian region, strove to disseminate most widely 
the fruits of Paduan discipHne. 

In studying the early art of Venice, with the view of determining 
anatomical content and direction, one pauses over Vivarini's long- 
proportioned figures with exaggerated articulations, and Carlo Cri- 
velli's (i44o?-after 1493) scientific interest in tendons and muscular 
attachments. There is excellent matter in the London and Louvre 
sketch-books of Jacopo Bellini, and in the work of his sons and their 
incomparable school-following; in Giorgione (1478-15 19) and Titian 
(147 7- 157 6) whose perennial devotion to the nude was expressed in 
many a gorgeous Venus, Danae, Europa, Antiope. When Rubens was 
executing his Prado copy of the "Rape of Europa" he wrote that this 
Titian to him stood forth as the first picture in the world. To Titian's 
mind, the St. Sebastian panel of the five-winged altarpiece for the 
Bishop of Pola, was pre-eminently the best delineation of the figure of 
which he was capable. The Rhenish follower of Titian, Jan van Calcar 
from the duchy of Cleves, illustrated the "Fabrica" of VesaHus, fifty- 
two years after the first anatomical book illustrations for Ketham's 
"Fasciculus" had been prepared by Mansueti(?), or some member of 
the school of Gentile Bellini. 

The versions of Venus by the mountaineer Palma Vecchio are rugged 

and healthy (Dresden and Cambridge), contrasted with the more ideal 

loveHness and greater refinement of Giorgione's (Dresden) and Cariani's 

. (Hampton Court). Giorgione's most important follower was Sebastian 

del Piombo {circa 148 5-1 547) who became the loyal slave of Michelangelo 


in Rome about 1510. Del Piombo far outstripped his fellow- Venetians 
in zeal for anatomy, yet he was reined in by a certain laziness and 
disinclination to dissect. 

Beyond the Alps also, are multiplied examples in sculpture and 
painting of accidental modes of anatomic illustration; beginning with 
Burgundian and Languedoc sculpture, and Flemish and Rhenish paint- 
ing. The "Adam and Eve" on the Ghent altar by Jan Van Eyck 
{circa 1390-1441);- the "Thief on the Cross" at Frankfort, work of the 
Master of Flemalle (active, 1420-38); "The Descent from the Cross" 
by Roger Van der Weyden (1400- 1464) now in the Escorial; these intro- 
duce a long series of masterpieces in the naturalistic Northern manner 
which found expression later in such works as the "Neptune and Amphi- 
trite" by Jan Gossart (15 16) and the purely anatomical pen sketches of 
Peter Brueghel (1525-69). In Germany, Albrecht Dürer painted the 
figure according to the strict canons of proportion which he himself laid 
down. His "Adam and Eve" in the Prado (1507) executed on his 
return from Italy, easily transcends the efforts of Lucas Cranach and 
other contemporaries, who repeatedly tried to parallel the performance. 
The school of Dürer deserves special study from the angle of the cult 
of science, and because of the very close relations existing between mem- 
bers of that school and the mathematicians and physicians of Nuremberg, 
Augsburg, and Strassburg. It should be mentioned too, that Cranach, 
in addition to his active school directorship at Wittenberg, directed a 
prosperous drugshop there for many years. In Germany, as in Italy, 
art continually kibed the heels of medicine. We may not stop to examine 
the complex of these relationships, interpenetrating and important as 
they are. Burgkmair, Shauffelein, and Grien should be studied, with all 
their kin and kind. The "Hercules and Antaeus" and the "Allegory of 
Music" by Hans Baldung Grien give the summation of Dürer's mensural 
method of plotting the unveiled human figure. Perhaps the most acute 
and telling masterstroke of realism ever set within the limits of a narrow 
panel is the "Dead Christ" by Hans Holbein, The Younger, painted in 
152 1, now in the museum at Basel. 

To return to Florence, it would seem first and last that the one fixed 
trysting place for art and science lay in that region round about the 
Arcispedale Santa Maria Novella, scene of the labors of Domenico 
Veneziano, Piero della Francesca, Andrea del Castagno, Alessio Baldovi- 
netti, and Ghirlandaio. In the "Lily Pharmacy," hard by the hospital, 
was born Cosimo RoselH (1439-1507) sound craftsman, founder of a 
prolific school which welcomed the teachings of the new anatomy. His 


ablest pupils were Piero di Cosimo (1462-1521) and Andrea del Sarto 
(i486- 1 531), keen students of anatomy, according to Vasari. A critic 
might interpolate thus: Vasari in his Lives of the Painters is prone to 
overemphasize these interests, for he was a kinsman of Signorelli and a 
pupil of Michelangelo. But we can generally check his statements 
made in this vein, by the direct evidence of drawings and other material 
remains left by the artist in question; in the case of Piero, the Ufhzi 
drawing of a dead man's head is sufficiently convincing. Andrea del 
Sarto, in turn, taught artistic anatomy in his own school, beyond cavil 
of doubt. It was from him that Pontormo learned, and Franciabigio, 
and Rosso Fiorentino, who furnished the bulk of the illustrations in the 
anatomy of Charles Estienne (published by Simon de Colines, Paris, 


Men of the central Italian tradition went serenely on, subtly rechar- 
ging themselves with the primary inspiration of the supreme masters, 
Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael. This triumvirate had hastened 
the spread in widest commonality of that dominant idea of Leon Baptista 
Alberti, namely, that artists should study nature in a truly scientific 
spirit. What ardors and endurances for science, what trials in the 
fiery furnace, had these three not passed through — Leonardo in par- 
ticular! Florentines well remembered how, in the year 1505, the city 
had gone down in entire submission before Leonardo's divinely drawn 
cartoon for "The Battle of the Standard" and the competing cartoon 
by Michelangelo, "The Surprise, by the Pisans, of Florentine Soldiers 
Bathing in the Arno." " One of these cartoons was placed in the Medici 
Palace and one in the Pope's Hall; and while they could be seen there, 
they were the school of all the world" wrote Benvenuto Cellini. So 
decisive was the display, by these establishers of dissection, that there 
was no room thenceforth for faulty drawing of the nude figure in action. 
Many men in Florence, Milan, and Rome knew of Leonardo's favorite 
project to publish exhaustive researches in human and comparative 
anatomy — a project crushed under the Tarpeian weight of his materials, 
amassed in thirty-three years of intermittent dissection and gathered 
in one hundred and twenty volumes of drawings and descriptive notes. 
Of his fifty dissections, the first series was performed in the Arcispedale 
Santa Maria Novella at Florence, next at Milan at the Ospedale Mag- 
giore and Collegio dei Fisici, with Delia Torre, and finally (15 14-15) at 
the Santo Spirito at Rome. There his work had been brusquely inter- 
rupted by command of the Pope, on complaint of a German, and he 
accepted the invitation of Francis I to live in France. It was during 


his second stay at Milan that he made notation in his MS : '' This winter 
of the year 1510 I hope to complete the whole of this anatomy," But 
we find him still dissecting four years later in his sixty-second year, in 
the winter of 1514-15, the winter on whose last December day Andreas 
Vesalius was brought into the world. Whether Vesalius saw or did not 
see the work of his great precursor, before the dispersal of these scientific 
treasures by Melzi's unblest son, remains a vexed question. Granting 
that Vesalius made use of even some small part of Leonardo's scheme, 
then may we say that the progress of science is not as faltering and dis- 
continuous as, on the surface, it appears to be at this point in the history 
of anatomy. The influence of Leonardo upon practical anatomy is 
decisive; he steps into a place of intolerant central glory. 

Less esoteric and secretive in this matter than Leonardo, Michelangelo 
wielded a tremendously direct influence upon the practice among artists 
of preparatory anatomies. Upon this question the young giant fell 
with world-shaking impact, creating a seismic disturbance over the 
whole field of art. He ruined his health in feverish dissections covering 
a period of sixteen years. Condivi, his pupil, says of him: 

Desiring to learn from nature herself he set her up before him as the true example. 
There is no animal whose anatomy he did not desire to study, much more, that of man, 
so that those who have spent all their lives in that science, and who make a profession 
of it, hardly know so much of it as he. 

Condivi's closing comment is more than the mere personal puffery of 
extravagant admiration; it is true, not only of Michelangelo but of 
numbers of others in and out of his immediate following. Listen to 
Vesalius. Having just spoken of an anatomy performed on a Florentine 
patrician, there comes this peevish outburst: 

As for those painters and sculptors who flocked around me at my dissections, I 
have never allowed myself to get worked up about them to the point of feeUng that 
I was less favored than these men, for all their superior airs.^ 

Montorsoli may be regarded as most adept in anatomy, in the group 
of Michelangelo's fellow- workers. In all probabiHty it was he who 
executed the figures of the healing Saints Cosimo and Damian, flanking 
the Medicean tomb. His statues are essays in anatomy. At Genoa, 
at work on a great statue of the admiral Andrea Doria, we find him con- 
sorting with members of the medical guild in the cloisters of Santa Maria 
della Vigneis, and doing certain dissections there. From Rome, Sebas- 
tian del Piombo writes to Michelangelo: "I pray you remember to 
bring along some studies for me : faces, legs, body or arm, which I have 

'"Letter on China Root," Basel, 1546, p. 194. 


wanted, as you are aware, for so long a time." This appeal illustrates 
Bode's view: 

Michelangelo's overpowering and extraordinary genius began to dominate plastic 
art before the sculptors had attained to full knowledge of the laws of the anatomy of 
the human body. Andrea Sansovino, already, in his later works is wholly dependent 
on Michelangelo, in particular the frescoes of the Sistine Chapel; and this is still more 
the case with Andrea's pupil, Jacobo Sansovino, and the rest of the Florentine 
sculptors of that period, scarcely one of whom was able to develop upon his own 
individual lines.' 

Yet one of the neatest ecorche figurines in existence, a gem of consummate 
modeling of a dancing male figure, excoriato a cuti, has very recently 
been attributed to Jacobo Sansovino. It will bear comparison with the 
crouching ecorche attributed, with little trace of reason, to Michelangelo. 
Another admirer of the great man, creator of the "Perseus," Benvenuto 
Cellini, always insisted in his writings that the essential thing in art was, 
''thoroughly to understand how to paint the nude." CelHni's diary 
also throws much light upon the points of contact between artists and 
physicians, for at Rome he was intimate with Berengario da Carpi 
(in whom he finds a commendable knowledge of design), and shared his 
Paris residence for eight years with the Florentine anatomist Guido 
Guidi (Vidius), one of the teachers of VesaHus, and a son-in-law of 

In deliberate rivalry with Michelangelo, strove Baccio Bandinelli, 
a pupil of Leonardo's friend, the sculptor Rustici. When Sebastian 
del Piombo painted the huge portrait of Bandinelli,^ he put in his hand 
an expressive symbol of the sculptor's art, a cartoon of two nudes of 
highly developed musculature done in red wash or chalk. Under 
Bandinelli and Jacobo Sansovino studied Ammanati, whose ineffectual 
strivings only served to show all workers in the round how vain was their 
effort to recapture the Titanic conceptions and execution of Michelangelo. 
''When for their nudity Bandinelli's 'Adam and Eve' were removed 
from the high altar in Florence and when the aged Ammanati sent his 
abject apology to the Academia del Disegno expressing his ' acerbissimo 
dolore e pentimento' for certain nude figures on Florentine fountains, 
and the custom of adding zinc drapery loin cloths became widespread — 
then the reaction against anatomy and the nude may be said to have 
set in."^ 

'^Florentine Sculptors of the Renaissance, London, 1910, p. it. 
'Finway Court Coll. 

J Balcarres, The Evolution of Italian Sculpture, London, 1909, chap, iv, "Anatomy and 
the Nude," et passim. 


There remains the flayed figure of St. Bartholomew by Marco 
D'Agrate in the cathedral at Milan/ marking the summit of misplaced 
and tasteless brilliance in this direction, inspired by that analogous 
earUer work by Giovanni Battista da Sesto at the right hand of the 
portal of the Certosa Pavese. There remain, too, the assiduous labors 
on anatomic preparations and myologic models, of the two artists Ales- 
sandro Allori and II Cigoh, the latter of whom unhinged his mind from 
too close application to dissections. As late as 1 660 the French sculptor 
Pierre Puget^ (who spent seven years in Genoa) wrote to his patron 
Louvois, *'I am also meditating a group of Apollo flaying Marsyas, in 
order to represent a kind of anatomy, a thing highly appreciated among 
sculptors and painters." 

To turn again to painting. The Venetian colorists magically indi- 
cated the outUne of the figure by varying gradations of tone. The 
figures in Giorgione's "Fete Champetre" are color surfaces for the play 
of Kght. Tintoretto often lost the graphic pattern of the figure entirely, 
in a welter of chiaroscuro and confusing illumination. These crepus- 
cular mysteries of light fortunately failed to sway other minds in the 
same degree. Correggio (1494-1534) showed the highest virtuosity in 
exquisite modeling of the human figure. His ''Leda" (BerHn) is out- 
lined in fluid, air-bathed tones; his "lo" (Vienna) and ''Danae" 
(Borghese) reveal extraordinary delicacy in melting gradations of form 
and color, bathed in sifting light and almost visibly flowing air. These 
creations (beloved of gods and men) are separated by diameters of the 
solar system from the parvenu nudes of Lucas Cranach. Following the 
death of Michelangelo (1564) came the Mannerists, who need not detain 
us, for they studied nature no longer; they studied instead, the wilfulness 
and arbitrary choice of form in Michelangelo's later cartoons. From 
their vapid exhibitions of muscular anatomy misunderstood, pass to 
the eclectic school of the Carracci, at Bologna, where a sound system of 
anatomy was taught by charts, models, and dissections, preparatory 
to drawing from the nude. The sombre Ribera (i 588-1656) painted 
the flayed St. Bartholomew many times with horrible truth and power. 
Indeed, when his first "Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew" was exhibited 
to the Neapolitan crowd from the balcony of his father-in-law's house 
a riot ensued. Ribera handled this congenial theme with dark ferocious 
competence, easily excelling his masters Ribalta and Agostino Carracci 
(Sutherland Gallery, "St. Bartholomew"). We have an etching, 

' See La ScuUura nel Duomo di Milano, Milan, 1908, p. 193. 

" See "Marsyas," Metrop. Mus., N.Y.; consult Mus. Bull., Vol. XIV, March, 1919. 


from his hand, of the same grewsome theme. Ribera's drawings bear 
witness to his deep interest in anatomy; he doubtless knew every line 
of Michelangelo's St. Bartholomew in the "Last Judgment," holding 
forth his skin in one hand, and grasping the knife, symbol of his martyr- 
dom, in the other. Velasquez (i 599-1660), the first to work in oil, 
painted the nude all too seldom (National Gallery, "Venus and Love") 
whereas Rubens (i 577-1640) seldom missed an opportunity — his female 
nudes are Kterally legion, rampant in every collection in Europe. 

Like the Laocoön, the sculptures and Sistine frescoes of Michelangelo 
represent the culmination of a period, the period of physiological and 
psychological anatomy, which was empirically studied and triumphantly 
mastered by the Greeks and acquired its scientific foundation in the 
anatomical drawings of Leonardo da Vinci. All that the plastic and 
graphic arts could convey of the sensation of reality, the emotional 
realization of volume, weight, and movement by representation of the 
violently twisted musculature of the male body and the purposeful 
deformation of its parts, is rendered in these immortal works, some- 
thing which no mere static photograph, say of wrestlers in violent 
conflict, could ever simulate. What is summarized by Michelangelo could 
only be sensed in a continuous motion picture of such actions, reeled 
off at slow tempo, for physiological analysis. In Rubens, the rhythmic 
organization of tactile volumes and the rendering of the sensation of 
stress and movement conveyed by the modification and deformation 
of volumes impinging upon one another, reached its highest develop- 
ment. In the long intervening period between Michelangelo and Rodin, 
between Rubens and Renoir, accurate representation of the nude was 
confined mainly to the soft, rounded contours of the female body, i.e., 
to surface anatomy. This preoccupation was due, in part, to the eman- 
cipation of art and artists from the early medieval prejudice against 
the plastic representation of the body in naturalibus, so evident in 
Gothic art, and latterly to the ever-increasing exaltation of the fair 
sex in the successive periods. " The nude human figure," says Berenson, 
"is the only object which in perfection conveys to us values of touch and 
particularly of movement. Hence the painting of the nude is the 
supreme endeavour of the very greatest artists; and when successfully 
treated, the most life-communicating and Ufe-enhancing in existence."' 
But the true vehicle for the surface representation of muscular anatomy 
and its underlying bony structures is the male body. In the female 
body, which is physically and physiologically an "adiabatic system" 

' Berenson, The Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance, New York, 1897, pp. 77-78. 


or storehouse of energy, not specially intended for violent motor activity, 
the musculature is usually flabby and Httle developed, except in athletics 
or strenuous occupations. Artistic representation of its suave contours 
is usually effected by accounting for the depositions of subcutaneous 
fat, which set in at puberty and usually go on increasing up to the change 
of life. Countless variations have been played upon this theme, the 
recital of which is part of the story of modern painting. 

The history of modern painting, one of the greater glories of modern 
France, is briefly as follows : In the early part of the nineteenth century, 
a definite and determined reaction against the erotic pictures of Boucher, 
Fragonard, and Grenze was ushered in by Vien and apotheosized by 
David. Austere, prudish, insipid themes from Greek and Roman his- 
tory became the fashion. The classical tradition of the methode David 
was continued by Ingres, a superlative draughtsman, whose pencil 
sketches make him, in Huneker's phrase, "the greatest master of pure 
line who ever lived." With the advent of Gericault and Delacroix, 
French art broke away from the stiff formal tradition, with its historical 
or Uterary subject-matter. Gericault was almost the only artist in the 
nineteenth century who dissected, and he dissected even the viscera. 
With Gericault and Delacroix came two of the fundamental postulates 
of modern painting, viz., unrestricted freedom in the choice of subjects 
and the feehng that color rather than Une is its true means of expressing 
form, volume, depth, hght, air, and motion. Emancipation from formal 
or Hterary subject-matter was largely due to the Spanish artist Goya, 
who boldly took his themes from the varied life about him, painting 
almost every conceivable subject, and, in his diabolical etchings, revived 
the intensely dark backgrounds of Rembrandt and Hals. From Goya 
stemmed Gustave Courbet, who was reviled all his Hfe for his daring 
choice of unconventional subjects and who was one of the earliest of 
the great landscape painters of France. From the Spanish tendency 
came also the caricaturist Honore Daumier, whose gloomy backgrounds 
again suggest Rembrandt and Goya, and whose nude studies of bathing 
and wrestling scenes introduced a tendency of colossal importance in 
recent painting, namely, the rendering of mass in motion, of the sensa- 
tions of tactile volume, contour, weight, and muscular exertion by the 
sheer and rugged blocking out of dark tones against the Hght. It is the 
physiological anatomy of Michelangelo rendered in a new medium. 
Another product of the Goya tradition was Edouard Manet, who 
exhausted all the possibiHties of unconventional subject-matter ("After 
Manet, there was nothing new to paint"), who ehminated nonessentials 


to the point of elliptical portraiture of the face, but who, with all his 
feeling for surfaces, never achieved form, depth, and volume in three 
dimensions. With Manet, came the great landscape painters of the 
Barbizon School and, inspired by the English Turner, the Impressionists, 
better termed the Luminists, who sought to represent sunlight, heat, 
wind, and flowing water by means of color alone. The Impressionist 
movement culminated in Paul Cezanne, who strove to represent form, 
subjective soHdity, and movement itself by the juxtaposition of planes 
of color. As Berenson says, Cezanne gave tactile values even to the sky." 
These new devices were, most of them, utilized in triumphant synthesis 
in the last paintings of the aged Paul Renoir, defined by Wright as 
" among the greatest paintings of all time." The summit having been 
attained, decadence at once set in. Cezanne and Whistler had been influ- 
enced by the Japanese. Matisse reverted to the flat two-dimensional 
art of Persia. Out of African negro sculpture and its angularities came 
Picasso and the Cubists, who discarded color in favor of block repre- 
sentation in two tones and volume in favor of multilateral vision, or the 
simultaneous presentation of many aspects of the same object ("Nude 
Descending a Staircase"). The Futurists, meanwhile, aspired to 
"empathy" or the identification of the spectator with a series of succes- 
sive or simultaneous actions supposed to be represented in the picture 
("Dynamism of an Auto"). This was the "cosmic tarantella," the 
chaotic Walt Whitman view of nature, which Berenson derides as 
the logical opposite of true art, the essence of which, from the time of the 
Greeks, has been selection. Finally, in the work of the Synchromists, 
all subject-matter in the shape of recognizable objects was eliminated 
in favor of experiments in juxtaposition of primary colors, and the 
sterilizing process was complete. Viewed historically, Cubism and 
Synchromism are technical experiments toward the purification of 
painting as the art of conveying sensations of form, volume, and move- 
ment by means of color alone.^ In sculpture, Falguiere followed the 
traditions of Canova and Houdon ; Rodin revived the muscular anatomy 
of Michelangelo. 

The effect of the purifying process upon anatomical representation 
in painting and sculpture was characteristic. 

To a surprising science of anatomy, acquired by dissecting, the great 
Florentine artists added their own intuitions about the dynamics of 

' Berenson, The Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance, New York, 1897, p. loi. 

»This argument has been derived, in the main, from Willard Huntington Wright's 
Modern Painting (New York, 191 5), which does for modern French painters what Berenson 's 
volumes do for the Italian painters of the Renaissance. 


painting. The success of Giotto, Masaccio, Michelangelo, in conveying 
the physical sensation of solidity and of violently opposing forces was 
inherent in their genius, a matter of intuition alone. Their knowledge 
of anatomy was great, but only Leonardo had any physiological knowl- 
edge of the interplay of antagonistic muscles. To purify painting by 
the scientific study of color, to render the sensations of Hght, volume, 
solidity, weight, and movement by the orchestration of color alone, was 
the ambition of all -truly modern painters, from Daumier to Cezanne; 
and Cezanne, as Wright says, "halted at the gateway of great composi- 
tion," because, like Gaugain, he took up painting too late in Hfe. Under 
these conditions, representation of the nude became less a matter of 
anatomic knowledge and study than of color instrumentation and 
dynamics. The nudes of Daumier have actual mass, weight, and solidity ; 
like his caricatures they were ''great pieces of rugged flesh which had 
all the appearance of having been chiseled out of a solid medium with a 

dull tool The drawing came afterward as a direct result of the 

tonal volumes." (Wright). Manet's "Dejeuner sur I'Herbe," on the 
other hand, is only a two-dimensional affair of brilliant surfaces. One 
of the few modern female nudes in which musculature is apparent, it is 
none the less as flat as a pancake. In the nudes of Renoir, tangibility, 
bulging volume, the sensation of mass and weight, as in a Uving body, 
are achieved by means of color alone. Cezanne's rough croquis of nudes 
in motion look, many of them, like the drawings of a madman — an 
artist's experiments in the dynamics of vision. The sketches of Bakst 
are a wild carnival of le mouvement in two dimensions. And all these 
men had their forebears. Renoir derives from Correggio, Rubens, 
Boucher, and the rock sculptures in the Indian grottoes; Daumier from 
Rembrandt and Goya ; Rodin from Michelangelo ; the block representa- 
tions of the Cubists from the figurines of the Cro-Magnon artists, from 
negro sculpture, from Diirer's anthropometric diagrams. The study 
of the musculature of the back in Courbet's "Femme de Munich" is 
singularly like certain canvasses of Rubens. The reclining and semi- 
recumbent figures of Michelangelo, Correggio, Titian, Tintoretto, and 
other Italians, a pose which for three centuries was a motif in books of 
anatomic illustration from Berengario da Carpi to Gautier d'Agoty, 
were repeated by Velasquez and resumed by Boucher, Fragonard, Goya 
("Maja nuda"), Courbet, and Renoir. Meanwhile, alongside of the con- 
scious effort to purify painting by making it a matter of color dynamics 
alone, other tendencies sprang up. Gaugain, Degas, Rops, Toulouse- 
Lautrec, studied the nude from curious angles, ethnic, social, latterly 


pathological, and here Fletcher's dictum that the true content of "artistic 
anatomy" is physiology and external pathology becomes singularly 
apposite. Gaugain's studies of Tahitian men and women are genuine 
contributions to ethnology/ like Greek statuary, Holbein's English 
faces, Lucas Cranach's slant-eyed Wittenberg maidens, Rubens' negro, 
Raeburn's Scots, Goya's Spaniards, Defregger's Tyrolese, Zorn's Swedes, 
Alfred Stevens' Belgians, Reinhold Begas' Prussian girls, Sargent's 
Nilotic woman, Sichel's "Miss Fai," or Zuloaga's "Marcelle Souty." 
The predilection of Correggio, Andrea della Robbia, Andrea del Sarto, 
and Rubens for naked bambini has afforded solace to scores of modern 
German artists, notably in Moritz von Schwindt's cartoons for frescoes 
in the Royal Palace at Munich. Rodin's "La Belle Heaulmiere" 
reproduces all the horrors of Villon's ballade, and the jaded ugliness of 
prostitutes has been vulgarized by Rops, Forain, Louis Legrand, and 
Toulouse-Lautrec. Diirer's "Four Naked Women" and Rembrandt's 
nudes engendered, in fact, a whole school of modern pictures, in which 
the female body is seen as deformed and ruined by advancing age, 
maternity, change of life, grinding toil, vice, or prostitution. Degas, 
who shut himself up all his life to paint ballet girls, race horses, and 
milliners, achieved the culmination of this tendency in his pictures of 
ugly women bathing in tubs. Personally, in his "benevolent malice" 
and reconcilement to the boredom of life, he was the artistic counter- 
part of the novelist Huysmans, of the catlike temperament, described 
by Arthur Symons as "courteous, perfectly polite, almost amiable, but 
all nerves, ready to shoot out his claws at the least word." 

Perhaps it is only a stupid book that someone has mentioned, or a stupid woman; 
as he speaks, the book looms up before one, becomes almost monstrous in its dullness, 
a masterpiece and a miracle of imbecility; the unimportant little woman grows into 
a slow horror before your eyes. It is always the unpleasant aspect of things that he 
seizes, but the intensity of his revolt from that unpleasantness brings a touch of the 

sublime into the very expression of his disgust He speaks with an accent as 

of pained surprise, an amused look of contempt, so profound, that it becomes almost 
pity, for human imbecility. 

Such have been the tendencies of recent painting of the nude, the 
apotheosis of the ugly and the disagreeable, running strangely parallel 
with the substitution of the photograph and the dissected cadaver in 
place of hand-drawings for the teaching of anatomy. Our thesis, 

' Fletcher (i4r/c/Kii4«/Äro/>öwe/r>', p. 8) notes the" autotypic instinct .... the tendency 
of man in painting or sculpture to reproduce the tj-pe of race to which he belongs and the 
extreme difficulty with which he depicts the type of other races." This subjectivity is 
nowise true of Gaugain's Polynesians. They are true objective ethnic studies. 


however, is to the effect that genuine anatomic illustration arose not in 
didactic hand-drawings made by physicians, but without didactic 
intention, in the sculptures and figure paintings of the great Florentines, 
in immortal beauty comparable only with the statuary of the Greeks and 
the Gothic imagiers. 

In the words of Berenson:' 

What brought about this change ? In the first place, the Serpent, that restless 
energy which never allows man to abide long in any Eden, the awakening of the scien- 
tific spirit. Then the fact that, by a blessed accident, much, if not most, of this 
awakened energy was at first turned not to science but to art. The result thereof 
was Naturalism, which I have defined elsewhere as science using art as the object of 
its studies and as its vehicle of expression. Now science, devoting itself, as it earnestly 
did at the beginning of the fifteenth century, to the study of the shapes of things, 
did not take long to discover that objective reality was not on the side of the art then 
practiced. And, thanks to the existence at that moment of a man not less endowed 
with force to react against tradition, than with power to see — a power, I believe, 
unparalleled before or since — thanks to this one man, Donatello, art in an instant 
wrenched itself free from its immediate past, threw to the winds its whole medieval 
stock of images, and turned with ardour and zeal to the reproduction of things as 
research was discovering them to be 

Created by Donatello and Masaccio, and sanctioned by the Humanists, the new 
canon of the human figure, the new cast of features, expressing, because the figure 
arts, properly used, could not express anything else, power, manliness, and stateliness, 
presented to the ruling classes of that time the type of human being most Likely to 
win the day in the combat of human forces. It needed no more than this to assure 
the triumph of the new over the old way of seeing and depicting. And as the ideals 
of effectiveness have not changed since the fifteenth century, the types presented by 
Renaissance art, despite the ephemeral veerings of mere fashion and sentiment, still 
embody our choice, and will continue to do so, at least as long as European civilization 
keeps the essentially Hellenic character it has had ever since the Renaissance. 

■ Berenson, The Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance, New York, 1907, 62, 66. 


By Fielding H. Garrison 

When Choulant's History was published, about the middle of the 
nineteenth century (1852), modem scientific medicine had gained its 
stride, and was already moving swiftly toward the goal of a well-organized 
body of real knowledge, capable of continuous growth and development. 
The period was a brilliant one in respect of original discoveries and inven- 
tions, and the publication of Schwann's Cell Theory (1839) and of such 
anatomic treatises as those of Henle (1841), Hyrtl (1846), and Pirogoff 
(1852) established new departures, little known to Choulant, such as 
histolog>% morphology, the study of anatomy by means of frozen sections, 
the pursuit of topographic and cross-section anatomy as ends in them- 
selves, the use of photography, lithography, electroplating, and other 
reproductive processes. While the pencil and the brush were freely 
utilized in illustrating such textbooks as those of M. P. C. Sappey 
(1850-64), Henry Gray (1859), Carl Gegenbaur (1883), Leo Testut 
(1889-91), and Karl von Bardeleben (1896), or in such surgical topog- 
raphies as those of J. F. Malgaigne (1859), Carl Heitzmann (1876), 
Luther Holden (1876), George McClellan (1891), or Bardeleben (1894), 
direct photography of imusually good specimens or preparations 
gradually gained a footing. Jakob Henle (1809-95), ^ his Hand- 
buch der systematischen Anatomie (1866-71), illustrated by himself, 
introduced the new idea of architectural drawings, in plan and elevation, 
giving only so much of a structure as is necessary for its comprehension. 
Wilhelm His, Joseph Leidy, Joseph Lister, and many others made 
their own drawings. The soft gray wood engravings used by Henle 
and Gray set the pace for a long period. The new sciences of anthro- 
pology' and ethnology, with their many photographic albums of crania' 
and of the physical habitus of different races, in particular such treatises as 
those of Heinrich Ploss on women {Das Weih) and children {Das Kind, 1877), 

'Notably those of American Indian (1839) and Egyptian crania (1844) by Samuel 
George Morton (1799-1851), of Russian crania by Carl Ernst von Baer (1859), of Swiss 
crania by Ludwig Rütimeyer and Wilhelm His (1864), of Finnish crania (1878) and Swedish 
crania (1900) by Magnus Gustav Retzius, of Bohemian crania by Ludwig Matiegka (1891), 
of North American Indian crania by Rudolf Virchow (1892), of ancient Swiss crania by T. 
Studier and fi. Bannworth (1894). 



gave a new impetus to artistic anatomy. Direct photography of the 
nude was employed in illustrating scores of books on this subject, 
notably in the works of Carl Heinrich Stratz and the anatomic treatise of 
Julius Kollmann (1866). The day of massive, expensive atlases of wood, 
copper, steel, and mezzotint engravings is over. Even historical treatises 
on anatomic illustration, such as those of Duval and Cuyer (1898) or 
Weindler (1908), merely reproduced the classical pictures of the past 
by means of photography. 

It remains to give some brief bibliographic account of distinctive 
examples of anatomic illustration since the time of Choulant. Those 
selected and subjoined seriatim, in chronologic order, do not by any means 
constitute an exhaustive Hst, but are to be taken as illustrative and repre- 
sentative of modern work in technical anatomic illustration and artistic 
anatomy; most of these are illustrated in the ordinary woodcut process 
employed by Henle and Gray, or in electrotype or zincograph. Hence, 
descriptions of the books are given in a few instances only. Where a 
complete bibliographic description of a work is not given, the original 
edition has not been accessible. 


GoDMAN, John D. (1794-1830). Anatomical investigations, comprising descriptions 
of various fasciae of the human body. Philadelphia: H. C. Carey and I. Lea, 
1824, 8°. xiii+14-1-134 pp., 10 pi. 

One of the earliest original investigations by an American, the unfortunate and short- 
lived Maryland anatomist. Illustrated with 7 copperplates, from drawings by J. Drayton, 
Rembrandt Peale, Lesueur, small in size and of no outstanding merit. 

. Contributions to physiological and pathological anatomy; containing 

observations made at the Philadelphia Anatomical Rooms. Philadelphia: 
H. C. Carey and I. Lea, 1825, 8°. 86 pp., 3 pi. 

QuAiN, Jones (1795-1851). The elements of anatomy. London, 1828, 8°. 

. Anatomical plates. Division I. The Muscles. London, 1839, fol. 2 v., 

100 pp., 5 pi. 

AND Wilson, W. J. Erasmus. A series of anatomical plates; with references 

and physiological comments, illustrating the structure of the different parts of 

the human body. London, 1836-42, fol., 2 v. 
Wilson, Sir William James Erasmus (1809-84). Practical and surgical anatomy. 

London: Longmans, Green (et al.), 1838, 8°. 492 pp. 
— . The anatomist's vade mecum: a system of human anatomy. London: 

J. Churchill, 1840, 8°. xxiv, 595 pp., i pi. 
Henle, Jacob (1809-85). Allgemeine Anatomie. Lehre von den Mischungs- und 

Formbestandtheilen des menschlichen Körpers. Leipzig: L. Voss, 1841, 8°. 

xxiv -|- 1048, pp., I 1., 5 pl. (Forms Vol. VI of Soemmerring, S. T., Von Baue 

des menschlichen Körpers. Leipzig, 1841.) 


Henle, Jacob (1809-85). Handbuch der systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. 

Braunschweig: F. Vieweg und Sohn, 1856-73, 8°, 3 v. 

The most scientific treatise on anatomy in its day, by the professor of anatomy at 
Göttingen, the great master of histology. Illustrated by its author after the method 
employed in his blackboard demonstrations, viz., the elliptical "architectural drawing," 
which gives only so much of a structure in light and shade as is necessary for its compre- 
hension, and freely utilizes plan and elevation in demonstrating the relations of structures 
in cross-section through different axes and planes. 
. Anatomischer Hand-Atlas zum Gebrauch im Secirsaal. Braunschweig, 

1871-76, 8°. 6 Hefte. 
Morton, Samuel George (1799-1851). An illustrated system of human anatomy, 

special, general, and microscopic. Philadelphia: Grigg, Elliot & Co., 1849. 

xix -1-17-1-64 2 pp. 
MouAT, Frederic John (1816-97). An atlas of anatomical plates of the human 

body, with descriptive letterpress in English and Hindustani. Calcutta: 

Sanders & Cones, 1849, fol. i p.l., 64 pp. 
Smith, Henry Hollingsworth (1815-90). Anatomical atlas, illustrative of the 

structure of the human body; under the supervision of William E. Horner. 

Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard, 1849, 8°. 186 ff. 

Froriep, Robert (1804-61). Atlas anatomicus partium corporis humani per strata 
dispositarum, imagines in tabulis XXX, ab Augusto Andorffo delineatas 
ferroque incisas exhibens. Weimar, 1850, fol. 5 fasciculi. 

Sappey, Marie Philibert Constant (1810-96). Anatomie, physiologic, pathologic 
des vaisseaux lymphatiques consideres chez I'homme et les vertebres. Paris: 
A. Delahaye et E. Lecrosnier, 1874-85, fol. 136 pp., 48 pi. 

. Traite d'anatomic descriptive. Paris: V. Masson, 1850-64, 12°. 3 v. 

2d ed. 4 v. Paris: A. Delahaye, 1867-72. 

Atlas d'anatomic descriptive. Part I; osteologie,arthrologic. Paris: V.-A. 

Delahaye et Cic. iii pp., i 1., 38 pi. with text on back of plates. 

Türner, Sir William (1832-1916). Atlas of human anatomy and physiology. 
Selected and arranged under the superintendence of John Goodslr. Edinburgh : 
W. & A. K. Johnston, 1857, fol. i p.l., 8 pi. 

Gray, Henry. Anatomy descriptive and surgical. The drawings by H. V. Carter. 

The dissections jointly by the author and Dr. Carter. London: Longmans, 

Green & Co., 1859, 8°. xxxii-l-754 pp. 

The standard modern textbook of the English and American medical student, dedicated 
to Sir Benjamin Brodie, now in its twentieth edition (1918). The drawings, by H. Vandyke 
Carter, are of unusual merit and of great didactic value. 

Leidy, Joseph (1823-91). An elementary treatise on human anatomy. Phila- 
delphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1861, 8°. 663 pp. 2d ed. Philadelphia: 
J. B. Lippincott Co., 1889, 950 pp. 
By the greatest of American anatomists and biologists. Written for students (2d ed., 

1889) and illustrated by the author himself. The illustrations are small but exquisite in 

execution and are, many of them, after Henle's idea, confined to only so much of a given 

structure as is comprehensible to the student. 


PiROGOFF, Nikolai Ivanivuch (1810-80). Chirurgische Anatomie der Arterien- 
staemme und Fascien, neu bearbeitet von Julius Szymanowski. Leipzig und 
Heidelberg: C. F. Winter, 1861, 8°. iv+243 pp., 50 pl. 
Illustrated with colored lithographs by C. Schmiedel from drawings by F. Schlater. 

Heitzmann, Carl. Die descriptive und topographische Anatomie des Menschen. 
Wien: W. Braumüller, 1870, 8°. xii+232 pp. 

Hyrtl, Joseph (181 1-94). Die Corrosions-Anatomie und ihre Ergebnisse, Wien: 

W. Braumüller, 1873, 4°. viii+253 pp., 18 col. pl. 

The classical work on the corrosive method. Begins with a history of the development 
of the process by Ruysch and his predecessors, Bidloo, Cowper, and Lieberkühn; the technic 
of corrosion and its results in demonstrating the finer details of anatomic structures. The 
colored Hthographic plates, from drawings by C. Heitzmann, are of the finest order, repre- 
senting the tympanum, lachrymal apparatus, bronchi, portal vein, bile ducts, kidney, and 
other structures, with blood vessels. 

WiTKOwsKi, Gustave Jules A. (1844 ). Anatomie iconoclastique. Atlas com- 

plementaire de tous les ouvrages traitant de I'anatomie et de la physiologic 
humaines, compose de planches decoup)ees, coloriees et superposees. Paris: 
1874-88, fol. 12 parts. 
Consists of life-size superposed plates of the human body, followed by others representing 

the principal organs. 

God lee, Rickman John. An atlas of human anatomy. London: J. & A, Churchill, 
1877-78, 8°. 196 pp. fol. 20 1., 20 pl. 

Von Klein, Carl Heinrich. Tabulae anatomicae osteologicae. Cincinnati: 
Lithographic Company, 1883, 8°. 3 p.l., 32 pl. 

Gegenbaur, Carl (1826-1903). Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen. Leipzig: 
W. Engelmann, 1883, 8°. xvi+984 pp., i 1. 
Illustrated with 558 partly colored woodcuts. 

Braune, Christian Wilhelm (1831-92). Das Venensystem des menschlichen 
Körpers. Leipzig: Veit & Co., 1884, 8° and eleph. fol., 2 pts. viii+72 pp., 
4 col. pl.; 24 pp., 4 col. pl. 

Windle, Bertram Coghill Alan. A handbook of surface anatomy and landmarks. 
London: H. K. Lewis, 1888, 8°. x (i l.) + i34 pp. 

Testut, Jean Leo (1849 ). Traite d'anatomie humaine. Anatomie descriptive; 

histologic: developpement. Avec la collaboration pour I'histologie et I'em- 
bryologie de G. Ferre et L. Vialleton. Paris: O. Doin, 1889-92, 8°. 3 v. 

Owen, Edmund. A manual of anatomy for senior students. London: Longmans, 
Green & Co., 1890, 8°. viii+526 pp. 

McClellan, George. Regional anatomy in its relation to medicine and surgery, 
Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1891-92, 4°. 2 v., xxii (i l.)+436 pp.; 
xvi+414 pp., 97 pl. 

PoRRiER, Paul (1853-1907), Charpy, A. {et al.). Traite d'anatomie humaine 
Paris, 1892-1902, roy. 8°. 5 v. 

Morris, Henry. A treatise on human anatomy by various authors. Edited by 
. London: J. & A. Churchill, 1893, 8°. 1,310 pp. 


Bardeleben, Karl (1849 ), and Haeckel, Ernst. Atlas der topographischen 

Anatomie des Menschen für Studierende und Aerzte. Jena: G. Fischer, 1894, 

8°. XX, 55 1., X, 128 pl. (with 128 woodcuts), i pl. 
CuYER, Edouard. Atlas-manuel d'anatomie ^lementaire, demontree ä l'aide de 

planches coloriees, decoupees et superposees. Paris: J. B. Bailliere & fils, 1895, 

vi (i l.) + 56pp., 27 pl. 
Spalteholz, Werner (1861 ). Handatlas der Anatomie des Menschen. Mit 

Unterstützung von Wilhelm His bearbeitet. Leipzig: S. Hirzel, 1805-1903, 

8°. 3v. 

Illustrated with 750 parti-colored lithographs. Translated into English by Lewellys F. 
Barker [1900- 1903]. 

ToLDT, Carl (1840 ). Anatomischer Atlas für Studierende und Aerzte, unter 

Mitwirkung von Alois Della Rosa. Wien und Leipzig: Urban und Schwarzen- 
berg, 1896-1900, 8°. vi+718 pp., 230 pp. 

Janosik, J. Anatomicky atlas, v. Praze, 1897-1902, 8°. 
Based upon original dissections. 

Gerrish, Frederic Henry. A textbook of anatomy by American authors. Edited 
by . Philadelphia and New York: Lea Brothers & Co., 1899, roy. 8°. 

917 pp. 

Illustrated with 950 engravings in black and colors. • 

Krause, Wilhelm (1833-1910). Handbuch der Anatomie des Menschen, mit einem 

Synonymenregister. Leipzig: S. Hirzel, 1899-1901, 8°. 
Cunningham, Daniel John. Textbook of anatomy. Edited by . Edinburgh 

and London: Y. J. Pentland, 1902. 8°. xxi4-i,309 pp. 

Illustrated by 824 parti-colored wood engravings from drawings by J. T. Murray, 
W. C. Stevens, and William Cathie. 
SoBOTTA, Johannes (1869 ). Altas der deskriptiven Anatomie des Menschen. 

München: J. F. Lehmann, 1904, 4°. viii (2 l.)4-399 pp., 19 pl. 
Taylor, Edward Henry. A treatise on applied anatomy. London: C. Griffin & 

Co., 1904, 8°. xxvii+738 pp. 
Rabaud, Etienne (1868 ). Anatomie elementaire du corps humain. Paris: 

Schleicher freres, 1899, roy. 8°. viii-h98 pp., 4 superimposed pl. 
. Atlas anatomique du corps de l'homme et de la femme. Paris: Schleicher 

freres et Cie., 1905. 4°. 7 superimposed pl., 8 1. 
Broesike, Gustav (1853 ). Anatomischer Atlas des menschlichen Körpers. 

BerHn: H. Kornfeld, 1900-1902, 8°. Parts 1-2. 
Eisendrath, DANaEL Nathan. A textbook of clinical anatomy for students and 

practitioners. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1903, 8°. 515 pp. 
Von Bardeleben, Karl (1849-1918). Lehrbuch der systematischen Anatomie des 

Menschen für Studierende und Aerzte. Berlin und Wien: Urban und Schwarz- 

enberg, 1906, 8°. xi+996 pp. 

Has only 7 illustrations in the text. 

. Die Anatomie des Menschen. Partsl-V. Leipzig: B.G.Teubner, 1908-9. 12°. 

Sommer, Ernst Friedrich. Anatomischer Atlas in stereoskopischen Röntgen- 
bildern. Würzburg: C. Kabitzsch, 1906. 8°. i v., xii, 20 pl. 


Frohse, Friedrich, Broesike, Gustav, Benninghoven, Wilhelm. Anato- 
mische Wandtafeln. Dresden: A. Müller, 1911-12, roy. 8°. 13 pi. 

Van Gehuckten, Arthur (1861 ). Cours d'anatomie humaine systematique. 

Louvain: A. Uystpruyst-Dieudonne, 1906-9, roy. 8°. 3 v. 

PiERSOL, George Arthur (1856 ). Human anatomy, including structure and 

development and practical considerations, by Thomas Dwight, J. Playfair 

McMuRRiCH (et al.). Edited by . Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott 

Co., 1907, XX+ 2,088 pp., I pi. 

Contains 1,734 illustrations, of which 1,522, by Hermann, Ludwig E.,and Erwin F. Faber, 

are from original dissections. 

Davis, Gwyllym G. Applied anatomy. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 19 10, 

4°. x+629 pp. 

Illustrated with 630 parti-colored drawings and photographs, mostly from original 
dissections, by Erwin F. Faber and Hermann Faber. 

Berry, Richard James Arthur (1867 ). A clinical atlas of sectional and topo- 
graphical anatomy. Edinburgh and London: W. Green & Sons, 1911, fol. 

2 p.I., 13 pp., 60 col. pi. 

Merkel, Friedrich Sigmund (1845 ). Die Anatomie des Menschen, mit 

Hinweisen auf die ärztliche Praxis-Wiesbaden: J. F. Bergmann, 1913, 4°. 

3 parts, 


De Riemer, Bieter (i 760-1831). Afbeeldingen van de juiste plaatsing der inwendige 
deelen van bet menschelijk ligchaam, zoo met opzigt tot derzelver ligging onder- 
ling, als ten aanzien hunner bepaalde aanraking tegen de wanden der hoUigheden 
waarin zii zieh bevinden. Parts I-IV. 's Gravenhage: J. Allart en Comp., 
1818, fol. 5 colored pi., 5 outline pi. 
The first work in which frozen sections were utilized in anatomical illustration. 

HuscHKE, Emil (1797-1858). Lehre von den Eingeweiden und Sinnesorganen des 

menschUchen Körpers. Leipzig: L. Voss, 1844, 8°. liii-f 949 pp., 2 pl. (Forms 

Vol. V of S. T. VON Sömmerring's Vom Baue des menschlichen Körpers.) 

By an eminent anatomist and embryologist, a pupil of Oken, and Loder's successor at 

Jena. Contains two copperplates, giving ten views of transverse sections through the neck, 

thorax, abdomen, and pelvis of the cadaver of an eighteen-months-old girl. 

PiROGOFF, Nikolai Ivanovich (1810-81). Anatome topographica sectionibus per 

corpus humanum congelatum triplici directione ductis illustrata. Petropoli: 

J. Frey, 1852-59, fol. and 8°. 4 pts. 796 pp., 213 pl. 

The first important atlas of anatomy to be based on frozen sections. The first volume 
consists of life-size sections of the head, mostly in transverse planes; the second con- 
tains transverse and sagittal sections of the thorax; the third transverse, sagittal, and 
frontal sections of the abdominal cavity in both sexes; the fourth sections in three planes 
through the extremities and their joints. Although Pirogofif was ignorant of his predecessors 
in freezing methods, his work remains unsurpassed for practical use. 
LeGendre, Eugene Quentin (1823 ). Anatomie chirurgicale homalographique. 

Paris: J. B. BaiUiere et fils, 1858, fol. 2 p.I., 45 pp., 25 pl. 

Drawings made by the author from frozen sections of different parts of the body, taken 
in horizontal, sagittal, and oblique planes. 


RuDiNGER, Nicolaus (1832-96). Topographisch-chirurgische Anatomie des Men- 
schen. 1-4, Abth. and Supplement. Stuttgart: J. G. Cotta, 1877-79, roy. 
8°. 721 pp., 183 pl. 
Contains 73 illustrations of frozen sections from the adult and infant in the three principal 

planes, mostly photographic. 

Braune, Christian Wilhelm (1831-92). Topographisch-anatomischer Atlas. 
Nach Durchschnitten an gefrorenen Cadavern. Leipzig: Veit und Comp., 
1867-72, fol. (Supplement). Die Lage des Uterus und Fötus am Ende der 
Schwangerschaft nach Durchschnitten an gefrornen Cadavern. Leipzig: Veit 
und Comp., 1872, fol. 4 1., 4 pl. 2. ed. 1875. English translation by E. Bel- 
lamy, 1877. 3. ed. 1888. 

A classical work, representing sections of the male and female body in three planes, from 
preparations made with a special freezing mixture of Braune's invention. The drawings 
were first made on tracing paper over a thin layer of ice covering the delineated structures. 

DwiGHT, Thomas (1843-1911). Frozen sections of a child. Fifteen drawings from 
nature by H. P. QumcY. New York: Wood & Co., 1881, roy. 8°. v+66 pp. 
A classical work of great importance in pediatrics, and the first American group of serial 


Dalton, John Call (1825-89). Topographical anatomy of the brain. Phila- 
delphia: Lea Brothers & Co., 1885, fol. 3 v. in i, vi (i l.)+iv+iv+i73 PP-> 
48 pl., 48 outline pl. 

By the late professor of physiology in the College of Physicians and Surgeons (New 
York). Heliotype reproductions of photographs of fresh specimens, prepared by the author, 
with outline sketches from tracings made by Dr. Richmond Lennox. The photographs are 
of a superlative order and beauty, and made from specimens and cross-sections which could 
not be duplicated out of hand. 

Symington, Johnson (1851 ). The Topographical Anatomy of the Child. 

Edinburgh: E. & S. Livingstone, 1887, fol. 75 pp., 14 pl. 

Life-sized colored plates, based upon frozen sections. Introduces the novelty of key- 
figures, showing the lines along which the sections were taken. 

MacEwen, Sir William. Atlas of head sections. Glasgow: J. Maclehose & Sons, 

1893, 4°. xiii+4 pp., 54 1., S3 pl. 

Seven series of sections, three coronal, one sagittal, three transverse, of which one coronal 
and one transverse are from the child. The illustrations are copperplates from photographs. 
"As in all frozen sections, the saw has destroyed or obscured many of the finer details" 

Retzius, Magnus Gustav (1842 ). Das Menschenhim. Studien in der 

makroskopischen Morphologie. Stockholm: P. A. Norstedt und Söner, 1896, fol. 
2 v., viii-f 167 pp., I p.l., 96 pl., 96 1. 

Eycleshymer, Albert Chauncey (1867 ), Schoemaker, Daniel Martin 

(1867 ). A Cross-Section Anatomy. New York and London : D. Apple ton 

& Co., 191 1, fol. 373 pp. 

A superb production, giving views of 113 cross-sections, preceded by an excellent history 

of cross-sectional anatomy. The average position of the organs was evolved from eleven 

reconstructions by Paul Potter, the sections of the female pelvis were made by Carroll Smith 

and the drawings by Tom Jones, all of St. Louis University. 


Bertinatti, Francesco. Elementi di anatomia fisiologica applicata alle belle arti 

figurative. Torino: P. Marietti, 1837, 2 v. 8°. Atlas fol. 43 pi. 

One of the earlier works, illustrated by 43 lithographic plates, of a superior fackire. 
The allegorical frontispiece {allegorico frontespizio) represents an instructor demonstrating 
the musculature of a flayed cadaver, suspended by the right arm, to a studio of seated pupils. 

Squanquerillo, Costantino. Opera di anatomia pittorica. Roma: F. Lustrini, 

1837-41, fol. 64 pp., 65 pi. 

Described by Duvarl and Cuyer (Hisioire de I'anatomie plaslique) as an unfinished work, 
since only 9 of the 15 fasciculi of 4 plates each were "in circulation " or known to the authors. 
The copy, in the Surgeon General's Library, as above described, contains 65 plates. Many 
of these lithographs are taken from Albinus. The frontispiece represents two outline sketches 
of the male and female figure en profit on a placard supported by a skeleton and an 6corchi. 

Bean, Richard Lewis. Anatomy for the use of artists. London: H. Renshaw. 

1841, 8°. 47 pp., 10 pi. 
Pequegnot, Auguste (1819-78). Anatomie ou description des formes de I'homme, 

exclusivement destinee aux peintres, sculpteurs et graveurs, et entierement 

appliquee aux beaux-arts. Paris: Danlos, 1845, 8°. 47 pp., 24 pi. 

One of the earlier works mentioned by Duval and Cuyer. The myological plates are 
superior to those representing the bones. 

Story, William Wetmore (1819-95). The proportions of the human figure, 

according to a canon, for practical use. London: Chapman & Hall, 1866, 

roy. 8°. 3 p.l., 63 pp., 7 tab. 
Duval, Mathias Marie (1844 ). Precis d'anatomie ä I'usage des artistes, 

Paris: G. Quantin, 1881, 8°. 336 pp. 
Fletcher, Robert. Human proportion in art and anthropometry. Cambridge: 

M. King, 1883, 37 pp., 4 pl. 8°. 
RiMMER, William. Art anatomy. London: Kegan Paul, Trench & Co., 1884. 

fol. 2 p.l., 81 pl. 
Kollmann, Julius Constantin Ernst (1834-1918). Plastische Anatomie des 

menschlichen Körpers, für Künstler und Freunde der Kunst. Leipzig: Veit 

und Comp., 1886, roy. 8°. 

By the professor of anatomy at Basel. Illustrated with lithographs from hand-drawings, 
photographs from the nude, ethnic studies of facial features arranged en echelon, etc. The 
text, like Hyrtl's, is of unusual historic interest, and includes special chapters on the anatomy 
of the infant, human proportions, and ethnic morphology. Among the models used are 
Sandow, Rubinstein, and other celebrities. 

Cuyer, Edouard. Anatomie artistique du corps humain. Planches par le Dr. Fau 

Paris: J. B. Bailliere et fils, 1886. vii+208 pp., 17 pl. 
Rochet, Charles (1815-1900). Traite d'anatomie, d'anthropologie et d'ethno- 

graphie appliquees aux beaux-arts. Paris: Renouard, 1886, xii+276 pp. 

Illustrated by pen drawings (in black and white and colors) by G. L. Rochet. 

Richer, Paul (1849 — — ) • Anatomie artistique. Description des formes exterieures 
du corps humain au repos et dans les principaux mouvements. Paris: E. Plon, 
Nourrit et Cie., 1890, fol. viii, no pl. 

. Physiologie artistique de I'homme en mouvement. Paris: O. Doin, 1895, 

8°. 335 PP-> 6 pl. 


Richer, Paul (1849 ). Nouvelle anatomic artistique du corps humain. Paris: 

Plön, 1906, sm. 4°. vi+177 pp. 

Brücke, Ernst Wilhelm (1819-92). Schönheit und Fehler der menschlichen 
Gestalt. Wien: W. Braumüller, 1891, 8°. i p.l., 151 pp. 
By the professor of physiology at Vienna. A book of unusually attractive and informing 

character, illustrated with 29 small woodcuts of singular beauty by Hermann Paar. English 

translation, 1891. 

Roth, Charles. The student's atlas of artistic anatomy. Edited, with an intro- 
duction, by C. E. Fitzgerald. London: H. Grevel & Co., 1891, fol. viii+so 
34 Pl- 
Thomson, Arthur. A handbook of anatomy for art students. Oxford: Clarendon 
Press, 1896. 8°. 

A work of solid merit, which has now reached its fourth edition. Illustrated with superb 
photographic plates of the nude, in brown tone, each plate having opposite a schema of the 
underlying muscles, with legends. The male and female models were chosen not for excessive 
muscularity, but for all-round symmetry and proportion. Far and away, the best modern 
treatise on the subject in English. 

Stratz, Carl Heinrich. Die Schönheit des weiblichen Körpers. Stuttgart: F. 
Enke, 1898. 
A treatise on artistic anatomy, based upon direct photography of female models. 

. Die Rassenschönheit des Weibes. Stuttgart: F. Enke, 1 901, 8°. 350 pp., 

I map. 

A study of the surface anatomy of the female body in its ethnic relations, illustrated by 
photographs from the nude. 

. Die Körper des Kindes. Für Eltern, Erzieher, Aerzte und Künstler. 

Stuttgart: F. Enke, 1903, 8°. xii+250 pp., 2 pl. 

An admirable study of the surface anatomy of the female body in children, illustrated by 
photographs from the nude. 

Stratz, Carl Heinrich. Die Darstellung des menschlichen Körpers in der Kunst. 

Berlin: J. Springer, 1914, 8°. x+322 pp. 

Gives pictures of the principal works of art in which anatomy is exploited, frequently 
with duplicate poses by living models. 

DuNLOP, James M. Anatomical diagrams for the use of art students, arranged with 

analytical notes and drawn out by . W'ith introductory preface by John 

Cleland. London: George Bell & Sons, 1899, roy. 8°. 4 p.l., 72 pp. 
Illustrated with parti-colored drawings and photographs. 

McClellan, George. Anatomy in its relation to art; an exposition of the bones 
and muscles of the human body, with especial reference to their influence upon 
its actions and external form. Philadelphia: A. M. Slocum Co., 1900, 4°. 
142 pp., 41 1., 126 pl. 

Illustrated by 338 original drawings and photographs made by the author. The draw- 
ings are mostly rude diagrammatic sketches. The photographs are elegant, well-selected 
album-pictures of the nude, many of them duplicating the poses and thus demonstrating the 
excellent anatomy of many antique and modem statues. 

CoLENSO, Robert J. Landmarks in artistic anatomy. London: Bailhere, Tindall 
& Cox, 1902, sm. 4°. vi (i l.) + 56 pp. 6 outline pl. 

Rinke, Jan. Handleiding tot het teekenen van het menschelijk lichaam. Amster- 
dam: H. Meulenhoff, 1906, sm. 4°. 142 pp., i 1., 2 pl. 
Illustrated with outline drawings. 


TiKHANOFF, Mikhail Terentyevich. Kurs plasticheskoi anatomii chelovieka 

(Human plastic anatomy). St. Petersburg: T. R. Golike & A. Vilborg, 1906, 

xO+sSs pp., I 1., 2 pi. 
Shufeldt, Robert Wilson (1850 ). Studies of the human form, for artists, 

sculptors, and scientists. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Co., 1908, roy. 8°. 

xxxi+644 pp. 

Illustrated by photographs of nude models. 

Fetzer, Hermann (1846 ). Einleitung in die plastische Anatomie für Künstler. 

Tübingen: H. Laüpp, 1911, roy. 8°. vii+57 pp., 18 pl. 
Fripp, Sir Alfred D., and Thompson, Ralph. Human anatomy for art students, 

with drawings by Innes Fripp and an appendix on comparative anatomy by 

Harry Dixon. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1911, 12°. 296 pp. 

Contains 151 illustrations, among which are 23 effective photographs from the nude. 
Heupel-Siegen, Ludwig. Plastische Anatomie des Menschen für Künstler und 

Kunstschüler. Stuttgart: F. Enke, 1913, 4°. viii+96 pp., 93 pl. 

Illustrated with 199 partly colored drawings of structure by Paul Mather and 8 crayon 
drawings of the nude body by the author, Philipp Hirt, Peter Abelen, and Theo. Riebecke. 

Vanderpoel, John Henry (1857-1911). The human figure. London, 1913, 8°. 
Lutz, Edwin George. Practical art anatomy. New York: Charles Scribner's 

Sons, 1918, 8°. vii+254 pp. 

Illustrated with very rudimentary outline drawings by the author. 


Hyrtl, Joseph (1811-94). Antiquitates anatomicae rariores, quibus origo, incre- 
menta et status anatomes, apud antiquissimae memoriae gentes, historica 
fide illustrantur. Vindobonae: InBiliopolo Universitatis, 1835, 8°. xii+13 + 109 
pp., 2 1., 3 pl. 
Gives a unique account of cuUnary, sacrificial, and accidental anatomy, with three plates 

of Chinese anatomy from Cleyer's Specimen medicinae sinicae (1682). 

DuvAL, Mathias Marie, and Cuyer, £douard. Histoire de I'anatomie plastique. 

Les maitres, les livres et les ecorches. Paris: Societe frangaise d'editions d'art, 

1898, 8°. xiii+3Si PP- 

A valuable manual, well written and well illustrated, containing much material and 
information not accessible to Choulant. It forms a supplement or pendant to his book. 

Duval, Mathias Marie, and Bical, Albert. L'anatomie des maitres. Trentes 

planches reproduisant les originaux de Leonard de Vinci, Michel-Ange, Raphael, 

Gericault, etc., accompagnes de notices explicatives et precedees d'une histoire 

de l'anatomie plastique. Paris: A. Quantin, 1890, fol. ii+32 pp., 29 pl., 30 1. 

Weindler, Fritz. Geschichte der gynäkologisch-anatomischen Abbildungen. 

Dresden: Zahn und Jaensch, 1908, 4°. xvi+186 pp., 5 col. pl. 

The work of a Dresden gynecologist and executed after the plan of Choulant's treatise, 

which it surpasses in the interest and variety of its illustrations. These include ex-voto 

representations of the uterus, pictures from Greek vases, the medieval codices and MSS 

(particularly the Dresden No. 78), and plates from all the outstanding works on anatomy 

and obstetrics down to William Hunter (1774). Leonardo's female situs viscerum is given 

opposite p. 68, and his wonderful figurations of the statutory position of the foetus in utero, 

on pp. 73-74; interesting figures from the twelfth-century Copenhagen codex (1263), with 

Valentin Rose's text, on pp. 16-31. One of Gautier d'Agoty's nudes, with eviscerated fetus, 

is given in colors opposite p. 168. 



Three illustrations taken from the first volume of the parchment codex in the 
possession of the Dresden Royal Library (Manuscripts D 92, 93) and containing the 
Latin works of Galen, as described in the article entitled "Anatomic Illustrations 
of Antiquity and of the Middle Ages. " The first picture shows the instructor seated 
and pointing with his right hand at a nude woman standing beside him. To his left 
stand two students. It is to be found in Vol. I. fol. 50, and belongs as initial C to 
Galeni de spermati lib. ii. cap. i, de modo emissionis spermalis feminei ad matricem. 

The second picture again shows the instructor seated and a nude pregnant 
woman standing before him, with two students in the background also standing. 
The latter is to be found in Vol. I, fol. 158, and belongs as initial T to Galeni de 
utilitate particularum lib. xiv., de ulilitate partium genitaliuni. 

The third picture shows standing to the right of the seated instructor a nude man 
in the center of whose thorax (the lower part of which is dissected) the heart, shap)ed 
like a playing-card heart, can be seen. Below it, in the upper part of the abdomen, 
also dissected, suggestions of the liver and the stomach seem to be given. To the 
left of the instructor stand two students. This illustration makes it obvious that 
this picture as well as others were to give emblematic suggestions rather than to 
present actual demonstration, since a human being with his thoracic and abdominal 
cavities dissected could not have attended such a demonstration, standing and motion- 
ing with his hands. The last picture can be found in Vol. I, fol. 19, on the back of 
the page, and belongs as initial Q to Galeni liber de motu thoracis et pulmonis. 

PAGES 46 AND 47 

A. The Duchess from Hans Holbein's larger "Dance of Death," an original print 
of the wood-engraving cut by Vicomte Leon de Laborde for C. Fr. von Rumohr's 
book: Hans Holbein der jüngere in seinem Verhältniss zum deutschen Formschniltwesen, 
Leipzig, 1838, 8°, woodcut plate. 

B. The initial X from the "Dance of Death" alphabet or the smaller "Dance of 
Death" by Hans Holbein. It is copied from the Greek edition of Galen, Basil, apud 
Andr. Cratandrum, 1538, fol., 5 volumes, in which this alphabet provides the initials. 
It represents two gamblers surprised by death and the devil, and has also been used 
in the second part of woodcuts of famous masters edited by the publisher. 

PAGE 103 
Pen-and-ink drawings from Leonardo da Vinci's anatomic sketches in the 
possession of the King of England. The plate is taken from John Chamberlaine: 
Imitations of original designs by L. da V., London, 1796, large fol., a work which was 
later inserted in Original designs of the most celebrated masters of the Bolognese, Raman, 
Florentine and Venetian schools, etc., London, 1812, large fol., Plate IV, by the same 
author, cf. Weigel: Kunstkatalog No. 11372. The plate given here contains illustra- 
tions explaining the movements of the shoulder and the upper arm and therefore shows 



also the muscles of the neck, the thorax, and the upper arm. Of the six figures on 
the plate, the one in the upper right-hand corner is schematic and illustrates the 
mechanism of motion. The other figures are artistic conceptions of the anatomy 
of the various parts involved, and sufficiently true to nature, of a kind that had 
not yet been given by any of the other anatomists of that time. They are all accom- 
panied by ten numbered explanatory notes in mirror writing. 

PAGE 107 
A print copied from the rare copper engraving by Giovanni Fabbri after a 
pen-and-ink sketch of Michelangelo Buonarroti. It represents a nude male figure 
with suggestions of the muscles; to the left of the figure is a drawing pertaining to 
proportions. The characters on this drawing are in Michelangelo's own hand- 
writing and are on the original engravings, as follows: (i) Along the perpendicular: 
testa, collo, peto {petto), soto peto {sotto petto), col corpo, natura, coscia, congiunta, gamba, 
congiata di piedi; the last words in the copy are indistinct owing to damage. 
(2) Along the horizontal: spala (spalla), congionta, oso (osso) di sopra, congionto, 
oso di soto {osso di sotto), congionto, oso {osso) de la mano, below, at the clavicle: 
Inquruatura sopra il petto. 

PAGE no 

Anatomic study in pen-and-ink by Raphael for the sepulture in the Villa Borghese, 
representing the fainting Mary supported by two women, the skeleton sketched in. 
The heads belong to the same picture. The copy is after the facsimile in the Lawrence 

PAGE 113 

An outline vignette representing water and earth. Taken from a larger copper- 
plate in oblong folio, completely crosshatched, for which it serves as an accessory. 
The copy is of the original size. The larger plate belongs to the rare work with copper- 
plates: Hystoria Jasonis Thessaliae Principis de Colchica velleris aurei expeditione: 
cum figuris acre excusis earumque expositione, versibus Priscorum Poetarum, Ab 
Jacobo Gohorio Parisiensi, Paris, 1563, oblong folio, 4 pages of text and 26 copper- 
plates. The artist of the plates is Leonard Thiri of Deventer (also called Leo Davent) , 
a pupil of Rosso. The engraver is Rene Boivin. The main compositions in the 
centerfield, containing scenes from Jason and Medea, are done in the style of Luca 
Penni. The rich, surrounding accessories are done in the style of Rosso, Maitre 
Roux; and in connection with these accessories it should not be overlooked that in 
the Preface the author expresses his hopes that the king will have tapestries woven 
or mural paintings executed after these plates, i.e., will have them reproduced on a 
large scale. Our sketch is taken from page 9 of this work. Cf. Robert-Dumesnil: 
Le peintre-graveur franqais, VIII, 36, Paris, 1850, 8°; Weigel: Kunstkatalog No. 17056. 
The insertion of this sketch after the article on Rosso should be excused on the ground 
that it might well be taken for Rosso's work, as far as its composition is concerned. 

PAGE 114 
An anatomic sketch comprising four complete figures, viz., two skeletons and 
two musclemen, after the exceedingly rare engraving by Domenico Fiorentino (Dom. 
del Barbiere) based on the sketches by Rosso de' Rossi (Maitre Roux). Moehsen 
ascribed the drawing to Buonarroti but it cannot be his. The anatomy on the 
whole is inaccurate and not without arbitrary features and mistakes. Observe on 


the first skeleton, the clavicles, the bones of the forearm, the carpus, the patella, the 
tarsal bones; on the second skeleton, the pelvis, the carpal and tarsal bones. The 
back of the second muscle-manikin is treated in a very arbitrary manner. 

PAGE 118 
The dissection from Joannis de Ketham: Fasciculus medicinae. The copy is 
made from the older and better engraving, as found on the back of page fii in the 
Italian translation by Sebastiane Manilio, Venez., 1493, fol. 5. February. Cf. 
another illustration of a dissection from a somewhat later period, on p. 141. 

PAGE 121 

The sign of the zodiac Aquarius, taken from a plate in Joannis de Ketham: 
Fasciculus medicinae, Italian translation by Sebastiano Manilio, Venez., 1493, fol- S- 
February, page bij. On that plate the signs of the zodiac are drawn upon various 
parts of a male body, which they are supposed to rule. The Aquarius stands between 
the feet of the figure. 

PAGE 125 

A very crude woodcut from Magnus Hundt: Anlropologimn, Lipsiae, 1501, 4°, 
page Lij. It shows schematically, without any attempts at faithful representation, 
what conceptions people of the early Middle Ages and, in some respects, even those of 
the fifteenth century must have had of anatomy from descriptions of the Arabians, 
for Mundinus is everywhere by far more accurate in his descriptions. On the right 
side of the neck may be seen the somewhat narrower trachea entering the lung, on 
the left side the somewhat wider oesophagus. Within the thorax are shown the 
undivided lungs, and to the left the heart, shaped like a playing-card heart, with the 
large vessels and with its apex pointing to the left. In the boundaries may be noticed 
the dissected pericardium and the incised border of the dissected lung. The 
diaphragm is not indicated; on the right of the abdominal cavity is shown the 
five-lobed liver embracing the base of the stomach with the gall bladder on its upper 
surface. On the left is the bottle-shaped stomach with the oesophagus entering it and 
a blood vessel connected with the spleen entering side by side. Near the base of the 
stomach, the intestines separate from the stomach. The organs at the lower right 
side of the abdominal cavity should be thought of as standing upright and dissected. 
Obviously they were placed obliquely in order to render them visible. They are the 
urinary and sexual organs. The upper staff from which the two other staffs branch 
off to enter the larger balls, is the inferior vena cava, called at that time Vena chilis, 
KoiKtr)<;, with the two Venae emulgenles or renal veins. The balls are the kidneys, 
from each kidney a shorter staff leaves to enter an elongated body; this is the ureter 
passing into the bladder. A longer staff leading from each kidney outward into a 
smaller ball, is the spermatic cord. Each ends in its testicle. The title of the plate 
is given in the work itself as Figura de situ viscerum. Compare this with a similar 
but more correct anatomic figure on p. 131. 

PAGE 131 

A plate from Laurentius Phryesen: Spiegel der Arzney, Strassburg, 1518, 4". It 

represents the anatomy of the Middle Ages, as it originated with Mundinus, in respect 

of the viscera of the three cavities. In the abdominal cavity, immediately below the 

diaphragm, the five-lobed liver, an old Galenic error based on zootomy, which 


Mundinus somewhat mitigates by saying: quinque pennidae eius licent in homine non 
sint separatae semper ad invicem ("though its five lobes are not always separate from 
one another in the case of man"). Below it the round stomach, on one side of it the 
spleen, below it the kidneys with a blood vessel entering from above; below them 
the ureters leading into the bladder. Behind it the aorta and the inferior vena cava 
with its branches. The intestines are taken out and placed alongside the abdominal 
cavity. In the thoracic cavity the heart lies in the median line of the body, with its 
apex pointing to the left. In accordance with the concept of these times, the heart 
is represented as entirely surrounded by the left lung, just as Mundinus says: appa- 
rebit pulmo in medio cuius existit cor velatum pennulis pulmonis ("see the lungs in the 
midst of which the heart lies, veiled by the pulmonary lobes"). Above, the trachea 
is shown coming from the lungs, with the oesophagus in back of it. The brain is 
represented in six separate figures. The first figure only crudely suggests the cerebral 
convolutions and the separation of the two hemispheres of the cerebrum. The second 
is supposed to represent the large middle "brain cell" (Cellula or Ventriculus anterior) 
partitioned by a part which Mundinus calls Vermis. In the figure, this part is shown 
lifted out by means of a peg. The represented parts are what we now understand to 
be lateral ventricles, which were then thought to be joined, and the corpus callosum. 
The peg in the back leads into an alleged posterior brain cell (Cellula or Ventrictdus 
posterior) or probably what we now understand to be the fourth ventricle. A similar 
representation is shown in the third figure, the middle ventricle without the corpus 
callosum. At the forward end can be seen the right optic nerve and the attachment 
of the dura mater to the crista as the beginning of the falx cerebri. The fourth figure 
shows the optic nerves with their decussation, and, at the back, the upper opening 
of the posterior "brain cell." The fifth figure shows the decussation of the optic 
nerves, cut off in back and in front, also the inner base of the skuU lined with the dura 
mater, and, at the back, the tentorium cerebri open in the center. The sixth figure 
shows the cerebrum turned back, at the front the chiasm of the optic nerves sectioned 
from the rear; behind it three pairs of nerves originate. The seventh figure shows the 
tongue with the upper opening of the trachea and behind it, the oesophagus. On the 
whole, a much better executed illustration than that of Magnus Hundt on p. 125. 
Regarding the alleged artist and wood engraver of our plate see pp. 130 and 131. 

PAGE 141 

The dissection on the title-page 6i Jacobus Berengarius de Carpi: Isagogae breves, 
Venetiis, 1535, 4°, in the size of the original. Just as in the illustration of the dissec- 
tion on page 114 of Ketham, the instructor is seen demonstrating from the lecturer's 
platform but not working with the cadaver. Besides him, we see a man with a small 
staff, seemingly directing the dissector; then the dissector himself, his head covered, 
but not in wide garments; his forearms are bare, the right one holding a large knife 
(Ketham's has a curved one, here there is a straight knife). In addition, there are 
six persons and a servant who is left out in Ketham's plate. On both plates, the 
dissector stands to the right-hand side of the cadaver; Ketham shows a male body; 
here a female is shown. The artist must either have had before him Ketham's plate, 
or convention must have led to the uniformity of these representations of a public 
dissection. It might be of importance to know several other drawings of the same 
or an immediately succeeding period. 


PAGE 150 

An illustration from Canani: Musculorum humani corporis picturala dissectio. 
S.l. et a. 4°, on the back of page Bij, representing the common superficial flexor of 
the fingers {flexor digitorum communis sublimis) of the size of the original. The 
picture, while reproduced here in a horizontal position, is upright in the original with 
the hand down. The origin is correctly shown from the internal condyle of the 
humerus but the muscle is not attached to the radius and the insertion at the fingers 
is inaccurate. 

PAGE 153 

A plate from Caroli Stephani: De dissectione partium corporis humani lihri tres. 
Paris, 1545, fol., page 250, representing a seated male figure with the cranial cavity 
opened. The inscription on the side is as follows: A. crassa meninx, ä cranio revulsa. 
B. Locus cui insidet aden colatorius. C. Quo in loco arteria carotis conspicilur ad 
retiformem plexum dejerri. D. Locus in quo reperitur membrana ad aurem pertinens. 
E. Divisio nervi tertiae coniugationis. F. Origo spinalis medullae. G. Lacuna in 
palatum commeans, ad expurgandum cerebrum. H. Cavitas insignis supra oculum, 
inter parietes ossis coronalis conclusa, sub prominente super cilii tuber culo. L Oculus 
osse delectus. The original has this explanation printed in type. 

PAGE 154 

A plate from Carolus Stephanus: De dissect, partium c. h. libri tres, Paris, 1545, 
fol., page 271, representing a pregnant woman in a semi-recumbent position, with her 
abdominal cavity and uterus dissected, so that one sees the amnion, to which the 
inscription, printed in type, on the small plate refers: A. Secundina dissecta, usque 
ad allantoidem. B. Fades secundinae, ad allantoidem pervenientes. 

PAGE 161 

Illustrations of several bones after a clever red-crayon drawing by Stephan von 
Calcar, a present from Baron von Amstetter, Judge of the Court of Appeals, of 
Breslau, in the possession of the publisher. It bears the almost unknown signature 
of the master and is signed in ink, in old Dutch handwriting: Jan van Kalkar. One 
should compare with it the very similar composition and the skull in Vesalius: De 
corporis humani fabrica, Basil., 1543, fol., pp. 5 and 20, and in the edition Basil. 
1545, fol., pages 6 and 26. Almost all the woodcuts are reversed and since the hand- 
writing is undoubtedly genuine it must be assumed that Vesalius had the sketches 
transferred upon the wood blocks without mirrors, at least in all illustrations in which 
right and left were out of consideration. The subjects represented in our plate are 
as follows: An external view of the left innominate bone; the right metatarsus with 
the toes; the right tarsus, the inferior maxilla, twice; a skull, and seven illustrations 
pertaining to the apophyses and the cartilages of the femur, which are not found repre- 
sented in the same way by \'esalius. The difticult task of reproducing a crayon 
drawing in a woodcut has been most successfully accomplished by the artist, Eduard 
Kretzschmar, of Leipzig. 

[This drawing has since disappeared. Some of the bones are identical with those 
in the Glasgow codex, described by Roth in the Arch. f. Anat., 1906, pp. 77-110. 
Plates II and III of the Glasgow codex bear the same signature, K, in monogram 
(that of Kalkar) and have the same artistic quality.] 


PAGES 174 AND 175 

The three skeletons from Andreas Vesalius' first six plates, Venet. 1538, fol., 
which are essentially different from those contained in his principal work De corporis 
humani fabrica, published in 1543. 

PAGE 179 

A skeleton from Andreas Vesalius: De corporis humani fabrica, Basil., 1543, 
fol., p. 165, and in the edition Basil. 1555, fol., p. 205. This skeleton is not in the 
Epitome. In the principal work, as originally conceived, it is the third of the 
skeletons represented. ' This skeleton makes one think of one of the mourning 
apostles in a "Burial of Christ" by Titian. 

PAGE 188 
A greatly reduced reproduction of the rare plate by Macrolios of a sketch 
by Vesalius or Stephan von Calcar, printed after the original or a copy of it and 
published without Vesalius' knowledge. The explanatory lettering is omitted. The 
brain is shown from above, opened by means of a horizontal section and so exposed 
by the removal of the upper part that one looks directly into the two lateral ventricles 
with the corpus callosum between them. From the base of the brain the olfactory 
nerves are seen originating as two short stumps, which Vesalius did not consider to 
be nerves. Below these is seen the chiasm of the optic nerves, with their continuations 
into the eyeballs. Below the optic nerves runs the third or sixth pair {nervus oculo- 
motorius or nervus abducens) and below that the first branch of the fifth pair {ramus 
ophthalmicus). The two anterior descending trunks are the third branch of the 
fifth pair {ramus maxillaris inferior) and the sphenopalatine nerve {nervus sphenopala- 
tinus), the former with its distribution in the tongue, the lower larger body, and the 
latter widening into the palate, the upper smaller body. The still higher, small 
round body represents the widening of the eighth pair {nervus acusiicus) into the 
internal auditory organ and is not supposed to represent the hypophysis as one 
might be led to believe. Farther back is shown the branching of the tenth pair 
{nervus vagus) in the thoracic and abdominal cavities and the first three pairs of the 
spinal nerves. With this should be compared the much better and more complete 
plate in Vesalius' principal work De corporis humani fabrica. Book IV, p. 319, 1543 
edition, and page 512, 1555 edition. This plate also proves the fact that Macrolios' 
representation is actually a Vesalian representation, only given earlier, namely in 

PAGE 191 

A plate taken from Jobst de Necker's reproductions of the first six plates by 
Vesalius of 1538. A front view of the skeleton with the right forearm bent at the 
elbow and raised. 

PAGE 207 

A plate from Valverde de Hamusco: Historia de la composicion del cuerpo humano, 
after the Italian translation Roma, 1560, fol.; liber ii. tab. i. A muscle-manikin 
showing the outer muscle-layer of front view of the body. The muscleman is holding 
the removed skin in his raised right hand and a dagger in his lowered left hand. The 
left foot is resting on a stone. This is one of the illustrations which Valverde added 
as his personal contribution to the Vesalian plates, but it is less true to nature than 
Vesalius' own myologic representations. 


PAGE 215 

An illustration from Constantinus Varolius: Dc nervis opticis, Patav. 1573. 8°, on 
the back of page 17. This older representation is chosen rather than the newer 
engraving in the edition of 1591, because \'arolius was dead at the time of the publica- 
tion of this latter edition and the re-engraving was done arbitrarily and not accu- 
rately enough. This figure is particularly instructive when compared with Vesalius' 
illustration of the base of the brain in his principal work De corporis humani Jabrica 
(edition 1543, p. 318; edition 1555, p. 511), as it shows the progress made by Varolius, 
e.g., in the course of the optic nerves behind the chiasm, the optic tract, the twisting 
of the crus cerebri, half of the pons Varolii, and so forth. On the other (the left) 
hemisphere the pairs of nerves then known can be distinguished; at the frontal part 
the two olfactory nerves, the chiasm of the optic nerves with the thalamus (i), of the 
two nerves running jointly beneath the left eyeball the inner one is made up of the 
Nervus oculomotorius and abducens, the outer one is the ramus ophthalmicus of what 
is now termed the fifth pair. The nerves marked 3 and 4 are the ramus maxillaris 
superior and inferior of this same pair. The nerve with the club-shaped end marked 5 
is the nervus acusticus and facialis; the trunks numbered 6 and 7 are nerves of the 
medulla oblongata, especially the nervus vagus. 

PAGE 219 

An illustration from the second edition of Juan de Arphe: Varia commensuracion 
para la escuUura y arquitectura, Madrid, 1675, fol-j second book, page 30. The front 
view of a muscle torso with the commencement of the neck, the arms, and the thighs. 
A strong and artistically original representation, natural enough considering the time 
of its production, the second half of the sixteenth century. 


[In deference to current taste, the original Casserian figure, chosen from Spieghel 
by Choulant, representing a pregnant woman mounting a pedestal, has been omitted 
on account of the obtrusive prominence of the pudendum, which is represented as 
shaven. For i!; Dr. Frank has substituted what is unquestionably the most beautiful 
of all the drawings made by Fialetti for Casserius. It represents an eviscerated 
female figure, of lovely proportions, apparently floating in mid-air, in the rapt, 
ecstatic attitude of some transfiguration scene of Raphael or Correggio. In sheer 
beauty, this figure is comparable with the robust goddesses in the Aurora Fresco of 
Guido Reni in the Rospigliosi Palace at Rome. — F. H. G.] 

PAGE 227 

A print from the plates of Pietro Berrettini da Cortona, Plate IV, and taken from 
representing a newborn child with the umbilical cord. In the dissected abdominal 
cavity, the liver, intestines, and urinary bladder are visible. From the latter ascends 
the dissected abdominal cavity on the left side of the main figure, are omitted on this 
plate. The stone, however, on which the smaller figure stood and the small plate 
leading to the liver. The copy is reduced less than one-half. The placenta repre- 
sented on the original plate has been omitted. The incorrect representation, that 
all four vessels appear to unite at H, is identical with that of the original and must 


be ascribed to the artist since such an anastomosis would not have agreed with 
SpigeUus' views. 

The child resembles in many ways Guido Reni's "Sleeping Cupid," a picture 
which Carlo Faucci engraved in copper. 

PAGE 230 
Muscular body from the sketchbook of Jean Paul Rubens. 

PAGE 236 

A print from the plates of Pietro Berrettini da Cortona, Plate IV, and taken from 
the older edition in which the accessory figures added by Petrioli are given. In 
Petraglia's edition, both the diaphragm on the right side, and the small figure with 
the dissected abdominal cavity on the left side of the main figure, are omitted on this 
plate. The stone, however, on which the smaller figure stood and the small plate 
leaning against it, with the monogram of Luca Ciamberlano, are left on. Some 
crosshatching on the top of the stone serves to obliterate the traces of what had 
previously been there. Yet the places where the thighs of the figure stood are still 
quite distinctly noticeable. The large figure is holding in the left hand the removed 
sternum with the costal cartilages and the soft parts between them. One should 
especially notice the way in which the nerves have been distinguished from the other 
organs, and also how, by means of crosshatching, the great blood vessels have been 
brought out. This is best brought out in the case of the femoral artery and the 
femoral vein of the right thigh and in the blood vessels of the right leg running 
parallel with the nerves of the leg. On the head and in the thorax, also, the nerves 
have been given particular attention. 


A reproduction of the famous picture, the "Lesson in Anatomy" of Nicolas 
Tulp, painted in 1632 by Rembrandt van Ryn (born in a mill near Leyden on June 15, 
1606, died in Amsterdam, October 8, 1669) for the physician and burgomaster 
Nicolas van Tulp (Tulpius) (b. Amsterdam October 11, 1593, d. Amsterdam 1674). 
Tulp presented it to the anatomic theater (Snijkamer) in Amsterdam. In 1828 it was 
to have been sold at auction for the benefit of the widows of Amsterdam surgeons and, 
indeed, it had almost been brought to England by the art-dealer C. J. Nieuwenhuys, 
when, in the same year, the King of the Netherlands acquired it for thirty-two thou- 
sand florins and retained it for his country. Since that time it has been in the 
Royal Museum at The Hague, but before being placed on exhibition it was restored 
by Kruseman. 

Tulp was neither a professional anatomist nor a professor, but a practicing 
physician, who later became a member of the council and burgomaster. As such he 
rendered considerable service to the city. His son-in-law was the burgomaster, 
Jan Six. Tulp was the author of only one small book entitled Observationes medicae, 
Amsterdam, 1641, 8°, which contains a few illustrations pertaining to pathologic 
anatomy and natural science. [It contains one of the earliest accounts of beriberi, 
edition of 1652, pp. 300-305, preceded only by that of Jacob Bontius: De medicina 
Indorum, Leyden, 1642, pp. 115-20.] The book was republished several times. 
Editions after 17 16 contain his biography. From this work it appears that Tulp 


occupied himself with anatomy. On the picture (64J inches high, 83^ inches wide) 
he is shown, with his head covered, demonstrating the muscles of the arm on the left 
arm of a male cadaver; opposite him are sitting Adrian Slabbraan (Slalbraan) and 
Jacob Koolveld, to the left of the former; bending well forward over the head of the 
cadaver is Jacob de Vit; to his left and immediately to the right of Tulp stands 
Mathys Kalkoen; behind these two men appears Jacob Block and behind him, in 
the background of the picture, Frans van Loenen; the figure holding in his hand a 
manuscript with the names of those in the picture, is Hartmann Hartmansz. The 
picture was intended to have been hung, with the "Lesson in Anatomy" of Tulp, in 
and later, in 1851 , by Cornilliet who made a somewhat flat representation in mezzotint. 
[Rembrandt painted in 1656 a companion-piece to the "Lesson in Anatomy" 
of Tulp, representing Johannes Deyman, the overseer of the College of Medicine at 
Amsterdam, beside a cadaver lying on its back with the feet turned toward the 
spectator. The only portions preserved of the original are the foreshortened dead 
body, the arms and hands of Deyman in the act of demonstrating above the head, 
and the figure of a second demonstrator, holding the removed calvarium. This 
picture was intended to have been hung, with the "Lesson in Anatomy" of Tulp, in 
the Anatomical Hall at Amsterdam, and was severely damaged by fire on November 8, 
1723. Later it was restored, and at an auction on February 7, 1842, was sold for 
666 gulden to an English art-dealer who brought it to London, as related by Ed. 
Kolloff in Raumer's Historisches Taschenbuch, 1854, p. 574. The picture is now in 
the Rijks Museiun at Amsterdam.] 

PAGE 251 
A plate from Godefridus Bidloo: Anatomia humani corporis, Amstelodami, 1685, 
large fol. tab. 87, after the drawing by Gerard de Lairesse. It represents a standing 
skeleton with an hourglass in the left hand ; an open portico and a sarcophagus with 
cover removed, and another with cover closed, a view over inhabited country. The 
proportions of the skeleton are ugly, and the details inaccurate and false. 

PAGE 259 
A copy of the very rare print by Crisöstomo Martinez, a Spaniard, showing 
views of the superficial muscle-layers of the back, the side, and the front. Beside 
these figures is the skeleton of a child. Several of the proportional Knes crossing the 
picture had to be omitted for the sake of clearness, but all those belonging together 
have been left. 

PAGE 282 

A plate from Bernhard Siegfried Albinus: Tabulae sceleti et musculorum corporis 
humani, Lugd. Batav., 1747, large fol. tab. I; representing the male skeleton in its 
most perfect form and its peculiarities. The figure is drawn in reverse with omission 
of all accessories. Cf. the female skeleton on p. 305. 

PAGE 30s 

The plate from Samuel Thomas Soenunerring: Tabula sceleti feminini juncta 
descriptione, Trajecti ad Moenum (Frankfort on the Main), 1797, large fol. represents 
the female skeleton in its most perfect form and its peculiarities. The figure is 
drawn ia reverse and greatly reduced. Cf. the male skeleton, p. 282. 


PAGE 322 

Front view of Fischer's anatomic muscle statuette after a sketch by Jacob Merz, 
in the possession of the publisher, who came into possession of the entire art estate 
of Jacob Merz. The collection comprises 471 pages of anatomic studies, portraits, 
scenes and landscapes, and fills three folio volumes. 

PAGE 333 
An illustration of the Borghese Gladiator with the skeleton sketched inside. 
Taken from Galbert Salvage: Anatomie du gladiateur combattant, Paris, 181 2, large 
fol. Plate VIIL Greatly reduced, but otherwise accurately reproduced from the 
original. Consequently a few parts, not entirely true to nature, such as the right 
hip joint, the left elbow joint, and others, should, therefore, be credited to the original. 

PAGE 338 
An osteologic illustration of the back view of the pelvis and the trunk, with the 
shoulder and hip joints. Taken from Tavole anatomiche disegnate del pittore Giuseppe 
Bossi, Milano, s.a. large fol. Plate IV. 

PAGE 342 
An osteologic figure from the plates which had been made from drawings by 
John Flaxman and were pubHshed after his death under the title: Anatomical studies 
of the bones and muscles for the use of artists from drawings by John Flaxman, London, 
1833, large fol., Plate V. It represents the bones of the trunk and the pelvis with 
the upper ends of the femur foreshortened. Through the pubic arch one is given 
a view of the inside of the pelvic cavity; above the pubic symphysis can be seen 
the whole interior of the thoracic cavity. This picture is obviously a study and not 
intended to be used for instruction, since for such a purpose it would have had to be 
more accurate. The original is done in aquatint. 

PAGE 344 

A figure from Burkhard Wilhelm Seiler: Anatomie des Menschen für Künstler 
und Turnlehrer, herausgegeben von Aug. Friedr. Günther, Leipzig, 1850, 8° and large 
fol. Plate VII, fig. 4. It represents a female body with the skeleton drawn inside 
and the proportional lines, indicating a height of eight heads. The five subdivisions 
of each space between two lines are each equivalent to the height of the lower jaw 
up to the parting of the lips. The figure had already been used in Galbert Salvage: 
Anatomie du gladiateur combattant, Paris, 181 2, large fol. Plate XIX. 

PAGE 345 

The Dying Gaul of the Capitol with the skeleton drawn inside, taken from 
Burkhard Wilhelm Seiler: Anatomie des Menschen, etc., herausgegeben von A. F. 
Günther, Leipzig, 1850, 8°, and large fol. Plate VIII, fig. 2. 

PAGE 350 
The country peddler from Hans Holbein's larger "Dance of Death." Death 
clutches the peddler and the skeleton standing behind both, covered with more